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Guatemala: The Churches Respond, "is Church World 

Service." James A. Gittings asks, "the best means by which American 
Protestants can reach out to the world to do works of mercy and 
justice in the name of Jesus Christ?" He reviews Brethren disaster relief 
work in Guatemala to find an answer. 

Rinky-Dink Religion Goes Big Time. Murray l. Wagner 

has had it up to here with "rinky-dink religion." A tour through 
"Godland" calls for honesty in what we preach and practice. 

Non-negotiable Boundaries, in a world increasingly given to 
violation of human rights and justice, a lesson from the Old Testament 
is pertinent: God is allied with the weak on behalf of human dignity 
and well-being in the face of every counterforce. A Bible study by 
Walter Brueggemann. 

Rufus Jacoby: The Spirit Behind the Craft. Terrie Miller 

says of artist Jacoby: He makes "the artistic a natural and integral part 
of the daily routine, the beautiful objects he crafts, expressions of an 
artfully designed life." 

Pushed Out of the Ark. Katie Funk Wiebe states the case for 
single women in the church, whom unfortunately, she says, we do 
things /or, not with. 

In Touch profiles Jon Strom of Worthington, Minn.; David Smith of South 
Bend, Ind.; and Ephraim and Florence Travis of Defiance, Ohio (2) . . . Out- 
look reports on Vietnamese newspaper; National Youth Conference; Jimmy 
Carter; Peace conference; New staff; Food Consultations; Week of Prayer; and 
North India church (start on 4) . . . Underlines (7) . . . Update (8) . . . Column, 
"Ten Days in Cuba," by Merle Crouse (23) . . . Resources. "Living as Singles," 
by Ralph L. and Mary Cline Detrick (27) . . . Here I Stand, statements by 
Gordon W. Bucher, Robert Fritter, Peggy Miller, and Ken Brown (start on 28) 
. . . Media, "The legacy of Kunta Kinte," by Frederic A. Brussat (32) . . . 
Turning Points (33) . . . People & Parish, "Dundalk: Extending the Communi- 
ty," by Terrie Miller (34) . . . Book Reviews, "Fraternity on the Frontier," by 
Norman Reber and Kermon Thomason (38) . . . Editorial (40) 

COVER: Director for Church World Service reconstruction programs 
in Guatemala, Chet Thomas (left) looks over plans for rebuilding in 
the Guatemalan village of El Progreso. 


Howard E Royer 


Kermon Thomason 


Kennelh I Morse 


Clyde E Weaver, Ruby F Rhoades 


Gwendolyn F Bobb 


Galen B Ogden 

VOL 126, NO 1 JANUARY 1977 

CREDITS: Cover, 12 center James A. Gittings. I: 
lO-l I; 12 left, upper right, center right, lower; 13 
Gary Colby. 2 left Edward J, Bu/inski, 4 Dal Moi. 5 
RNS. 6 upper left Kermon Thomason; lower left 
Carol Riggs, 9 Gary Finsler, Hagerstown (Md,) 
Morning Herald. 15- 1 7 art by Kermon Thomason. 
19 Three Lions. 20-22, .14-.17 Terrie Miller, 24 
Wallowitch. 27 Nguyen-Van-Gia, .12 Cultural In- 
formation Service. 38 Church of the Brethren 
Historical Library. 39 Patricia Churchman. 

Mhssi-,NGtR is the official publication of the 
Church of the Brethren, Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20, 19IS. under Act of Congress of 
Oct. 17. 1917. Filing date. Oct, I. 1975. Mi:SSfcNGEiR 
is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
a subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecu- 
menical Press Service. Biblical quotations, unless 
otherwise indicated, are from the Revised Standard 

Subscription rates: $6.00 per year for indi- 
vidual subscriptions; $4.80 per year for Church 
Group Plan; $4.80 per year for gift subscriptions; 
$3. 15 for school rate (9 months); life subscription. 
$80.00. If you move clip old address from 
Mfs.shngfr and send with new address. 
Allow at least five weeks for address 
change. Messengkr is owned and 
published monthly by the General 
Services Commission. Church of the 
Brethren General Board. 1451 Dundee 
Ave. Elgin, III. 60120. Second-class 
postage paid at Elgin, 111., Dec. 1976. Copyright 
1976. Church of the Brethren General Board. 

JOU.UU. 11 



It is hard for me to write this letter, but harder 
mil lo. Usually after reading Messenger 1 could 
easily write a letter of appreciation saying: It is 
good, all good. And so it was with the 
September issue. Good from front cover, which 
pictures Dan. 18. and Sister Anna, 83. on 
through In Touch, Outlook, Wichita, "Our Real 
Security," until — until — the last page. My reac- 
tion to that was: "Oh no! We don'l want bumper 
stickers like ihai." 

We are Brethren. And when in 1908 we 
adopted the name Church of the Brethren, the 
hope was expressed (in The Gospel Messenger) 
that along with the former official name, that 
derisive name. too. would "die out." Now shall 
we. the Brethren, seek to revive it thus? God for- 

Let us not mess up the names of Christopher 
Saur and Alexander Mack. Rather let us 
proclaim Jesus Christ the only "name under 
heaven given among men whereby we must be 
saved" (Acts 4:12). "Behold, the Lamb of God. 
who takes away the sin of the world!" (.John 

"Behold, how good and pleasant it is when 
brothers dwell in unity" (Ps. 13.3:1). (Compare 
Rom. 14:19.) 

I wanted to rip out page 39 of the September 
Messenger but then, on the other side is the 
editorial on "&." ,-t/i(/that is good! 

I might add that page 39 is not all bad. While 
some of the slogans proposed are definitely iiii- 
Brethren and i/nquotable. there are those that 
are characteristically Brethren o«(/ biblical, like. 
"Don't holler or honk (Matt. 6:2). just let vour 
light shine" (Matt. .5:16). "Cure for Wealth-o- 
holics: Serve God and neighbor" (Mai. 3:8 and I 
John .3:17). 

Florence L. Breshe\rs 
Omak. Wash. 


We enjoyed Messenger's article on "Dunker 
Stickers" (September) and were so amused bv it. 
we made up a few stickers of our own. We sub- 
mit them to you anonymously! 

For our new, very capable moderator — 

Leave it to Bieber! 

And some miscellaneous subject matter: 



Does Ri.ssell (Bi.xler) speak with tongie in 


Brethren Is BEAt tifi l! 
Go Brethren . . . it's the plain trith! 
And, Yes, we'll gather at the river, 



"Dunk" is an ugly word not found in most 
dictionaries. I don't even use it in referring to 

Baptism should be dignified, not derided. I 
never like to associate the word dunking with it 
nor to think of myself as a Dunker. 

psigjs ©PS 

Brethren is a beautiful word, is scriptural, and 
includes much more than baptism. It may not 
lend itself too well to graffiti or bumper stickers 
(September Messenger) but let's get dunking in 
all its form out of our church vocabulary rather 
than publicize it. Let's dunk it! 

Chauncev Shamberger 
Fruitland, Ida. 


A short time ago the General Board was sell- 
ing its own US Government securities {some at a 
substantial loss) and pressuring Brethren con- 
gregations and church-affiliated organizations to 
do likewise. 

Then last July 6 a letter from Donald Stern of 
the stewardship office seemed to offer a com- 
plete turn-around. It advocated considering the 
investment of church monies in Dreyfus Liquid 
Assets, Inc. Yet, accompanying Mr. Stern's 
letter was a current Dreyfus Fund Prospectus 
which states that as of 12/31/75 Dreyfus had 
23.8% of its total assets ($195 million) invested 
in US Government securities. 

Perhaps the General Board finally realized, 
belatedly, that its original stance on investments 
in government securities was ridiculous. 
Everyone knew the absolute impossibility of try- 
ing to keep investment funds out of government 
hands, regardless of whether funds went into 
bank certificates of deposit, stocks, bonds, real 
estate or what have you — or even if it was held 
in cash. 

As a congregational and affiliated fund 
treasurer, I became the victim of indirect 
General Board pressure to dispose of US 
treasuries but the only thing accomplished, as 1 
see it, was the taking of a substantial decrease in 
interest income. 

John H. Myers 
East Berlin, Pa. 


As I listened at the Wichita Annual Con- 
ference to some of our brothers questioning in- 
volvement in political issues, I wondered if 
perhaps God had set a precedent when he told 
Moses to go and speak to Pharaoh. When, like 
many of us, Moses hesitated, God's reply was, 
"But 1 will be with you . . . " (Ex. 3:12). 

Carol Smith 
Biu, Nigeria 


I'd like to respond to the Here I Stand state- 
ment by Lois Callihan in the September 1976 
issue of Messenger, which concerned BVS. 

As a BVSer 1 can readily agree with her point 
of view, that there is too little emphasis on 
spiritual values in BVS training. In fact, the wide 
range of beliefs was a shocker to me, some 
being fundamental, others agnostic, and some 
charismatic. Considering that the church spon- 
sors BVS, it would make sense and be of vital 
importance if there was more of the spiritual 
emphasized in training. If this were so, the 
volunteer would have a stronger ability to cope 

with all the problems that come with the project. 

Contrary to Lois Callihan's view, I believe 
non-Christians should be accepted into BVS 
also, but this should not be an excuse to de- 
emphasize spiritual values. 

We are in BVS to serve people through Christ, 
and that's what it's all about. 

David Enswiler 
Bridgewater, Va. 


As 1 see the apotheosis of church leaders as a 
policy of letting their lights shine before men 
that men might glorify God, I conclude that men 
glorify men. 

We have seen giants fall in the political sphere 
and in the church and 1 wonder whether they fell 
prematurely. Is there a sign of leaders unto 
death in which leaders forget that they, too, are 
children who get lost, who find security in the 
arms of the Great Shepherd, and who must 
kneel and confess in his presence? 

Men of steel develop hearts of tin and bodies 
of cancer! Are men humbled unto death because 
they failed to show the proper humility in life? 
Church politics and schisms revolve about the 
vanities of member-gods who don't see them- 
selves as sheep, but as shepherds, yet lacking the 
humility and contriteness of the One Great 

The humility of the community church has 
given way to the vanity of the car church or the 
suburban church of the pure air. A humble 
search of truth in scripture has given way to 
the vanity of the god-scholar who picks and 
chooses what he wants to believe in the Bible. 
The humility of modest dress has given way 
to the sartorial splendor of the vain worldling 
and to weird hair styles. The humility of educa- 
tion for service has given way to education 
for better materialism and the enjoyment of 

A nation is healed or a person is healed in ab- 
solute dependence upon God. Humanism as a 
philosophy has been discredited as long as we 
are sheep under God we flourish. When we 
become sheep under men, we die. 

Myron C. Horst 
York, Pa. 


Thank you for the superb article on the prison 
moratorium, and alternatives to incarceration 
(Messenger, August 1976). Criminal Justice is 
one of the most significant issues of this century. 
I am delighted that Messenger is aware and ac- 
tively participating in the advancement of 
plenary justice for all. 

My compliments and kudos to Terrie Miller 
for her sapient and insightful treatment of the 
moratorium/alternatives subject. Terrie is a 
most able wordsmith, and interpreter. I am 
sincerely appreciative of her sensitive approach 
to my personal experiences which were referred 
to in this article. 

James McGaha 
Pasadena. Calif. 

Brethren have always responded well 
when disaster strikes their neighbors. The 
classic example from our heritage is the 
burned barn and subsequent barn-raising. 
Nowadays our neighbor is as likely to be 
around the globe as around the bend. In 
the last few years Brethren disaster 
response has become an efficient, 
organized network approach that can 
start dollars and Dunkers moving within 
hours after a disaster strikes. Our way is 
usually the ecumenical way, tying in with 
Church World 
Service, eschew- 
ing, as Jim Git- 
tings says, the 
al vanity" of go- 
ing it alone. 

Gittings, Unit- 
ed Presbyterian 
editor of A.D. 
magazine and 
Juniata College 
graduate, has 
visited Brethren 
disaster relief work in Guatemala. In his 
report he cites Brethren and Mennonite 
operations as prime examples in his con- 
vincing arguments for channeling relief 
aid through Church World Service. 

Murray L. Wagner, who with his 
satirical pen rips apart all that is phony in 
religion today, is librarian and assistant 
professor of bibliography (as well as 
"humorist in residence") at Bethany 
Theological Seminary. 

Bible study writer Walter Brueggemann 
is on the faculty of Eden Theological 
Seminary, Webster Groves, Mo. Katie 
Funk Wiebe writes for The Mennoniie. 

Terrie Miller, formerly of our staff, 
lives and works in Ithaca, N. Y. Writers 
from the General Offices staff for this 
issue include Merle Crouse, WMC Latin 
America representative; Ralph L. and 
Mary Cline Detrick, PMC consultants 
for life cycle ministries; and Norman 
Reber, BVSer on our Communications 
Team. Our media reviewer is Frederic A. 
Brussat of Cultural Information Service, 
New York. 

Here I Stand contributors are Ken 
Brown, North Manchester, Ind.; Gordon 
W, Bucher, Hartville, Ohio; Robert 
Fritter, Elmhurst, 111.; and Peggy Miller, 
St. Cloud, Fla. In Touch writers are 
Joyce Miller of Franklin Grove, 111.; 
Vicky Dill, of the Prince of Peace church. 
South Bend, Ind.; and Ruth Custer of 
Defiance, Ohio. — The Editors. 

January 1977 messenger 1 

Jon Strom: Art as valid expression 

Fuzzy caterpillars and large orange 
butterflies may not necessarily re- 
mind you of a young blond man, but 
they do have a definite connection. 
The caterpillars and butterflies were 
part of the worship environment for 
the Study Action Conference at Mc- 
Pherson College last July, and the 
young man is Jon Strom, their 

Jon is a talented young artist from 
Worthington, Minn., who last year 
received his degree in art education 
from Southwest Minnesota State 

Metal sculpture is Jon's favorite 
medium, and he enjoys creating very 
large pieces. His largest so far is 12 
feet in diameter. He has also worked 
in many other media, including wood 
cuts, painting, and ceramics. Art 
pieces of his creation are in Puerto 
Rico and Australia as well as in the 
US. One of his paintings hangs as 
part of a collection at McPherson 

Two years experience of BVS has 
been an important influence on Jon's 
work. He feels that inspiration and a 
firming of his Christian beliefs 
resulted from this service. One of his 
metal sculptures, purchased from the 
"Art for Hunger" exhibit at last 

year's Annual Conference by the 
Quinter, Kansas, church, expresses 
the idea that persons do have a car- 
ing concern for each other even when 
leaders of the world are in conflict. 

Jon is convinced that art is a valid 
expression of Christian principles. He 
believes that art is as important as 
music, the speaking voice, or writing 
as a tool of communication. He feels 
good about his first opportunity to 
be involved in creating major art ex- 
periences for the church. 

At this time Jon's plans are in- 
definite. He expresses a desire to 
work with young people, using art as 
a means of expression. But his big 
dream is to create for public places 
pieces of sculpture that might in- 
fluence persons in their way of life. 
Pictures of his work will soon be 
available in the slide-cassette presen- 
tation of Brethren artists being pre- 
pared by Parish Ministries and the 
Association for the Arts in the 
Church of the Brethren. 

The church and the world of art 
will hear more from this soft-spoken 
young man with a vision of service 
through his talent. — Joyce Miller 


David Smith: Going all t 

Airplane wheels, train wheels, Volks- 
wagen bus wheels, chair wheels — all 
turn round and round in the circle of 
life for David Smith. While camping 
in the mountains, he's scheming 
mountainside scenery for his model 
train layout; while building that 
scenery, he's envisioning his next 
jaunt away from home. 

Having to spend his days in a 
wheelchair hasn't kept David pinned 
down. With the continual support 
and help of his parents, brothers and 
sisters, and his many friends, David 
has filled his days at home with 
numerous activities, and on his days 
away from home has traveled to 
foreign lands. 

David is the son of Lee and Glea 
Smith of South Bend, Indiana. When 
their travels took them to Castaner, 
Puerto Rico, where they were in- 
volved in Brethren Service, David 
easily adjusted to school life in a 
different culture. There, even as an 
eight-year-old, his fine memory and 
quick sense of humor made him a 
natural for the role of "Tiny Tim" in 
the school's Christmas play. The 
Smiths later returned to South Bend 
where David attended John Adams 
High School from which he 
graduated in 1973. At Christmastime 
of that year, the wheels began to turn 
again. This time David and his family 
visited his sister Carol in Nigeria. 

"I love to fly," he commented on a 
recent trip, "but cars are best for 
sightseeing. When you're up among 
the clouds — that's great! But you 
miss so much that's happening on the 

2 MESSENGER January 1977 

»vay for others 

ground!" David loves to see it all, by 
whatever kind of wheels he needs to 
get there. 

David is quick to volunteer his 
help to the church whenever possible. 
He has used one of his favorite hob- 
bies, baking, to serve God's people by 
twice preparing the communion 
bread for love feast at Prince of 
Peace Church. David is a member of 
the church's Witness Commission, he 
occasionally tells the children's story 
in the Sunday worship service, and 
he is a faithful folder and stuffer of 
monthly church newsletters. 

David's life is an inspiring study in 
resources well used. The turned-off 
light, the tightly-closed faucet, the 
gentle reminder to shut the door: 
these are the domestic applications of 
David's keen awareness of ecological 
demands. While he may not have the 
same opportunities to serve as do 
those who can walk, David seldom 
passes up an opportunity to which he 
can give of himself. 

At the Annual Conference in 
Roanoke in 1974. David used his will 
power to contribute food to the 
hungry. "Yessir!" he recalls of that 
conference. "I went all the way! No 
food for 28 hours, only water. I 
fasted and others pledged and gave 
$120 to hungry people." 

The world is hungry for people like 
David Smith — people who'll give all 
they have and are to go all the way 
for others. — Vicky Dill 

Ephraim & Florence Travis: life together 

Although Ephraim is 96 and Flo- 
rence is 98 years old, they had done 
nothing spectacular enough to be 
recognized in their local newspaper 
until August 29, 1976, their seventy- 
third wedding anniversary. 

Nothing spectacular — just a long, 
rich life together, that would some- 
times find verbal expression in poems 
that Florence wrote, verses filled with 
images from nature and bearing wit- 
ness to the faith that supported them. 
For example, Florence could think of 
a new spring day and thank God that 

"Every diamond-tipped blade of 

Is bathed in dew. 

The plum tree blossoms as we 
pass — 

The world seems all created new." 

When Ephraim and Florence were 
married in 1903, they immediately set 
up housekeeping on a rented farm 
with $500 he had earned as a 
carpenter. In addition they received a 
milk cow, a hog, 25 hens, a rooster, 
and a woven carpet as wedding pres- 
ents from relatives. From then on 
they were on their own. 

After three years and one child, 
they moved to the vicinity of the 
Poplar Ridge Church of the Breth- 
ren near Defiance, Ohio. There they 
continued farming until Ephraim was 
84 years old. Ever since becoming 
members of the Poplar Ridge Church 
they have honored the promises they 
made before God to give of their 
time, talents, and means to his work. 
They provided a Christian home for 
their three children and witnessed to 

them and others, using the teachings 
of Christ as their guide. 

Ephraim served as deacon, Sunday 
school superintendent, and Sunday 
school teacher for many years. 
Florence helped him in his Sunday 
school work. She also served as assis- 
tant Sunday school teacher and as 
president of women's work. She 
faithfully fulfilled her duties as a 
deacon's wife and helped to establish 
the church library. 

While living now in their 
daughter's home, they are still able to 
take care of their personal needs and 
help with little chores about the 
house. Since Florence is nearly blind, 
Ephraim reads to her. In the evening 
after retiring to their room, he 
chooses a favorite selection from the 
Bible and occasionally she sings a 
hymn for him. Her memory serves 
her well. She can quote many scrip- 
ture verses, recite poetry which she 
words of her favorite hymns. Since 
Ephraim doesn't hear well, she re- 
peats the conversations of others 
and shares bits of news with him. 

Although their steps are feeble and 
their hands are shaky, they spend 
much time taking these concerns to 
God in prayer. For as I-lorence put it 
once in a poem: 
"Prayer is the channel that leads 
From earth to sky . . . 
Our part is to keep the channel 

Unblocked by doubt, unbelief, or 

— Ruth Custer 

January 1977 messenger 3 

SHARE aids newspaper 
for Vietnam refugees 

share's first grant to an Asian-Ameri- 
can program has gone to Dat Moi, a Viet- 
namese newspaper published biweekly in 
Seattle, Wash. The Church of the Brethren 
gift totaled $5000. 

Dat Moi, translated "new land," was 
created in 1975 as a bridge between the 
new culture that the Vietnamese found in 
their new homeland and the ancient culture 
from which they came. 

Ten of the newspaper's 12 pages are 
printed in Vietnamese and two pages carry 
a summary in English. Recently key ar- 
ticles have also been printed in Cambo- 

The editor, Vu Due Vinh, was a jour- 
nalist in Hanoi and Saigon for 20 years. 
Before coming to the United States he was 
editor of domestic news for the Saigon 
Press, an English newspaper, and editor of 
the Vietnamese edition of the VN Air 
Force magazine. He also produced a 
national radio news program. 

The associate editor, Thanh Nam, who 
was well known as a magazine journalist in 
Vietnam, also writes for the paper, but he 
speaks little English. 

The business manager, Nguyen Van 
Giang, speaks fluent English. 

The publication is administered by a 
board of nine Vietnamese. There is also an 
advisory board comprised of church and 
business representatives and staff from US 
newspapers. The paper's primary source of 
funding is the Washington State Depart- 
ment of Social and Health Services and the 
Washington Council of Churches. 

"Mr. Vinh and other leaders seem to 
have an innate penchant for self-sufficien- 
cy and self-determination," observed 
SHARE director Wil Nolen, "They re- 
alized they would need to have outside 
assistance to get started and have been 
aggressive in seeking that help." 

Editor Vu Due Vinh explains the 
periodical's five-year plan: 

"The first year we knew the Vietnamese 
coming to the United States were confused, 
homesick, and not ready to think very far 
into the future. We gave them news of the 
world and our homeland. We offered 
counsel about resettlement and sources of 
help. We began to educate on how to get 
along in the new country: making out a 
money order, opening a bank account, get- 
ting around in the city. We interpreted the 
Bicentennial and the election. 

Dat Moi 

Bd2-So22 Tha'nglO-KVI 

thang2kjr, * Moi so '50 cents 

Sd Phan 

Nhilng vu vd6t bieri cua dong bao ta 
til Viet Nam di tim tu' do trong nhUng 
ng&y thang qua that la nhilng cuoc 
phieu lifu day nguy hiem . Khong phai 
rieng vi sii canh giiJ ng^t ngheo cua cong 
sah , vi song cao bien 16h ma vi thai do 
ianh nhat cua mot sfi'quoc gia trori' 
Dong Nam A' va sii til'chbi tiep 
mOt s6'tau bubn gap tten bi&n 

Thdi do ciia nhilng qudc gia; 
ghi nhan nhO sau : 

Dat Moi'j' associate ediiui I Iwiili .\am, ami editor. Vu Due Vinh. Dat Moi (New Land) 
was ereated in 1975 to aid I letnamese in their adjustment as new American citizens. 

hdn ca Itiac dau 

bien phap nhahv 

i6i ty nan dUng 

thuc te ho da 

ngiibi trong so co 

oi bang duong bien 

-Ic ti/ do trong vung 

+to nhuhg ngiiSi 

don laph 

:ren dgc 

>.,• do 

"The second year I am emphasizing 
education, helping widen knowledge of our 
new country. I want to deal with recreation 
and offer short stories and poems to 
answer psychological needs, and invite 
readers to send us these things. We have to 
plan to stay for a long time and thus must 
prepare ourselves to accept the new life 

"The third year we will contribute to 
community building and print more about 
the nation that is so big. We have a role to 
play in helping the Vietnamese become 

"By the fifth year we expect to no longer 
be needed as a newspaper. We expect our 
people to read the English newspapers and 
plan to become more a magazine." 

Dat Moi reports subscriptions from all 
50 states, most of them from Washington, 
Oregon, California, and Idaho. Its readers 
are not accustomed to subscribing to 
periodicals; in Vietnam they bought single 
issues. Once an adequate circulation base is 
established the staff hopes the paper will 
soon pay its own way. 

"We appreciate the help from the 
Church of the Brethren," the editor said in 
interview. "We will try to be deserving. The 
people do not understand many Occidental 
concepts and the religion. It is easy to be 
sensational, but we say no. I am trying to 
serve the refugees by being objective and 
honest about the news and not becoming 
involved in politics — but we are anti- 

The Dat Moi staff is interested in reach- 
ing Vietnamese everywhere in the country 
and becoming a bridge between the old 
land and the new. To this end SHARE has 
identified with and supported the newest of 
America's minorities. 

Plan food consultations 
for farmers, consumers 

A sincere and comprehensive search for 
facts in the many-sided farm and food con- 
troversy is coming up in to Farm and Food 
issues consultations. The first of the con- 
sultations will be held at Omaha, Neb., 
January 21-23 and the second at Louisville, 
Ky., February 1 1-13. 

Joy Dull, Parish Ministries consultant 
for farm life, is in charge of arrangements 
for Brethren representation at the con- 
sultations, which are sponsored by the 
Working Group on Domestic Hunger and 
Poverty, National Council of Churches. 
Other co-sponsors include 22 denomina- 
tions and agencies working on the 
problems of hunger and malnutrition. 

Purposes of the sessions are to provide 
opportunities for farm producers of food 
and non-farm consumers to talk with each 
other rather than about each other, to 
allow hunger action leaders of the churches 
to listen to both farmers and consumers, 
and to develop suggestions for personal ac- 
tion as well as to shape recommendations 
on United States policy directions. 

Through small group discussion par- 
ticipants will center on stewardship of 
natural resources, economic survival, 
problems for producers and consumers, ag- 
ribusiness, and international food policy. 
Representation is to be comprised of per- 
sons in four categories: subsistence farmer, 
commercial farmer, low-income consumer 
(welfare-food stamps), and middle-income 

Brethren interested in the sessions need 
to contact Joy Dull, 10404 National Road, 
Brookville, OH 45309. 

4 MESSENGER January 1977 

Historic peace churches 
set conference date 

The Friends, Mennonites, and Brethren are 
cooperating in "A New Call to Peacemak- 
ing" conference to be held on October 5-9, 
1978 at the American Baptist Convention 
Conference facilities at Green Lake, Wis. 
More than 200 persons representing the 
three historic peace churches' traditions are 
expected to attend. Representatives of 
other denominations will be invited to the 
sessions as fraternal delegates. 

At consultations in June and October 
last year, planners for the three 
denominations endorsed the following con- 
ference purpose: "Believing that we are 
called by our Lord to be peacemakers in 
our contemporary world, we seek a 
positive, creative, and practical approach 
to peace which is biblically based and 
spiritually sound, which would be a strong 
witness, and which would invite the widest 
possible participation." 

In regional preparatory conferences in 
October this year and in April, 1978, there 
is envisioned a spiritual rededication to the 
peace witness central to the gospel; a 
search for means of international conflict 
resolution; development of institutional 
and structural alternatives to war and its 
causes; and witness to government against 
militarism. These conferences would be 
linked with the big Green Lake event in the 
fall of 1978. 

According to plans recommended by the 
conference consultants, a Quaker, Robert 
Rumsey, who lives and works in Plain- 
field, Indiana, is giving half time as coor- 
dinator to work with a 1978 conference 
design committee and to facilitate coor- 
dination of the regional meetings with the 
Green Lake conclave. 

Religion in schools 
in confused state 

While teaching about religion as an 
academic course in public schools was 
ruled constitutional by the US Supreme 
Court in 1963, such programs are in a far 
from healthy state. 

This is the view of some 50 teachers and 
scholars who this fall in the annual meeting 
of the American Academy of Religion ob- 

. . . there is mass confusion about the 
legality of education about religion. 

. . . most high school officials shun such 

courses because they believe them illegal or 
a source of consternation from segments of 
the community. 

. . . where courses are offered, religion 
study is shunted among various 
departments — English, history, social 

. . . teachers assigned to such courses 
often have little or no preparation for 

Academy members were told that more 
than 100 high schools in six upper Midwest 
states now offer such courses as introduc- 
tion to world religion and the Bible as 
literature. Michigan, Wisconsin, and Ver- 
mont have a specific set of certification re- 
quirements for religious studies teachers. 

Generally, however there are glaring 
omissions in instruction about religion. 
Many public high school students can 
graduate knowing no more about the 
Reformation than they get in one 
paragraph of a history text. 

In 1963, the US Supreme Court decision 
of Schempp vs. Murray ruled 8-1 that in- 
struction "about" religion was permissable 
in public schools. The court said that 
"when presented objectively as part of a 
secular program of education," and not for 
indoctrination, such religious studies were 
allowed, and might even be considered 
beneficial for a well-rounded knowledge of 

The concern of the Academy of Religion 
parallels interest expressed by Annual Con- 
ference this past July in clarifying for 
Brethren what can and cannot be done 
"regarding the teaching of ethics and 
morals" in the public schools. 

Named by Annual Conference to study 
that issue, and to suggest possible steps of 
action, were Jeffrey Copp, Columbia City, 
Ind., John B. Grimley, Brookville, Ohio, 
Ronald D. Spire, White Pine. Tenn., Mar- 
ty Smeltzer West, Indianapolis, Ind.. and 
John F. Young, Fort Wayne. Ind. 

Jimmy Carter third Baptist elected President 

Upon inauguration this month as the 39th 
President of the United States, Jimmy 
Carter will become the third Baptist to 
hold the nation's highest elective office. 

Harry Truman, like Mr. Carter, was a 
Southern Baptist. Warren G. Harding was 
a member of the Northern Baptist Conven- 
tion, now known as American Baptist 
Churches in the USA. 

During the campaign last fall, Mr. 
Carter had indicated that if elected he 
would worship at the Baptist church closest 
to the White House. That congregation is 
Calvary Baptist, at 755 8th Street. NW. 
Like most of the Baptist churches in the 
nation's capital, it is dually aligned with the 
American and Southern Baptist denom- 

Calvary's pastor, the Reverend George 
W. Hill, is an American Baptist clergy- 
man. Hill was the Saturday evening 
speaker at the Dayton, Ohio, Annual Con- 
ference in 1975. 

According to Pastor Hill, in addition to 
Harding, another President who worshiped 
at Calvary Baptist was William Howard 
Taft, a Unitarian. Ironically, Pastor Hill 
said. President Taft was more regular in his 
attendance than was President Harding. 
President Truman attended the First Bap- 
tist Church, at 16th and O Streets, NW. 

Jimmy Carter shares with Harding 
and Truman his Baptist membership. 

January 1977 messenger 5 

IMPR: Puerto Rico's 
environment protectors 

The modest suite of offices on a shabby 
San Juan square hardly seems a likely 
source of power to impact government and 
industry on environment defense. Yet out 
of those offices works IMPR (Industrial 
Mission of Puerto Rico. Inc.). a small 
group of Puerto Ricans who are doing 
something about the island common- 
wealth's increasingly polluted environment. 
IMPR works to raise public consciousness 

I M PR's Mario Roche: Doing something 
about Puerto Rico's poUution problems. 

of industrial development that affects the 
ecology of Puerto Rico — its people, water, 
air, minerals, and land. 

The Church of the Brethren, through its 
Latin American office, contributes $1,000 
per year to IMPR. An additional $5,500 in 
1976 helped support a Puerto Rican 
volunteer, Gilda Lopez. Gilda is active in 
informing the people of Arecibo, a coastal 
city, of damage to the environment pro- 
duced by pharmaceutical industries and 
agencies unwilling to face up to the costs of 
environmental protection. John Forbes, a 
Brethren member living in San Juan, is a 
member of the IMPR board of directors. 
IMPR director Mario Roche explains 
the organization's purpose: Puerto Rico is 
undergoing rapid industrial development. 
Forced by the US to accept reduced stan- 
dards of protection and minimum wage 
rates, the commonwealth is vulnerable to 
exploitation of the worst sort. IMPR, with 
a small staff and budget, must choose the 
issues to pursue, then gather information 
and educate people to environmental 
dangers, occasionally carrying cases to 

court (for which purpose a lawyer is 
employed on the stafO. 

One example of IMPR action is its 
current campaign to help the workers at 
the Becton and Dickinson thermometer 
plant in the town of Juncos. There, for lack 
of appropriate safety measures, workers 
and their relatives have been exposed to 
mercury poisoning. One worker has died. 

Through the press and meetings with the 
workers and the public, IMPR explains the 
risks to health of improper management of 
mercury. Members of the organization do 
scientific research on mercury levels and 
medical effects of mercury poisoning. Help 
is given to the workers in their case in 
court. Efforts are made to get the govern- 
ment agencies concerned to do a proper 
job of protecting the interests of workers 
and public. 

Puerto Ricans are US citizens. The 
Castaner Church of the Brethren is located 
in an area threatened by copper strip- 
mining, an additional reason for Brethren 
to be concerned with the environmental ex- 
ploitation rampant in Puerto Rico. 

Three women appointed 
for staff and Ecuador 

Next month Ruby Frantz Rhoades moves 
to the nation's capital as the Church of the 
Brethren's Washington representative after 
16 months of service as Messenger's field 

Rhoades succeeds Ralph E. Smeltzer 
who died last May. Louise Denham Bow- 
man served as acting representative during 
the interim and will return to her regular 
post as office manager administrative 

Why does Messenger publish political 
articles? This was a question raised by 
Brethren in Rhoades' field contacts. With 
the wealth of contacts in the church dis- 

tricts and congregations and experience as 
public relations director for a well-known 
publisher of religious books, Rhoades is 
uniquely qualified to interpret why and 
how Christians need to make their voice 
heard in government. 

This is how the Washington repre- 
sentative-designate sees her new opportuni- 
ty to serve; "I see all the intricacies and 
possibilities of our government on the one 
side and the concerns and aspirations of 
Brethren on the other. I would hope to 
open new channels so Brethren can be 
heard in committees and hearings and that 
our concerns for peace and justice will have 
influence on legislation. I would hope, too, 
that vital information would go from our 
office to stir action on Christian concerns 
and awaken us to renewed political respon- 

Joan Moore Harrison is the new ad- 
ministrative assistant to the treasurer at the 
Church of the Brethren General Offices in 
Elgin. She succeeds Joanne Nesler Davis, 
the new director of volunteer services. A 
major assignment in the post is to handle 
the denomination's group insurance 
program for some 2.000 pastors, ministers, 
employees and retirees. 

Harrison is a graduate of Florida State 
University. Elgin residents since 1971. she 
and her husband William are members of 
the Highland Avenue congregation. 

BVSer Karen Naomi Haynes is on a 
two-year rural health assignment with 
Brethren United Foundatons in Ecuador. 
Her work will include health education and 
setting up dispensaries in at least three 
rural communities located too far from ex- 
isting health centers. 

Haynes is a registered nurse. While in 
high school she spent a year in The Nether- 
lands through the International Christian 
Youth Exchange program (ICYE). She is a 
member of the Cedar Lake Church of the 
Brethren, Auburn, Ind. 

6 MESSENGER January 1977 

Intervention' rapped 
by North India church 

Criticism of the emergency measures en- 
acted by the government of India is 
looked upon as "unwarranted interven- 
tions" by the executive committee of the 
Church of North India. 

In September the leaders of the six-year- 
old Church of North India termed recent 
statements of concern by the World Coun- 
cil of Churches and the Christian Confer- 
ence of Asia as "controversial" and "con- 
descending." To refute the criticism, the 
CNI leaders went on to "record their deep 
gratitude and appreciation for the dynamic 
leadership provided by Shrimati Indira 
Gandhi during her prime ministership." 
The Church of North India resolution 
charged that the statements of the councils 
gave "a false, distorted picture of India" 
that was embarrassing to those who have 
rallied around the country's present 
leadership. The resolution maintained that 
the governmental measures were "for the 
good of all people of the land." 

Meanwhile, Viyaya Lakshmi Pandit, 
who held some of the country's top 
diplomatic posts when her brother, 
Jawaharlal Nehru was prime minister, said 
she was "profoundly troubled" by the 
direction which the government led by her 
niece, Indira Gandhi, has taken in curbing 
dissent and other civil liberties. 

Herself a front-line leader back in the 
struggle for independence, the 76-year-old 
Mrs. Pandit in a New York Times inter- 
view cited Mohandas K. Gandhi as a 
leader who "made us Indians into a big 
people. But when a man loses his right to 
speak out, he becomes a littler person, and 
we are now becoming a little people." 

In recent weeks the lower house of the 
Parliament, dominated by Mrs. Gandhi's 
Congress Party, passed constitutional 
amendments giving the prime minister even 
more sweeping powers. The amendments, 
which Mrs. Gandhi's government says will 
speed socio-economic revolution and which 
the opposition says will legitimize dicta- 
torship, were approved 366 to 4. 

Among other things, the amendments 
curtail the power of lower courts and limits 
the Supreme Court's power to declare a 
law unconstitutional. 

According to Religious News Service, 
most of the opposition lawmakers of the 
532-member house either boycotted the 
vote in protest or were unable to attend 
because they were languishing in jail. 



of a World Council of Churches committee to 

plan an action-oriented Program on Militarism and the Arma- 
ments Race is H_. Lamar Gibble of the World Ministries staff. 
The committee will meet Jan. 18-22 in Geneva, Switzerland. 
Gibble also chairs the International Affairs Task Group 
on Arms Control and Militarism of the National Council of 
Churches and the Historic Peace Churches Consultative Group. 


from the Church of the Brethren were 

scheduled to participate in the Peace People's March Dec. 
5 in Northern Ireland. They were Louise Denham Bowman , 
Fairfax, Va. ; Joan George Deeter , North Manchester, Ind. ; 
Geraldine Zigler Glick , Broadway, Va. ; Lois Teach Paul , 
Elgin, 111. ; Beth Glick - Rieman and Andrea Warnke , Dayton, 
Ohio; and Mary Blocher Smeltzer , until recently of Wash- 
ington, D.C. Approximately 100 other Americans were to 
join in the week-long Journey of Reconciliation planned 
by the National Council of Churches' Ireland program. 


Stewart B. Kauffman and Shantilal P. 

Bhagat will lead an intercultural seminar in India Jan. 6- 
28, under General Board auspices. Participating will be 
Bruce and Jolene Barwick , Middlebury, Ind. ; Gerald and Ruth 
Ruber , Bluff ton, Ohio; Yvonne S_. James , Helen M_. Kauffman , 
Janice Martin , Carl E_. Myers , Wi 1 fred E_. Nolen , and Annamae 
Rensberger of Elgin, 111.; Robin and Jeanette Lehman , 
Franklin Grove, 111.; Rebekah Martens , North Manchester, 
Ind.; Myrtle Puffenberqer , Petersburg, W. Va. ; Stanley R. 
Wampler , Harrisonburg, Va. ; Gene E. Wenger , Kansas City, Mo.; 
and Eva I_. Wright , Dayton, Ohio; and Everett and Joy Fasnacht 
of India. 

An Intercultural Seminar in Puerto Rico, also under Gen- 
eral Board auspices, was slated Dec. 27 — Jan. 4 with Doris 
Cline Egge or Roanoke, Va. , as leader. 

BVS BRIEFS ... Food specialist Glenn Peterson , Dayton, 
Va. , is on a two-year Brethren Volunteer Service assignment 
in Jamaica, working in a rural school lunch program. . . . 
After 11 years as assistant BVS training director, Annama e 
Rensberger has resigned effective next September. . . . Di- 
rectors and locations for current BVS training include Dale 
Aukerman , November Discipleship unit, Denton, Md.; Carl Zuck 
and Cliff Kindy , January Brethren Revival Fellowship unit, 
Greencastle, Pa.; and Alan Kieffaber , Bonnie Kline , and Dale 
Dowdy , January unit, Illinois and Iowa. 

IN THE NEWS ... Stanley J. Noff singer , Leola, Pa., and a 
1976 graduate of Manchester College, is the new director of 
Mid-Atlantic CROP. . . . R_. Dean Wenrich , Bartlett, 111., is 
the new mailing supervisor at the General Offices beginning 
Jan. 1. . . . Wabash, Ind. , church has granted a 13-week 
sabbatical leave to its pastor, Phyllis Carter , to be mini- 
ster in residence at Bethany Theological Seminary next fall. 

J. Stanley Ear hart , after nearly three months hospitali- 
zation, expects to return to his duties as district execu- 
tive in Southern Pennsylvania early in 1977. In August he 
underwent surgery and had two heart valves replaced. 

January 1977 messenger 7 



Representatives of 33 Brethren camps 

are invited to a Consultation on Camping and Outdoor Mini- 
stries, March 10-13, in Cincinnati. Walt Bowman of the 
Parish Ministries staff is the convenor; Betty Vander Smis- 
sen of Penn State the guest leader. 

Indiana's Camp Mack, currently remodeling its kitchen- 
dining hall facility, has a development goal of $130,000. 
. . . Atlantic Northeast District voted this fall to in- 
crease its goal for support of Camp Swatara from $2 to $3 
per member per year. . . . Woodland Altars in Southern 
Ohio is involved in two federal assistance programs, one 
related to the US Forestry Service and the other Title XX 
support of ADC children engaged in outdoor education. 


Friendship Manor, Roanoke, Va., has 

purchased the 112-acre Lakeview Motor Lodge property for de- 
velopment. . . . Under construction by Florida Brethren 
Homes, Inc., is an adult retirement complex adjacent to the 
Sebring church. The 33-apartment unit is to be completed in 
the spring. . . . Exploration is underway in Indiana on the 
establishment of a second retirement facility in the state, 
perhaps by the two districts and another denomination. 

In Atlantic Northeast, newly established guidelines di- 
vide the 61 congregations for fund solicitation among the 
district's three homes. Brethren Village, Lebanon Valley, 
and Peter Becker Community. Goal per member per year is $10. 

In Southern Pennsylvania, Camp Eder and The Brethren Home, 
Cross Keys, have projected a coordinated capital funds cam- 
paign to begin in mid- January. 


Under construction at La Verne College 

in California is a new law center, to house the school's 
five-year-old law program. Funds are being raised within 
the legal community. . . . Bridgewater College president 
Wayne F. Geisert is president of the Virginia Foundation 
for Independent Colleges. . . . Paul Wagoner , on the Mc- 
Pherson, Kans., College alumni, development, and financial 
aids staff since 1955, has resigned effective June 1. . . . 
Manchester College was recipient of a $125,000 National Sci- 
ence Foundation grant for support of faculty development and 
course revision. It was the only college in Indiana and one 
of 59 in the nation to receive NSF funding currently. 


Eaton, Ohio, Brethren honored 

Ellis and Ruth Guthrie with a "This Is Your Life" celebra- 
tion in honor of the couple's 25-year pastorate in the 
congregation. ... An item received belatedly by Messenger 
was the September, 1975 recognition of the Beaver Creek, 
Va. , church of F. Wise Dri ver and Oscar R. Fike for 50 and 
54 years respectively in the Christian ministry. 

Western Plains' Mont Ida church had its Junior High Times, 
the publication of the Junior High Fellowship, honored with 
a feature in the Cook story paper, "In Looking Ahead." . . . 
James L. Houff , pastor, St. Petersburg, Fla. , invites names 
and addresses of Brethren moving into the St. Petersburg, 
Largo, and Clearwater communities. Contact him at 7040 
38th Avenue North, St. Petersburg, FL 33710 (813 341-3561). 

8 MESSENGER January 1977 

Upholding the hope 
that is enduring 

The theme of hope set forth in Paul's letter 
to the Romans, 5:1-5. is the text for the 
1977 Week of Prayer for Christian Unity. 
Jan. 18-25. Celebrations of unity around 
the globe build on the conviction set forth 
by Paul, that Christian hope is grounded in 
the victory of Christ over sin. suffering, 
and death. 

In the United States, the theme is "This 
hope does not disappoint us. because God's 
love has been poured into our hearts 
through the Holy Spirit ..." (Rom. 5;5). 
In Canada, the theme is "Together in 
Hope." "Enduring Together in Hope" is 
the translation commended by the World 
Council of Churches and the Vatican 
Secretariat for Christian Unity. 

"The Apostle calls us to sing out the love 
with which God has already rescued us. in 
spite of our sinfulness." declares a World 
Council of Churches background state- 
ment. "He invokes the praise of the Spirit 
who is still at work in and through us in 
the churches, divided though we still are. 

"He calls us honestly to face our wander- 
ing hope and our attempts to escape, en- 
couraging us to cry out for renewed hope 
and endurance." 

"... Ours is a time when it is imperative 
to learn again and again the art of en- 
durance. . . . the very pivot and life-style of 
hope, its testing round in real life." 

Youth explore structure, 
project 1978 conference 

Two developments are in process in youth 
ministries, one the planning of a 1978 
youth conference and the other ex- 
plorations for an ongoing national youth 

The quadrennial National Youth Con- 
ference will be convened Aug. 22-27. 1978. 
at Estes Park. Colo., with accommodations 
available for 3.000 registrants. 

A steering committee is being formed by 
Ralph and Mary Cline Detrick of the 
Parish Ministries staff to plan the event. 
Information regarding costs and registra- 
tion details will be released late this 

Regarding an ongoing national youth 
fellowship program, a group of youth 
representatives will be meeting in the next 
several weeks to explore future directions. 
Members of the group were named by 
vouth at Annual Conference in Wichita, 

and funding for the meeting was approved 
by the Parish Ministries Commission in 

Representatives are Gwen Brumbaugh, 
Upper Marlboro, Md., Steve Flora, Long 
Beach, Calif., Dave McFadden, North 
Manchester, Ind., Jennifer Reinhold, 
Hummelstown, Pa., and Frank Selga, 
Long Beach, Calif. Dan Petry, youth 
member of the General Board from 
Marion, Ohio, will meet with the group. 

Stimulus for the explorations came in 
the Study Action Conference of high 
school age youth last July at McPherson, 
Kansas. Among values such a program 
would serve, the youth said, would be to 
act as a liaison between local and district 
youth and the General Board; to nominate 
youth representatives for committee 
assignments; to help youth focus on issues 
of special concern; and to keep youth in- 
formed and interested in the program of 
the church at large. 

Further study of the youth developments 
will be given by the Parish Ministries Com- 
mission at its February meeting. 

ABEC suggests 10 steps 
to lighten the crunch 

Energy conservation is a matter not only of 
ecology and stewardship, but of ministry. 
Dollars saved in heating, for example, can 
be applied to program areas of the church. 
This, coupled with the fact that church 
buildings often are among the worst 
offenders of energy waste, prompted the 
American Baptist Extension Corporation 
(ABEC) to outline ways congregations can 
trim energy use and heating costs. The tips, 
from the agency's newsletters include these 
ten steps: 

• Check out the heating system. Make 
sure oil burners and gas burners are clean 
and adjusted. Gas burner pilot lights can 
be turned off during the summer months. 

• Keep out drafts. Cold air coming into 
a building and hot air going out are an un- 
noticed but often major heating factor. Use 
storm windows, close cracks, tighten win- 
dows, fix door closers, add insulation 
where possible. Some churches use plexi- 
glass over stained glass windows for pro- 
tection and heat savings. 

• Turn thermostats down. Only use heat 
when and where you need it. Supply color- 
ful, warm afghans for use in the sanctuary 
for those who feel the cold more. 

• Have one night a week for all meet- 
ings. By having simultaneous meetings, the 
church building can be heated less often. 

End of a long walk: The Continental Walk for Dis- 
armament and Social Justice passes through Ha- 
gerstown, Md., in mid- October, headed for Wash- 
ington, where it ended October 16, eight and a half 
months and 3,800 miles from San Francisco, where 
it began last Jan. 31 (see June 1976 Messenger, page 
9). Hagerstown Brethren, including pastor Dean 
Miller (second left) joined the march and a junior 
high class added the banner. The walk sought to 
raise the disarmament issue, educate about non- 
violent resistance, and renew peace demonstrations. 

cm cE 

Furnish baby-sitters if parents have to 
come at the same time. 

• What about the organ? Contrary to 
what some people think, musical in- 
struments need not be kept at constant 
temperature. They do need to be warmed 
up before a service. But they need not be 
kept warm all week. 

• Meet in homes. Many people like the 
informal atmosphere of homes — and they 
are heated already. Most of the time they 
take far less fuel than a church building. 

• Rezone if you can. Some church 
facilities can be divided into smaller heat- 
ing zone areas so that only office spaces or 
day care areas are heated on weekdays. 

• If your congregation is small and your 

building large, consider joint use of 
facilities with another Christian group. 

• Use the cheapest, most efficient fuel. 
Electricity costs two to three times as much 
per thermal unit as oil. It also furnished 
only 30 percent of the energy that was 
burned at the power plant. An oil burner, 
on the other hand, can be as much as 75 
percent efficient. 

• Be energy conscious. Turn off lights, 
close doors, drive a smaller car. Look for 
ways energy use can be reduced — and save 
precious Christian dollars for other uses. 

The American Baptist Extension Cor- 
poration serves as a planning consultant to 
Church of the Brethren parishes as well as 
to the Baptists. 

January 1977 messenger 9 


The chijrches 
-* -respond 

|James A. Gitting^ 










1.1 S 


■! ' i^h 












ithin two weeks of this writer's 
return from Guatemala, the 
United States Comptroller 
General's office issued a 40-page report 
criticizing private relief agencies for a lack of 
coordination in their responses to the giant 
earthquake that struck the Central 
American country last February 4. On the 
same day the Comptroller General released 
the report, a consultant to a major American 
denomination called upon me to ask 
whether, in my opinion, his church's relief 
and development aid should be channeled 
through Church World Service or dealt 
directly to national church leaders in 
disaster-stricken or developing countries. 

The two unrelated events serve to open- 
up two topics, much whispered-about, that 
ought long since to have been thoroughly 
aired. The questions: Is Church World 
Service the best means by which American 
Protestants can reach out to the world to 
do works of mercy and justice in the name 
of Christ? Should it be, apart from direct 
mission relationships, a denomination's 
principal means of mission? For me, obser- 
vation in Guatemala of disaster and 
development work being done by represen- 
tatives of two relatively small groups — the 
Mennonites and the Church of the Breth- 
ren — provide a kind of answer to the 
questions for the larger churches. 

First, let's take a look at what is impor- 
tant to these two sets of churches. That is, 
let's ask the same questions about 
possibilities for witness through Church 
World Service that they are asking the 
giant agency. Both are so-called "peace" 
churches, committed to non-violence and 
the promotion of world and community 
harmony. Both stress a believer's priest- 
hood, and watch the development of hier- 
archies — their own, and those of other 
churches — with no little nervousness. Both 
would insist that a religion which does not 
find its reflection in a life-style featuring 
simplicity, good works, and membership in 
a worshipping community is probably not 

a living faith at all. On the other hand, 
neither Brethren nor Mennonites have seen 
their "mission" as that of creating mirror 
churches overseas. 

Now come to Guatemala in a time of 
post-earthquake reconstruction. What op- 
tions were open to the two groups in doing 
the things they felt to be important? What 
choices did they make? 

Certainly either of the churches might 
have chosen to register with the govern- 
ment, seek responsibility for the construc- 
tion of a particular community or com- 
munities, send in or hire somebody to clear 
freight through customs, and put a sign out 
on a country road somewhere saying, "This 
Village Under Construction by the Men- 
nonites," "A Church of the Brethren Pro- 
ject." Photographs might have been taken, 
stories might have been written, and next 
autumn's stewardship campaigns would 
have boomed. 

These were live options. My photo file 
contains many pictures of such projects. 
But not one, thank God, bears the words 
"Mennonite" or "Brethren." 

Instead, representatives of the two 
churches eschewed such denominational 
vanities. Small teams of Mennonites quiet- 
ly crossed the border that separates their 
settlement in Belize (British Honduras, 
once) and Guatemala. Coming up the rift 
valley that was the great central point-of- 
fracture in the earthquake, the team 
members scattered into ruined villages. To 
their surprise (Mennonites don't coordinate 
very well internationally), they encountered 
other Mennonites — this time from Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania — who were engaged 
in distributing canned meat put up by their 
church's portable canning machine back at 
home. The meat was on the first mercy 
plane dispatched to Guatemala by Church 
World Service. 

As the food-and-blanket aspect of dis- 
aster relief mutated with passing weeks into 
a reconstruction effort, the Mennonites 
became well-digging and construction 

Above: A Gualemalan welder cuts excess 
sieel from a cement block curing rack. 
Opposite: Brethren volunteer Ernest Im- 
hoff assists a Guatemalan co-worker in 
roofing a new house in Tecpdn village. 

Is Church World Service the best means by which American 
Protestants can reach out to do works of mercy and justice in the 
name of Christ? Let's look at what the Brethren and CWS are doing. 

January 1977 messenger 11 

Guatemalan workers toil endless hours 
ripping planks for house construction. 

superintendents at the sites of new villages. 
Those from neighboring Belize sent for 
their families. Soon tow-headed, 
Germanic-looking Mennonite children 
were at play with Guatemalan youngsters 
in the rubble-littered streets. Once 1 saw a 
Mennonite hut surrounded by silent Guate- 
malan children, faces peering in at every 
window and door. The children were wait- 
ing for their Mennonite playmates to finish 
morning prayer, and it was, I thought, a 
supremely evangelical moment. 

The Church of the Brethren began its 
Guatemalan earthquake work with a con- 
siderably developed experience of disaster 
relief in the Central American region. Such 
workers as Chet Thomas, the Johnstown- 
born Pennsylvanian who is the senior relief 
worker in the area, had cut their eyeteeth 
in the relief business during earlier earth- 
quakes in Nicaragua, and in the colossal 
mess caused by Hurricane Fifi in Honduras 
during 1974. Very quickly Brethren Dis- 
aster teams came on the scene in Guate- 
mala City and upcountry. At Tecpan, Pat- 

Brethren volunteer Mike 
Sipling demonstrates to a 
group of masons first- 
course block placement. 
A Guatemalan architect, 
Jorge Estrada (at right), 
helps with translation. 

Below right: Many Guatemalan masons experienced with adobe construction techniques 
are employed in rebuilding projects. Called "albanils, " they adapted quickly to the more 
precise skills of concrete block laying. Below left: Steel reinforcement rods will strengthen 
the new houses. Many workers are as young as 14, yet have the skills and stamina of much 
older men. Bottom: Heavy tile roofs caused many of the earthquake's deaths. This house, 
propped up against possible aftershocks, is typical of traditional Guatemalan architecture. 

12 MESSENGER January 1977 

Scale model shows functional plan 
of artisans' houses, /ts L shape cre- 
ates a courtyard work / leisure area. 
Inside are a bedroom (upper left) 
and a living /dining area flower). 
Bevond are kitchen and bathroom. 

zicia and San Lucas, in particular. Church 
of the Brethren volunteers were among the 
first internationals to go to work. 

But the reconstruction projects on which 
they labored were not their own. Brethren 
volunteers at Tecpan cut house frames in a 
shed that was all but obscured by a bill- 
board proclaiming the project to be one of 
the Salvation Army. Elsewhere — at Tierra 
Nueva, an ecumenical housing project near 
Guatemala City — the Brethren worked for 
a World Council of Churches-related 
group. Though the Brethren were quite 
willing to place their names on Ministry of 
Reconstruction documents as guarantors 
of work undertaken by others, and did so, 
they preferred to have home-grown groups 
out front like the Calvary Pentecostal 
Church of Guatemala. This entering into 
partnership with local church bodies has 
long been the practice of Brethren service 

Finally, in this brief survey, a further 
word is necessary about the one-time ad- 
vertising man whom the Church of the 
Brethren seconded to Church World Serv- 
ice first as its regional advisor of disaster 
relief in Honduras, now as director for 
CWS reconstruction programs in 
Guatemala. Chet Thomas is an example of 
a growing number of disaster specialists, 
professionals almost, in the business of 
relief and reconstruction, who have 
developed since the Korean War. 

Like many of his kind, Thomas had 
Peace Corps experience. He's an organizer 
and a motivator — a carry-over, perhaps, 
from the days in which he developed his 
own business. Thomas does not suffer fools 
gladly: his eruptions of temper are legend. 
But in the areas of problem analysis, 
governmental relations, and trouble shoot- 
ing in personnel matters, Chet is brilliant. 
Thus, at Tecpan, Thomas took a look at 
the slow pace at which masons were laying 
concrete block. Told the men were on day 
wages, Thomas strode down the line: 
"From now on you're on piecework," he 
said — and the rate of construction picked- 
up by 30 percent. 

But what about the criticisms of the 
Comptroller-General's office? What about 
fulfillment of the basic motivations of the 
Brethren and Mennonites that were noted 

To rebuild village of artisans 

Chenautla, a village of a thousand families whose living is derived primarily from 
making pottery, will be a point of Brethren concentration in Guatemalan reconstruc- 
tion in 1977. The original village was destroyed by the major earthquake that struck 
Guatemala last February. 

The plans, to be coordinated by Chet Thomas, CWS director of reconstruction, 
are to erect 700 houses for artisans. Workshops with potters wheels, looms, and 
woodworking tools will adjoin the individual homes. 

The new Chenautla is expected to become a tourist and marketing center and a 
possible source for craft for the international SERRV program. 

Teams of Brethren workers and up to $100,000 from the Church of the Brethren 
Disaster Fund will be expended in the project. In addition, $350,000 for construction 
materials and the employment and training of local workers will be provided by 
Church World Service and its Guatemalan counterpart, Cepad-Evangelical Alliance. 

earlier? What about our question about 
CWS as a means for enabling these 
churches to work through their priorities? 
Certainly this much can be said: 
• Brethren and Mennonite willingness to 
have Church World Service act in their 
behalf in areas of documentation, cargo, 
delivery, and clearance services, and in 
coordination of work assignments, dis- 
tribution of resources, and relationships 
with governments, removes from the two 
churches any element of blame for the 

"lack of coordination" noted by the 
Comptroller-General in relief operations. 

• It is, alas, no joke at all to observe that 
the willingness of Mennonite and Brethren 
to work cooperatively on reconstruction 
projects with almost any of Guatemala's 
warring Christian sects has been an impor- 
tant contribution toward community har- 
mony and peace that would not have been 
possible on any large scale without Church 
World Service aid. Important, too, in the 
area of harmony, was the Mennonite and 

January 1977 messenger 13 

Brethren tenderness in dealing with Indian 
people in a nation that has a history of 
kicking its Indians around. 

• The presence, speech, and living habits 
3f the Mennonite and Brethren volunteers 
ivere certainly evangelical in effect, il- 
lustrative of the Christian life, and a 
;estimony to both the possibility and effec- 
;iveness of an individual priesthood in a 
Protestant understanding of the term. 

• Finally, despite the seeming low 
profile, the visibility of Mennonite and 
Church of the Brethren volunteers was ex- 
:remely high when they were scattered 
across the entire CWS-coordinated groups 
af projects. Apparently hard-working, 
skilled people who will put their backs into 
God's work do not require great sign- 
boards to attract notice. A visitor from 
Argentina, watching the towering Men- 
nonite Menno Lowen at work, summed it 
up. "Look at that man!" he said excitedly, 
'Look at that man!" 

So much for the reconstruction efforts. 
What about churches whose mission agen- 
:ies feel that giving assistance to oppressed 
peoples in their struggles for liberation 
3Ught to rate high as a priority in Christian 
witness? What about helping agencies who 
want to help depressed societies secure 
better economic health? How well does 
Church World Service shape up as a chan- 

nel for these kinds of aid? 

The giant voluntary agency does better 
than it is given credit for doing. In Guate- 
mala at this moment, for example. Church 
World Service is involved in programs that 
provide legal defense for exploited 
migratory field workers, seed and fertilizer 
loans for upland Indian farmers, and staff 
for village health clinics in some extremely 
remote areas. In the Guatemalan capital, 
CWS aids squatters in securing title to 
lands, pays social workers to help in newly 
rebuilt villages, and provides some low- 
key, small-scale financing and service func- 
tions for a group of intellectuals and their 

All of this is very modest. Some find it 
contemptible as a development or libera- 
tion effort in a nation that has a huge and 
much-abused Indian minority, a small but 
growing guerrilla movement ("banditry," 
the government calls it) and vast inequities 
in the distribution of national income and 

For three reasons, not too much anger, if 
any, should be generated over this limited 
CWS response in the areas of liberation 
and economic development. First, Church 
World Service in Guatemala is only now 
emerging from the post-disaster period in 
which its duties were clear: to feed, clothe, 
house, and heal people. In the months 

Guatemala disaster teams 

Since last April Brethren Disaster Teams, most of them for a month of service, have 
been engaging in the type of work described by James Gittings in the accompanying 
article. Participants thus far include: 

April-May: Milan Rupel, La Verne, Calif., Cecil Armey, Fresno, Calif., David 
Glasa, Azusa, Calif., Tom Chamberlain, San Diego, Calif., Daryl Bowman, Mc- 
Farland, Calif., Fred Butterbaugh, Paradise, Calif. 

May-June: Earl Painter, Manassas, Va., Bill Hare, Mt. Morris, III., Steve 
Smeltzer, Vista, Calif., Bruce Halterman, Greencastle, Pa., Tom Eisaman, Lancaster, 

June-July: Ernie Imhoff, New Windsor, Md., Mark Tritt, Auroi"a, 111., Kevin 
Smith, Rochester, Ind., Gary Colby, Claremont, Calif., Steven Graybill, Manheim, 
Pa., Mike Sipling, Mt. Joy, Pa. 

July-August: Ivan Fry, Ft. Wayne, Ind., Richard Corl, Bremen, Ind., Bob 
Gross, Churubusco, Ind., Cliff Kindy, Goshen, Ind., Arthur Sharp, Bremen, Ind., 
Steve Vachon, Columbia City, Ind. 

September: Daryl Bowman, McFarland, Calif., Robert Rowe, Ellicott City, 
Md., Harold Metzler, Martinsburg, Pa., Howard Wooters, Easton, Md., Cliff and 
Arlene Kindy, Goshen, Ind. Bob Rowe extended his term of service for an additional 

November: Edwin Lowder, Decatur, 111., Leon Kreider, Quarryville, Pa., George 
Frazell, Quarryville, Pa., joining Bob Rowe. 

ahead, opportunities for development aid 
will increase; in the months that have 
passed, it would have been criminal of the 
agency to allocate its thin resources to 
delayed-benefit projects. 

Secondly, developmental assistance that 
has been given by Church World Service in 
Guatemala will have a multiplier effect, as 
elsewhere, upon the capacity of depressed 
or oppressed populations to exercise their 
political and social options. Put baldly, the 
bringing to a rural area of better crops (the 
seed money), better health (the clinics) and 
better legal services (the defense fund) 
amount to steps in empowering the rural 
population to take whatever measures its 
emerging leaders choose to make. 

And then — the last point — one must not 
expect Church World Service to engage in 
projects that openly abet liberation 
movements or developmental projects that 
put great strain upon the social order. 
American Christians who, in the majority, 
want to be able to respond quickly to dis- 
asters, would find a voluntary agency that 
had been politically blacklisted of no use to 
them; governments whose people have 
been afflicted by disaster will open their 
ports and their highways and rail systems 
only to organizations that can be trusted to 
give first priority to the alleviation of the 
immediate suffering. To expect a single 
agency to combine mercy with politics, 
even when the politics are those that lead 
to liberation, is naive. 

The people at Church World Service, on 
the record of their past activities in Algeria, 
Nigeria, Hungary, Vietnam and, now, 
Guatemala, have their hearts in the right 
place. They do what they can within their 
mandate with great enthusiasm; they go 
beyond it with caution mixed with desire. 

And that's how I answer my questions. 
Should a church's relief aid be channeled 
through Church World Service? Yes, yes, 
and yes. Should a church's development 
aid be channelled through Church World 
Service? Yes, a large portion of it — that 
sort of development aid that lifts the 
economic base, or health services, or 
educational structures of an area, a com- 
munity, a people. These things, done well, 
create a climate here and abroad in which 
wise church leaders, through other chan- 
nels and with other goods and funds, may 
and should take such risks in the areas of 
liberation or radical development aid as the 
Holy Spirit and Third World churches 
may urge them to take. □ 

MESSENGER January 1977 

Rinky-dink religion 
goes big time 

by Murray L. IVagner 

Large portions of the great church-going 
public will feel nothing but disgust for 
what follows. Respected people will con- 
sider opinions expressed here below as the 
blatherings of a mouthy smart aleck and 
sorehead loser. However, 1 must beg your 
indulgence. I think I may be ill. I suffer 
from something like a bad case of heart- 
burn that could only come after taking a 
month of meals at the carnival. Too much 
cotton candy, pumped-up fizz water and 

color-added junk food makes for a very big 
belly ache. Junk religion seems to affiict 
me in much the same way. No doubt I have 
actually "OD-ed" on junk religion and suf- 
fered some sort of brain damage. Whatever 
the diagnosis, I am grateful to the editor of 
Messenger for letting me examine my 
head in public. I'm rather certain that I'll 
know soon enough just how abnormal I 
am. Here's my case. 

I've long noted that, officially, American 

January 1977 messenger 15 

Christians brag about being alone among 
the peoples of the earth in knowing not to 
confuse things sacred with things secular. 
After all, we have that constitutionally 
guaranteed "Great Wall" which separates 
the institutions of public politics from the 
agencies of private religion. But alas, the 
"Great Wall" is now being pounded by a 
wave of popular piety which is about to in- 
undate every possible cranny with commer- 
cial Christianity. Its force is gaining, as 
hucksters across the country discover the 
new formula for quick money and publici- 
ty. Under the guise of "Old Time 
Religion," a grand array of Bible thumpers 
are now raving media freaks. Along with 
studio wrestling, roller derby, and rerun 
theater, pop revivalists dominate the UHF 
circuits with the most banal sort of rinky- 
dink religion since Bible comics hit the 
Christian Light Bookstore. 


'ne of the slickest examples of religious 
rinky-dink is the UHF program which 
takes off on Johnny Carson's late-nite for- 
mat. Show biz is simply glopped over with 
revivalist CheeseWhiz. Hosting the show is 
a natty charmer all decked out in coor- 
dinated double-knits and white plastic 
shoes. Spiritzed over his Robert Redford 
cut is a brand of "macho" hair spray. 
Beside him sits the straight man, a kind of 
evangelical top banana who even looks like 
a born-again Ed McMahon. The studio, of 
course, is wall-to-wall plastic flowers with 
furnishings by Foam Rubber City. Guests 
vary from celebrity chalk-talkers and 
flannel-boarders to onetime heavy dopers 
who have kicked the junk and are now 
high on Jesus. Sometimes excitement is 
stirred by the appearance of a missionary 
aviator, a Bible smuggler, or — Praise 
God! — a Christian athlete! One thing for 
sure — none of these people is what H. L. 
Mencken thought was a typical puritan, 
that is, someone who is afraid someone else 
somewhere might be enjoying himself. No 
indeed! Christian tv-ers are all having fun, 
fun, and more fun, all in the Lord. 

Christian tv usually concentrates on the 
private satisfactions that come with per- 
sonal salvation. Occasionally, however, 
talk turns to urgent social issues. 
Sometimes the guests defend the God-given 
right to pack guns or drive over 55. Then 
there are regular features exposing the evils 
of abortionists, women's libbers and smut 

peddlers. From my many late night sessons 
with the tube, and after several intense con- 
sultations over the Christian hotline, 1 have 
concluded that the Christian tv position on 
abortion is as follows: Any woman of 15, 
or 25, or 35, or any other age, with an un- 
wanted fetus growing in her womb has no 
rights whatever — Praise God! Extending 
the logic a step further, guests usually agree 
that, while the destruction of an un- 
developed fetus is a crime against divine 
law, the obliteration of an underdeveloped 
nation may sometimes be necessary to the 
cause of freedom and patriotism. 

Concern over fetal rights moves quickly 
to outrage over women's rights. There is a 
close connection. They carefully point out 
that, after all, it's women who get preg- 
nant. Christian tv, it seems, always has one 
of the Christian "Beautiful People" to 
speak on the subject of feminism. Normal- 
ly, she is thin-lipped with pinched nostrils, 
wears an expensive wig and plucks her 
eyebrows in the shape of McDonald's 
arches. She can easily dominate an hour- 
long discussion on how subordination of 
the weaker sex (female) has been ordained 
from the foundations of the world. Viola- 
tion of the divinely appointed order by 
raucous, loud-mouthed feminists inevitably 
leads to the perversity that makes 42nd 
Street and Times Square an open sewer. 

And thus we come to another great con- 
cern of Christian tv. It is smut, not the 
kind belched up by US Steel to pollute the 
air, or by Allied Chemical to cause brain 
damage and sterility in their workers, but 
the "Adult Bookstore" kind. Apparently 
there are a number of experts on the porno 
problem in the Christian media. Evidently 
some have collected girlie magazines since 
high school days and have studied their evil 
effects very closely. They are able to speak 
with authority on virtually every angle in 
the skin trade and can describe each posi- 
tion in considerable detail. 

But enough of the heaviness of a fallen 
order! The Christian host turns to star per- 
formers in the thriving Christian music 
business. And then comes what passes for 
spiritual inspiration among the masses of 
revived Christians. It sounds a lot like the 
same old innocuous background schmaltz 

that's wired up to supermarkets, only this 
stuff gurgles with frothy bromides about 
personal religion. It could make even a 
Muzak salesman retch, unless, of course, 
he knows how popular it is. It's all very 
big-time religion. But can I carp about it 
when it sells like crazy? (Like I said, my 
brain may have started to congeal.) In any 
case, expect a whole lot more of it, being 
sure it will get even more awful. 

As I shudder over the Christian 
"schlock wave" of the future, I can hear 
practically every air wave pulsating with 
rinky-dink religion. It will be piped into 
Christian elevators. Christian steak and 
shake drive-ins, the offices of Christian 
business executives, into the hair driers of 
Christian beauty parlors, and the locker 
room of the Dallas Cowboys. What's more, 
I fully expect rinky-dink religionists to 
start cashing in on the booming tourist 
trade. I can envision a day in the not-too- 
distant future when the arrival of the ticky- 
tack millennium will be announced from 
"Godland," probably to be built in the 

16 MESSENGER January 1977 

A wave of popular piety inundates us as hucksters discover that 
''old time religion" is the formula for quick money and publicity. 

American heartland, at a place on a 
straight continuum between Busch Gardens 
and Seven Flags. 

At the center of Godland I expect to see 
a towering lava lamp. It will represent the 
marvelous movement of the Spirit. 
Tourists will begin their pilgrimage on a 
Christian racer-dip run which will soar the 
blessedly assured on a sky ride foretaste of 
those marvelous things to come in the great 
beyond. But then a tour into a plaster un- 
derground tunnel will give Christian 
tourists a grim view of the horrors that 
await the unsaved. The fires of hell will be 
simulated by rotating lights and plastic 
flames like the ones in the fake fireplaces 
sold at Sears. There may even be a pit of 
snakes collected from the bankrupt 
monkey farms in Florida. Promoters say 
that the worst thing about this plaster hell 
is that tourists will be totally cut off from 
Christian "schlock rock." 

But spirits will be boosted at the e.xit of 
this side show hell. There they can buy 
Christian orange juice from a refreshment 
stand under the Anita Bryant franchise. 
They can then relax and do praises as they 
visit the wax museum of disciples, martyrs, 
and Bible-believing celebrities. Finally, all 
can take their ease in the "Garden of Eden" 
restaurant. Diners will enjoy mechanized 
swans and birds of paradise, while card- 
board angels flap past on nearly invisible 
piano wires. Doubtless, menus will feature 
a soy chip version of "manna from heaven" 
mixed with a popular brand of Christian 
Hamburger Helper. Waiters will wear 
stylized bathrobes and rubber shower 
thongs to simulate apostolic garb. The 
"Eden" brandname can then be franchised 
across the great Interstates of the land, a 
sort of sanctified Stuckey's that offers free 
"divinity fudge" with a full tank of spiritual 

How near to Godland are we? Are we 
fated to endure rinky-dink religion forever? 
Well, you can bet your gilt-edged Living 
Bible that we'll have it around as long as it 
sells. As long as it packs the house and fills 
the coffers, the promoters of this paltry 
piety will be pushing all the rinky-dink the 
market can bear, and all under the pre- 
tense that the work is divinely inspired. 
Just thump the Bible, breathe fire, and it's 
greenbacks, ego strokes, and attendance 
records for the least of God's pitchmen. 

Claptrap has so pervaded the pop 
culture of Christian America that it is now 

very dangerous to suggest that the God of 
the prophets and of the prophets' sons and 
daughters might just devour rinky-dink 
religion and throw it up — and out of the 
garden of living things. Several years ago 
Dale Aukerman wrote a piece for 
Messenger which had the chutzpah to 
suggest that a proper purging of modern 
day places of worship would certainly 
mean the trashing of all plastic flowers, 
"paint-by-number" scenes of the Last 
Supper, and sheeny choir robes. Of course, 
nobody followed his advice. No one would 
dare tinker with the glit that gluts the sanc- 
tuary without being charged with sacrilege. 
The tackiest piece of secular tinsel is now 
treasured as a form of sacred art. 

I do want to make something plain. My 
disgust at Christian chintz does not come 
from any close association with the artsy- 
craftsy set. Getting put off by religious 
rinky-dink doesn't mean I've been lounging 
around in chic circles of snooty liturgists, 
eating little Swedish meatballs served on 
swizzle sticks and conversing loftily on the 
arts. My aversion to religious litter began 
quite simply. 


'n several moving occasions, 1 visited 
the Ephrata Cloister restoration. I was 
taken by the unadorned beauty of the 
architecture, the clean lines, the white- 
washed walls, and the functional construc- 
tion of nearly everything except Conrad 
Beissel's wood block pillow. Then seeing 
the same lines in old Dunker meeting- 
houses and Quaker barns made me wonder 
why something so simple and so beautiful 
is not duplicated by twentieth century 
church designers. 

Well, it doesn't take long to figure out 
why simplicity can't hack it. Just down the 
road from Ephrata is the Lancaster County 
strip. Hunks of gaudy kitsch are butted end 
to end down Route 30, as tourist trade 
honkey-tonkers leach off the Plain People 
and turn the Garden Spot into a 
Dunker/ Mennonite Disneyland. As an 
out-of-towner in purple shorts, leather 
socks, and a ring through his nose shoots 
pictures of the "wierdo" in the field plow- 
ing with horses, the Chamber of Commerce 
pats its paunch, knowing the clown will 
drop at least several hundred while he's in 

Godland may be just down the pike. 
They may even be paving over good farm- 

land for it right now. And Ephrata gets 
pushed further and further into the past. 

But hold on! The handful of us who are 
offended by rinky-dink religion either for 
theological or aesthetic reasons must 
resolve to risk the wrath of all those who 
will snarl, "So you don't like Jesus painted 
on black velvet — then depart from God- 
land forever." No, the righteous indigna- 
tion will be even more devastating. "Aha, 
you despise Christ and his kingdom, then 
prepare for the firey pit." 

But it's really so very little that I ask. I 
don't expect to hear the Moravian Bach 
Choir sing a chorale for the church picnic. 
Neither do I hope to hear the Staple 
Singers do Gospel from the choir loft. 

But what I can't stand is rinky-dink 
"schlock rock," amplified to a thousand 
decibels. Why must God be praised with 
racket like a stock truck full of baby pigs 
colliding with a load of empty milk cans? 
Can't somebody who can carry a tune just 
get up and line a hymn — perhaps a plain 
song or a spiritual or a happy round of 
praise? It would be so simple. Who needs 
to pay 10,000 bucks to the mercenaries 
who own copyright on "How Great Thou 
Art"? And suppose then we just make a 
few banners and hang them on the walls. 
So what if we drop a few stitches! Then we 
can take the fake ferns and all the prissy 
pictures that make Jesus look like the ail- 
American bearded woman and have a nice 
big bonfire next Halloween. It would be a 
great celebration of All souls' Day that'll 
send the spooks back to the underworld. 

But I then want something else. I want 
some honesty. I want confession time for 
those who yelp the loudest about their love 
of the Word, their devotion to the Scrip- 
tures, and their allegiance to the Kingdom 
of God. Why is it always you who are 
quickest to snatch up whatever commercial 
gimmick sells the most dog food, then bap- 
tize it with rinky-dink religion? You just 
can't wait to cash in on the action for what 
is always billed as the greatest soul-winning 
crusade in the history of the universe? Give 
me a break! Spare the electric bands, cut 
the splashy productions. Put as much 
energy in justice and mercy: the world will 
get the message. Without one neon sign or 
a single bumper sticker, they will know ex- 
actly who we were. And without tweeters, 
twangers, and gospel runs, the world will 
hear the name we bear. 

There, I think I feel some better already. □ 

January 1977 messenger 17 


Read: I Kings 4:20-28: 5:13-18: 9:15-23: 
11:29-40; 12. Prov. 23:10-11; 22:25. Matt. 
6:25-33. Luke 12:22-31. 

The problem with human rights is that it is 
so easy to subordinate them. Government 
officials subordinate human rights to pub- 
lic order and security. Production mana- 
gers put productivity and efficiency first. 
Educators emphasize high standards and 
manageable learning situations. Medical 
practitioners give priority to the "stan- 
dards" of their profession. Agents of pow- 
er and control generally affirm something 
positive about human rights, but rights 
quickly become inconvenient and dispen- 
sable in the face of more urgent priorities. 

The biblical understanding of history 
consistently describes the tension between 
fragile, helpless seekers of freedom and 
justice and those who wield power and im- 
perial order. That tension, of course, 
reached disaster proportions in the mo- 
ment of the Exodus when Pharaoh, 
manager of productivity, goods and per- 
sons, stood arrayed against the groaning of 
Israel and the freedom promised by 
Yahweh. In that moment Israel learned 
forever that human rights cannot be subor- 
dinated. All the brick quotas in Pharaoh's 
world would never silence the groans nor 
void the promises of Yahweh. And the rest 
of biblical history can be seen as testing 
that remarkable conviction. 

In the life of ancient Israel, the supreme 
testing came during the regime of Solomon 
when Israel was seduced by the "way of the 
nations" and the liberating memory of Ex- 
odus lost its power. Solomon and his son 
Rehoboam were typical of those who seek 
to sacrifice human value and dignity to the 
dreams of the establishment. The provision 
of material abundance (I Kings 4:20-28), 
the reintroduction of Pharaoh-like forced 
labour (1 Kings 5:13-18, 9:15-23) and the 
disregard of the prophets (I Kings 1 1:29- 
40) were evidence of a view of personal 
power and institutional efficiency which 
necessarily diminished the value and worth 
of people, just as today people all over the 
world come second to public order and 
security, to productivity and efficiency. 

It makes one pause to ponder Israel's 
history. The moments of glory and public 
well-being coincide with disregard for the 
human spirit. Rehoboam learned the 
lessons of his father well. When counseled 
to have compassion, he callously decided 
that subordination of human well-being 
was the proper posture for the state (I 
Kings 12). Must public prosperity 
necessarily come before human worth? The 
answer is not given in the narrative and we 
are left only with the groans of the victims 
of the policy and the promises of Yahweh 
which describe another way. 

While the kings revealed cynicism and 
enjoyed success, the wise in Israel reflected 
on the arrogance of power and the royal 
capacity for self-serving manipulation. The 
royal presence consisted, as it always must, 
in the capacity to rearrange things, to 
redeploy people, to reassign roles, to 
redefine relationships, to make the data of 
human life fit the public program. The wise 
in Israel were not crusaders for the poor. 
They did not criticize the king. They simply 
offered observations on the distress, the 
promises, and productivity: 

"The Lord tears down the house of the 
proud, but maintains the widow's boun- 
daries" (Prov. 22:25). 

"Do not remove an ancient landmark or 
enter the fields of the fatherless: for their 
Redeemer is strong." (Prov. 23:10-11). 

It is strange that the wise were so in- 
terested in landmarks and boundary 
markers. They speak of them as being very 
old, perhaps older than public record or 
historical memory. But they mention es- 
pecially the boundaries marking the land of 
widows and orphans. It is likely these reflec- 
tions were prominent in Israel precisely 
when Solomon was eroding the dignity of 
widows and orphans. It is remarkable that 
against a background of splendour and 
prosperity, Israel's most disciplined reflec- 
tors should express concern for the 
nobodies the regime could safely ignore. 

But these seemingly innocent obser- 
vations are in fact bold and startling 
protests against the misuse of such people. 
The wise did not threaten a revolution or 
even an intrusion from God. They simply 

observed those things that ruthless 
managers had better take into account. For 
Yahweh himself allies his power with 
widows and orphans. He wills that the land 
of widows and orphans is to be honored. 
This is their human right, not because the 
government permits it or some technical 
manager concedes it, but because it is or- 
dained from all eternity. The landmarks 
are not simply "ancient" but rooted in the 
way the world is put together. They are es- 
sential to its structure and coherence. 

Israel's wise teachers were not noble or 
bold, but prudent. They were concerned 
with what is necessary to get along in the 
world. In these three reflections, they dis- 
cerned that getting along in the world re- 
quires facing the world the way it really is. 
The world is put together, they observed, 
in such a way that powerless people are 
taken seriously and not devalued. The tilt 
of history is in favor of the apparently un- 
important people and not the greedy and 
rapacious. The wise observed that God 
himself is allied with the weak on behalf of 
human dignity and well-being in the face of 
every counterforce. That insight is not pre- 
sented as a new or strange idea, but as an 
obvious lesson to be learned about the kind 
of regimes and societies that endure and 
the kind that collapse and disintegrate. 
That is the way the world is: the powerful 
had better take notice. 

In one of Jesus' two references to 
Solomon (Matt, 6:25-33, Luke 12:22-31) he 
contrasts the magnificence of Solomon 
with the trusting confidence of people of 
faith. Solomon is the example of an in- 
genious, covetous success that believes that 
the landmarks of human worth can be 
moved around at will. Arrayed against this 
is the alternative of Jesus who honored 
widows and orphans, who restored their 
land, their sense of belonging, and who em- 
braced another kingdom and its 
righteousness. Like those older reflectors 
he knew some things are given. Rights are 
for everyone and none dare deny it. It is 
the way God has made his world! n 

RepnnreJ. \\ ilh permission, from One World. Dec. 

uq vvacGr bru^gg^mann. 

18 MESSENGER January 1977 


ghts arc br everyone i 

January 1977 messenger 19 


The spirit behind the craft 

by Terrie Miller 


Xt's not everyday that a reporter gets to 
interview a ghost, so when I learned I was 
to have an audience with Rufus Jacoby, I 
wondered what sort of apparition I would 

My exposure to ghosts has been limited 
to the animated, tv variety. It was not a 
Saturday morning when I knocked at the 
Jacoby door in Silver Spring, Md., so I 
was less than shocked that the ghost of 
Rufus Jacoby turned out to look 
suspiciously alive and human. He wasn't a 
specter at all. 

"Why did we think you were dead," I 

The white haired artist /craftsman 
chuckled and explained that for many 
years before his recent retirement as a 
silversmith he had made liturgical silver for 
churches across the country. When he 
suddenly stopped, one of his competitors 
spread the word that he had died. In ac- 
tuality the only thing that "gave up the 
ghost" was Rufus's interest in silver- 

But for many years silversmithing had 
been his first love. An industrial arts 
teacher at the outset of his career, Rufus 
was asked to produce a set of tools 
for the director of an occupational therapy 
course at Walter Reed Hospital. On the 
strength of his fine work Rufus was unex- 
pectedly invited to a silversmithing con- 
ference, the participants being the most 
talented artists in the profession. "There 
were 12 people there," he laughs. "Eleven 
silversmiths and 1!" 

"That's where I learned how to really do 
what I was trying to do," he recalls. There 

he learned that more than being a tool- 
maker or a mechanical artist, he could be a 
creator of beauty. 

This was a realization that opened many 
new opportunities in his life, including his 
20-year stint in liturgical silver. It took 
only a few pieces made for local use before 
word spread and he was sending silver 
chalices and candle holders all over the 
country. "1 like the idea of doing 
something with significant use and creating 
objects appreciated by the people who use 
them," he remarks. 

During his two decades as an active 
silversmith, Rufus was never without a 
commission. One of the myriad com- 
missions that came his way was a one-and- 
a-half size silver reproduction of the old 
Stoney Creek Communion cup, which he 
created for the 1964 Annual Conference 
worship center. It was his first opportunity 
to become known to the wider Brethren 
family despite his childhood growing up in 
the Pennsylvania Brethren stronghold. He 
and his wife are members of the University 
Park congregation near Silver Spring. 

As suddenly as his passion for silver- 
smithing grew, however, it died. "All of a 
sudden I got weary of hammering silver. I 
could never understand why a doctor, ar- 
tist, or musician would suddenly stop," he 
muses. "I thought I would want to do that 
until my dying day. Then I got into 
dulcimers and made those madly for two 

At first it seems an unlikely transition — 
from faceted, shimmering chalices used in 
cathedrals and ritualized settings to Ap- 
palachian Mountain dulcimers, simple 

Above: For the 1964 Annual Conference: 
a silver communion cup reproduction. 
Below: A Jacoby Appalachian dulcimer. 

wooden string instruments used to accom- 
pany the down-home tunes of mountain 

But it's not so strange, really. The 
dulcimers, hanging all over his workshop 
and invading his family room, have their 
own kind of aesthetic quality. The colors 
and grains of the different woods are un- 
interrupted by the straight-sided design of 
the dulcimers, a shape peculiar to the Ap- 
palachian region. 

The evidence of his versatility as a 
craftsman and artist does not stop with the 
dulcimers and silver. Abstract paintings, 
created purely for his own pleasure deck 
the walls. One hangs near an afghan 
crocheted by Edith Jacoby, Rufus's 
talented wife, the colors and the geometry 
of the creations bridging the different 
mediums of expression. 

There are wood sculptures, including a 
fish mobile, creating its own live art as it 
casts quivering shadows on the ceiling. The 
dining room table, the El Greco chair 
replicas, the clock case, a string sculpture, 
beautiful in its mathematical precision — all 
products of his unceasing creativity. By the 
window the innards of an old radio stand 
exposed — a suggestion that art is closer to 
our daily lives than we often recognize. 

I mention to Mrs. Jacoby that it must be 
nice to have a live-in carpenter available to 
produce any piece of furniture desired. "Oh 
no," she contradicts, "I take whatever he 
decides to make!" 

In addition to his personal projects 
Rufus has taught for most of his 
professional life, both high school and uni- 
versity students. His own constant creativi- 
ty has always served as a bridge, minimiz- 
ing the distance between himself as a 
professional and his students as novices. 

"My classroom is a place where both stu- 
dent and teacher are involved," he ex- 
plains, "So I can understand the process 

"/ like the idea of 
doing something with 
significant use and 
creating objects 
appreciated by those 
who use them. " 

my students go through in creative work. 
We have our common frustrations, ex- 
hilarations, and failures." 

Now in a self-imposed retirement, Rufus 
explains that he will miss the "vicarious 
thrill" he gets out of youngsters who are 
naturally creative. He has always tried to 
instill in them a two-pronged approach to 
art, upholding it as a form of risk and 

"Art is an activity sponsored by chance." 
he says. "It goes from the known to the un- 
known. An artist has to get up the courage 
to put the first color or shape on a paint- 
ing — that will determine what happens 
next. I tell my students to encourage happy 
accidents in art — chance." 

Alongside this serendipitous approach 
there is a permeating discipline. "My 
students see me as a perfectionist," he ad- 
mits. "I constantly try to do better, con- 
stantly analyze and evaluate what I have 
done so I can strive to improve, change 
and perfect." 

"I like to spend my time getting smart- 
er," he continues, "and there is a good 
theological base for that. The individual is 
in this world to become better and more 
knowledgeable. The person's mission is to 
glorify God by gaining knowledge. Maybe 
that is a divine purpose." 

Having temporarily switched from artist 
to theologian, Rufus is amused at his 
speech-making. "Really I'm not a 
philosopher." he grins, "just a pragmatic 

Pragmatic, yes. A craftsman, definitely. 
But no\. just those things. Rufus has ex- 
celled in his profession to the point of 
receiving recognition and awards for ex- 
cellence, such as the John Hay Fellowship 
at Yale, and several "Who's Who" write- 
ups. He has spent time studying with Euro- 
pean craftsmen, has lectured, and held solo 
exhibits. He has traded with well-known 
artists, has students who are becoming well 
known, and has made no small dent in the 
arts himself. 

As a man who can teach and define art 
as well as create it. he is not only a 
pragmatist but a dreamer and a fantasizer. 
The combination of his critical mind and 
his imaginative spirit have enabled Rufus 
to make the artistic a natural and integral 
part of the daily routine, the beautiful ob- 
jects he crafts, expressions of an artfully 
designed life. LJ 

22 ME.sstNGER January 1977 


parable is something you use when the 
situation is very dangerous. You hide 
your truth in it; it's sort of a Hterary Trojan 
Horse. Now, you know what a Trojan Horse 
is? You've read in Greek history of how 
Helen was captured, and she was taken cap- 
tive into the city of Troy, and all of her kins- 
men went out to rescue her. They camped 
around Troy where she was held and they 
besieged it and they battered it and they 
couldn't take it. And finally some fellow had 
a bright idea. 

They built this great big ol' wooden 
horse and put a few men inside of it, and 
then all the other people went away. And 
the folks up on the wall looked out and 
they didn't see anybody out there — nothin' 
but this great big wooden horse — and they 
said, "Well, those guys have just given up 
and they've gone. But look at the thing 
they've left." 

So they opened up the gates and they all 
went out there and, "Well, that's a fine ol' 
horse. Maybe we could take him into town 
and build a big merry-go-round to go with 
him, and we'll just have a wonderful 
thing." They were looking and looking, but 
they didn't see anything; they were listening 
and listening, but they didn't hear any- 
thing. And so they got them a jeep and 
pulled that ol' horse into the city, not 
knowing what they were doing. 

You see, the real thing was hidden in- 
side. They weren't aware of what was 
happening. So they pulled it on past the 
gates to right where those Greeks had 
wanted to go all along. And they put the 
horse on exhibit, all day, and let the school 
out so the children could see him. But late 
that night, about two o'clock, when every- 
body was asleep, the little trap door on 
that horse opened up, and the men came 
out. They rushed to the gates of the city, 
opened them up, and by that time, all the 
soldiers had come 'round. The soldiers 
came in and took the city. 

Now Jesus used that kind of a Trojan 
Horse technique under certain cir- 
cumstances. He used it when the situation 
was dangerous, and when his hearers were 
difficult. When they would just stop up 
their ears and shut their eyes, and they 
wouldn't hear and they wouldn't see, Jesus 
would bring out a Trojan Horse to ram it 
through their ears and get it beyond their 
blind eyes. 

This wasn't a new technique for Jesus at 

all. Others had used it. You remember that 
Nathan the prophet used it on King David. 
King David was up in his palace one day, 
way up on top of his roof, and he looked 
out and he saw next door a beautiful 
young lady taking a sun bath. And he 
asked somebody to please find out her 
name and telephone number, and they 
came back and told him that she was Mrs. 
Uriah the Hittite. 

"Oh, Mrs. Uriah the Hittite, huh? 
Mmmm . . . too bad. Oh," says David, 
"would you please call the local draft 
board and have Mr. Uriah classified l-A, 
and have him put on the front lines?" 

Pretty soon there was the inevitable 
government telegram informing Mrs. Uriah 

buildin' an educational plant and need a 
little money?" 

"No sir, no sir, not that." 

"Well then, do you need a new 
mimeograph machine?" 

"No sir, I don't need that. My problem is 
that I've got two church members that are 
giving me a little trouble." 

Now King David was not suspicious of 
anything. He didn't know what was going 

Nathan continued, "I've got two church 
members giving me a little trouble. One of 
them is a very rich man with a lot of sheep. 
And another member of my church is a 
very poor man, with just one sheep. Well, 
King David, the rich member had 


Trojan horse 

technique of teaching 

that she was a widow. Then a little later 
there was a wedding, and King David mar- 
ried the widow. 

Now this infuriated Nathan the preacher. 
He wanted to say something to David 
about that. Now if he'd been like John the 
Baptist and followed the Baptist tradition, 
things would have gone badly for him. You 
remember when Herod took his brother's 
wife, John the Baptist went running in 
there and said, "What do you mean, tak- 
ing your brother's wife?" And ol' Herod 
said, "Put that little Baptist preacher in the 
clink." So he got locked up, you see; he 
wasn't wise. But Nathan knew he might get 
put in the jug if he went in with that kind 
of thing. 

So he went to King David one day and 
he said, "King David, I got a little 

"What's your problem. Reverend? You 

by Clarence Jordan 

somebody come visit him, and instead of 
going out to his flock and getting one of 
his sheep and killing it to have a little 
barbecued lamb, he goes and gets the only 
sheep my poor member's got and kills it for 

Now King David got so mad, he said, 
"Who is that kind of fellow? Show him to 
me; I'll sure fix him up." 

"Well, you see, David had pulled it in; 
he'd pulled it past his gate, on into the in- 
side, and Nathan unlocked the door, 
pointed at David, and said, "You ask me 
who the man is? Thou art the man!" 

King David had passed judgment on 
himself. There wasn't anything he could do 
but go out and write another psalm. □ 

— Reprinted hy permission from Cotlon Patch 
Parables of Liberation hy Clarence Jordan and Bill 
Lane Duulos. copyright. 1976 by Koinonia Partners. 
Im-.: published hy Herald Press. Scoltdale. Pa. I568J 
and kitchener. Ont. N2G 4M4. 

January 1977 messenger 23 

Pushed out 



by Katie Funk Wiebe 

Sin^e women agree: It's 

getting harder all the 

time to get on board 

Noah's Ark if you 

are not one of 


A asked a few friends to tell me what 
words popped into mind when they 
thought of the word widow: 

"Lonely," "empty," "useless ..." 

1 squirm, for 1 am a widow. When I 
asked about single women, they came 
through little better. 

A friend mentioned that his wife had 
suggested they visit some of the older 
widows of the church. "Oh, no!" was his 
immediate response. "Let's not use up a 
free evening like that." 

The job description of most pastors in- 
cludes "visiting the widows." I can 
remember from the shoptalk of my pastor- 
husband and his friends, years ago, how 
they shrank from widow-visiting. It was 
unfruitful time on their schedule. 

I sense a strange problem here. Single 
women, particulary older widows, are not 
considered a highly productive group in the 
church. They are people you do things /or. 
not with. They have no particular assign- 
ment in the church, though many are ob- 

viously healthy, wealthy, and wise. Their 
most serious problem, according to others, 
is that they aren't married, and this 
somehow incapacitates them to some 
degree into becoming part of the "with" 
group. Some are forced into a role for life 
from which there is no escape. They are 
widows or singles first, persons second. 


Item: The invitation to the supper 
meeting reads. "Bring your spouse," or if it 
is from a women's group, "Bring your hus- 
band." What does the husbandless woman 
do? She stays at home. 

Item: Banquet tickets are $4.50 each or 
$8.00 for two — but the two have to be man 
and wife. 

Item: The minister mentions a sudden 
financial need has come up. "Will all men 
please remain after church for a short ses- 
sion." Single women earning as much, if 
not more than some men, go home. 


.equests for volunteers for service pro- 
jects, not specifically in the domestic area, 
are often for couples. Many church com- 
mittees and the diaconate elect only 
husband-and-wife teams. 

After years of such divisive treatment, 
single women agree it is getting harder all 
the time to get on board Noah's Ark if 
you're not one of a pair. In the church, 
where the single person should feel the 
most support and loving, she often comes 
out the loser. In our society marriage is 
considered the norm, an obligation, and 
the ticket for entrance into God's com- 

"What shall we do with the single 
women?" asked one Sunday school teacher. 
"Let's keep them busy," was the quick, un- 
thinking response of a member. One of the 
single women told me later, "I could have 
cried right then. If we are busy, it takes us 
off their hands." 

Cynthia Wedel in Working Women and 
the Church writes, "All too often in its 
history the church has been so absorbed in 
its own institutional life and activity that it 
has failed to take account of changes in 
society until it has lost touch with great 
groups of people." 

One such change in society is the grow- 
ing number of single persons; unmarried, 
widowed, and divorced. About 18 million 
women over 25 in the United States and 
Canada are unmarried. About 25 percent 
of these have never married and the others 

are separated, widowed, or divorced. It is 
normal for about 10 percent to remain 

As the life span increases, American 
women are becoming widows later in life 
and also spending more years as widows. 
In 1890 the average woman was widowed 
in her early 50s, but she also died early. By 
I960 the average woman was widowed at 
almost 64. In 1960 she faced an average of 
15 years as a widow, but by 1970 it had in- 
creased to an average of more than 18 
years. One out of every six women in this 
country over the age of 21 is a widow. 
Three out of four wives face widowhood at 
some time in their lives. 

As an experiment, I checked our church 
roll. Out of approximately 90 resident 
households, I found about 22 headed by a 
widow or single woman. 

What does this trend mean for the 
church? Can the church afford to continue 
thinking of them as a problem? How can it 
be helped to see this growing body of 
women as one of the richest untapped 
resources for the work of the kingdom? 

The development of this potential has 
been hindered by a number of myths about 
single women which combine to make 
them feel like yesterday's tossed salad left 
uncovered in the noonday sun. 

Myth No. 1: Single women are a breed 
apart with unique characteristics and can 
therefore be treated as a group. They can 
be herded into one Sunday school class, be 
invited out for supper as a group, or be 
offered the opportunity of fellowship as a 


. et if the truth were told, one might find 
that single women have as much or as little 
in common as any group of married peo- 
ple. Their jobs, earning power, living 
arrangement, personalities, and life goals 
vary with the individual. 

True, their single state may force them 
into seeking each other's company. The 
widow ghettos of the churches are an un- 
challenged fact. Lynn Cain in Widow 
writes that after her husband died she dis- 
covered this large community of "women 
who are alone." Widow after widow drops 
into it and stays there because she has no 
other social contacts. 

Myih No. 2: All single women are 
husband-hunting or are treading water at 
their jobs and in their friendships, "until 1 
get married." 

Not so, say the single women. Husband- 
hunting is not a priority for all. Some 
women have fully accepted and enjoy their 
single status. Others have chosen it for the 
freedom it grants them for better oppor- 
tunities for Christian service and 
vocational advancement. 

Myth No. 3: All widows are poor, and 
all single women are rich. A columnist in a 
church periodical, analyzing the steward- 
ship of the churches, broke down each 
membership roll into three categories: 
those below age 65, those over age 65. and 
the widows. Obviously these latter were too 
poor to give. 

In the Old Testament, widows were poor 
because of the inheritance laws which 
passed their husband's estate on to others. 
In the New Testament they fared little 
better. On through the ages, particularly in 
the I8th and 19th centuries when husbands 
died early deaths, penury and widowhood 
kept close company. Even today many 
widows are desperately poor, even in the 
church. The poorest of the poor is the 
black, single, old woman. She has four 
strikes against her. But many widows are 
adequately provided for by pension plans, 
social security, insurance, inheritances, and 


'n the other hand, single women are 
considered as having money to spare. 
"What do you do with all your moneyT' 
They tell me it costs as much to keep an 
apartment and car for one as it does for 
two. Income taxes are higher and frequent- 
ly wages lower for the single woman. Some 
may be rich, but not all. 

Myth No. 4: To be single means to be 
neurotic, bigoted, and selfish, with few in- 
terests. Any quirk in a single woman's per- 
sonality is attributed to her single state, but 
a married man or woman with the same 
peculiarity is allowed his or her behavior 
without comment. 

Myth No. 5: Life owes every nice girl a 
handsome, adoring husband with two or 
more beautiful, brilliant children. "How 
come a nice girl like you never found a 
husband?" reflects 77?^ Sound of Music 
philosophy that if you did something good 
when you were a child and have a fair 
amount of good looks and intelligence, life 
will come up roses with a husband 
perched on top. 

Myth No. 6: A different theology applies 
to single women. If a woman marries, she 

January 1977 messenger 25 

"I just hate the word 'widow,'" said one woman to me. "Why 
do I have to be called that for the rest of my life?" 

has clearly found the will of God for her 
life. The single woman, however, is urged 
to search diligently for the Lord's calling 
for her life. 

As I talked to single women of all kinds, 
I sensed deep-seated yearnings some found 
difficult to articulate. 

"We would like to be made a part of 
married people's lives. I love to get 
together with families," said another. "I 
would like to help a mother with her 
children some evening. I would like people 
to say to me, 'We are going on a picnic, 
join us.'" 

"They love us in Sunday school. Pioneer 
Girls, and choir — but at other times, they 
forget us," said another. 


.et single women need the input of 
masculine thinking for balanced living. For 
this they need the help of marrieds, yet 
some couples hesitate to visit or invite a 
widow because "the man will have no one 
to talk to." Some men drop their wives off 
to go to the ball game or read the 
newspaper while the women talk. Widows 
tell me of being invited only when 
husbands are gone or another family is pre- 

I heard single women express the desire 
not to be forced to justify their single 
status. "Aren't you married yet?" deserves 
no answer, yet today's anti-women 
liberationist teaching pressures them to 
believe that the total woman is a married 

But even stronger than these yearnings is 
the longing to be a close member of the 
family of God. "People don't sense our 
need of fellowship," said one woman wist- 

Boyd Reese, a 30-year-old single man, 
speaks for other singles in The Post Chris- 
tian: "I myself have found that a great 
many of the needs I have for belongingness 
and affection can be met through involve- 
ment with a group of Christians that is 
struggling to be the body of Christ, incar- 
nated, the community of the Holy Spirit. 
Unfortunately, there is little community 
struggle present in God's people." 

Widows, especially those whose 
husbands were active pastors, missionaries, 
and deacons find that after the funeral 
flowers have wilted, their close association 
with the working level of the church has 
also ended. 

What makes this type of experience 

doubly difficult is that a woman cannot 
speak out in church without being con- 
sidered aggressive, competitive, a feminist, 
or even shrewish. Yet without a husband to 
ask at home, "No news reaches me," said 
one widow sadly. She mourned her former 
close involvement in church and conference 

The new emphasis on family-centered 
programs can create problems for the 
church member who is not in a family. 
Garry Collins, Christian psychologist and 
seminary professor, writing in Eternity 
magazine, states that the single adult, the 
widow, the child whose parents avoid 
church, and (perhaps more than any 
of the others) the divorced or separated 
church member, often feels that there is no 
place for him or her in a family-centered 

Yet how can the church find ways to 
break down barriers and meet needs of all 
members regardless of family status? How 
can the church learn to function as the sub- 
stitute family, providing love and fellow- 
ship for those who have no family? How 
can all singles be brought from the spec- 
tators' benches to the playing floor? 


.s I talk to single women, particularly 
widows, I sense a need for more church 
organizations to help them draw on their 
own resources to become contributing 
members of church and society. Some 
struggle too long to get back into the func- 
tioning world. Some never make it. Protes- 
tant churches need the counterpart of 
Naim, a Roman Catholic organization 
which aims to help widowed persons meet 
their problems and build new lives as per- 
sons. Widowhood is not expected to be a 
permanent role. 

A number of secular organizations have 
been formed to help singles cope with daily 
problems. Among these groups are Parents 
Without Partners and the Widow-to-Wid- 
ow Program of the Widows Consultation 
Center in New York City, which helps the 
widow through the grief process and gives 
direction for the transition to a new role. 

But a greater awareness of the special 
needs of single women would help also. 
"Where is there a couple who won't mind 
my sitting with them?" is a universal ques- 
tion with singles. Ask her to sit with you at 
services or suppers. Better still, invite her 
to go with you. 

Invite the single woman to your home 

and to outings when the husband is home. 
Many single persons struggle each year with 
vacation plans. Invite her to accompany 
you on your next trip. Holidays such as 
Christmas and Thanksgiving are particu- 
larly trying. Have you got room for one 
more at the table? Help singles become part 
of gangs of people who do things together. 

Question the validity of tagging Sunday 
school classes with "young marrieds" or 
"couples' class" or of holding "sweetheart 
banquets" or "husbands' night" if you ex- 
pect singles to attend. Avoid lumping them 
into professional or career class unless 
married professionals also attend. 

"I just hate the word widow," said one 
woman to me. "Why do I have to be 
called that for the rest of my life?" Yes, 
why? Some people cling to terms like "old 
maid" and "old girl" and "widow woman" 
like they do to "colored" and "nigger." 
These words all belong to the same class of 
obscenities and keep such people trapped 
in a limiting role Christ never intended for 

Many singles are looking for more serv- 
ice opportunities, particularly Bible study 
and fellowship groups. They are tired of 
being shunted into the choir or women's 
clubs. Most women's activities are geared 
to the interests and skills of women whose 
training and vocation is homemaking. 
Single women, of necessity, spend most of 
their time in other areas. Some think they 
should no more be expected to quilt than 
an active businessman is expected to paint 
toys each week. 

Above all, single women need en- 
couragement to develop Christ-honoring 
life-styles, for the urge to live selfishly 
comes easily enough. Is the church listen- 
ing to their plea for help? 

Economist Sylvia Porter writes, "The 
trend toward more woman-headed 
households will continue to reach new 
peaks, for our whole population is living 
longer and women still are outliving men. 
It's more than time for us to wake up to 
this phenomenon in our society, to give it 
the searching analysis it demands, to find 
out what it means to all of us." Obviously, 
any general trend in society is always 
reflected in church life as well. In the 
meantime, there is a large group of these 
women just waiting to be allowed on 
board. D 

Reprinied. with permission, from The Mennonite, 
Ocioher 7. 1975. The article is also part of a 1976 hook. 
Alone: A Widow's Search for God. Tvndale House, 

26 MESSENGER January 1977 



If you're single (never been married, or are 
widowed, separated, divorced, or a single 
parent) or are concerned about people who 
are, then we have some ideas and books 
for you. 

Single persons constitute a large part of 
our church families, yet singles are often 
invisible among us. The illustrations from 
the pulpit, the announcements in the 
bulletin, the publicity for family life 
events — often assume the normal way to 
be is married and live in families of mom, 
dad and several children. 

We often assume something is wrong 
with a person who chooses to be single. 
There is a tendency to feel a person finds 
wholeness only when attached to a spouse. 
But singleness can be satisfying and 

The following resources speak to persons 
who choose to be single, persons who find 
themselves single though they may not 
choose to be, and friends of singles. Unless 
otherwise noted, all books can be ordered 
from The Brethren Press, 1451 Dundee 
Ave., Elgin, IL 60120. 

Single Is okay 

It's O.K. to Be Single, A Guidebook for 
Singles and the Church. Edited by Gary R. 
Collins. Word Books. 165 pages. Paper- 
back. $3.95. 

The book is a collection of 1 1 papers 
that affirm the option of being single, and 
give practical help to a variety of types of 
single persons. Among the chapter titles 
are: Living Creatively: The Single Woman 
in the Church; Learning to Live Alone; 
The Divorced Person in the Church; 
Handling Grief: The Widow in the Church; 
the Single Parent Family in the Church; 
and A Christian Life-Style for Singles. 

A helpful study guide at the end includes 
biblical references and discussion questions 
for each chapter. It is easy to read. Highly 
recommended for singles, district, and local 

nurture commissions, and as a church 
school study text. 

The Challenge of Being Single, for 
Divorced, Widowed, Separated, and 
Never-Married Men and Women. By 
Marie Edwards and Eleanor Hoover. 
Hawthorne Books. 240 pages. Hardback. 

Although written from a secular frame- 
work, this book helpfully and forcefully 
dispels the many myths about singleness. It 
also points out the discrimination that ex- 
ists in our culture against singles. The book 
addresses various practical problems faced 
by singles. 

Some of the more helpful chapters are: 
How Come You're Not Married?, Myths 
and Discriminations, The Singles 
Community — One-Third of the Nation, 
and Alone — But Not Lonely. 

The book especially speaks to the false 
assumption that every normal human 
being must want desperately to marry. The 
book may be less helpful for persons who 
are single by circumstance rather than by 
choice, however, there is practical advice to 
benefit all singles. The chapter on singles 
and sexuality will be found wanting for 
most Brethren, and the book suffers from 
the absence of a Christian faith community 
frame of reference. It also tends to speak 
more to women than to men. It is especial- 
ly recommended for singles who need to 
hear a positive word on their behalf. 

A biblical approach 

All We're Meant to Be, by Letha Scanzoni 
and Nancy Hardesty. Word Books. Paper- 
back. 233 pages. $4.95. 

This book is a biblical approach to 
women's liberation, written by two 
evangelical women. It is for all women and 
men who seek to understand male/female 
partnership (in and out of marriage) from a 
biblical perspective. There is a chapter. The 
Single Woman, that speaks about the 
myths and realities of being a single wom- 
an. The chapter includes sections on sexual 
needs, touch needs, affirmation needs, 
and sharing needs. An excellent 
chapter in an outstanding book. 

Life as a Single Adult, by Linda 
Larson. Covington Press. Paper- 
back. 42 pages. $1.45. 

This resource speaks specifically to 
singles within the Christian community. 
Linda Larson is a single-adult-work 
specialist with the Southern Baptists and 
shares her experiences as well as anecdotes 
from other singles. Though she focuses on 
the young and never-married, she has prac- 
tical suggestions for all singles. There is an 

especially good section on singles and sex- 

Linda confesses, "One of my goals is to 
be married someday. But, whether for now 
or forever, I am committed to the belief 
that a person can be happy and single, 
growing and single, be loving and loved 
and single. . . . That's what this book is ail 

This resource is useful for a young adult 
singles church school class, as there are ex- 
ercises and discussion questions for each of 
the four chapters. The book can be 
purchased or ordered from any Baptist 
bookstore or from Baptist Bookstore, 1010 
Broadway, Nashville, TN 37203. 

For the widowed 

When You're a Widow by Clarissa Start, 
Concordia Publishing House. 138 pages. 
Hardback. $3.95. 

This is an autobiographical book by an 
outstanding journalist. She speaks of the 
events, feelings, and new sensitivity to 
other widowed persons, as she deals with 
the death of her own husband. She passes 
along helpful information to the reader 
about what really comforts and what im- 
pedes the grief process, based on her ex- 
perience and experiences of others who 
have walked similar paths. 

This book is for the bereaved and for the 
friends of bereaved. It is very readable — 
hard to put down once you've begun. 

There is a movement toward a positive 
understanding of singleness that affirms all 
the members of the Body of Christ. 
Herbert Passin writes: "It is finally becom- 
ing possible to be both single and whole. 
For the first time in human history the 
single condition is being recognized as an 
acceptable adult life-style for anyone." 
— Ralph L. and Mary Cline Detrick 


January 1977 messenger 27 

hmr® W 

On family size, simple living, gun control. 

Peggy Miller 

Families come in 
ones and twos 

I applaud the article "Marriage not for all, 
singleness is okay" in Messenger's 
September Outlook. It deals with two 
issues — singleness and, very briefly at the 
end. childlessness. The latter is the issue on 
which i would like to share out of ex- 

For too long we have let society be the 
guiding force in our lives and have not 
really approached life by seeking its pur- 
pose for us. We have instead assumed a 
purpose which society or family gives to us. 
Society tells us that the "normal" thing to 
do is to get married and to have children. 
Persons who don't follow this pattern are 
looked on as "abnormal." But it is my con- 
viction that we need to approach all 
decisions we make from the perspective of 
purpose— that is, asking the question, 
"What is God's will for me in this regard?" 

My husband and I have been married for 
seven years and we are at this point a fami- 
ly of two. We continually re-evaluate our 
situation and seek God's will for us in 
regards to having children. To this point, 
we have felt that God has wanted to use 
our talents in other ways. 

We have been involved heavily in the last 
five years in youth and camping ministries 
of the Church of the Brethren in the Dis- 
trict of Florida and Puerto Rico, a small 
district in need of energetic and dedicated 
leadership. Had we followed the expec- 
tations of our families and friends and had 
children within the first few years of our 
marriage, we would not have been free to 
give of ourselves in the way that we have. 
When others kept dropping subtle hints 
which loudly said "When are you going to 
have a family?" we kept hearing a small 
voice in us say, "I want to use your talents 
in other ways." 

To hold in respect and fellowship those in 
the church with whom we agree or disagree 
is a characteristic of the Church of the 
Brethren. It is to the continuation of this 
value, and to an open and probing forum, 
that "Here I Stand" responses are invited. 

The article makes the statement, "To 
begin a turn-around, parents ought to 
teach that marriage is not for everyone 
..." I'd like to expand that point to say 
that having children is not for every cou- 
ple. We need to be taught to enter marriage 
with a purpose — to really analyze our 
motives for marrying: to marfy because we 
want to share deeply in the life of that 
other person and not because we feel un- 
controllably tingly all over when we are 
around that person. 

The same goes for childbearing. We need 
to be taught within a marriage relationship 
to seek out our purpose together — to help 
each other develop our talents and poten- 
tials, and to continually evaluate how God 
wants us to use those talents and poten- 

In our own situation, we try to con- 
tinually stay open to God's direction for 
our lives. Should God give us the desire to 
have children — so be it! We will love our 
children and do the best job we can as 
parents. Should God never give us the 
desire to have children — so be it! We will 
continue to seek out his will and purpose 
for us and use our talents and time to serve 
him in ways that we could not if we ex- 
panded our family. 

Today we especially need to examine our 
purpose in light of the times in which we 
live, a time when we must begin to think of 
ourselves as global citizens. In a day when 
the world's population is rapidly reaching 
the limit that the earth can sustain, poten- 
tial parents need to examine all the closer 
their motives for putting more children in 
this world. We feel personally that our call- 
ing is to do what we can to make the world 
a better place for the children that are 
already here. And we would ask the church 
to respect and accept this position. 

For other persons it is right to have 
children. And we respect their position and 
celebrate with them the joy of new life. But 
we would hope that the decision to bring 
any new life into this world is one that is 
prayed over and guided by God and not 
just drifted into because of the expectations 
of others. 

It is time that the church (meaning peo- 
ple committed to Christ) begins to open its 
mind to this kind of thinking and to allow 
persons to have the option of being one- 
person and two-person families. It is time 
that we quit asking the question of young 

couples. "When are you going to start your 
family?" And it is time that we quit asking 
the question of singles. "When are you go- 
ing to get married?" 

When people ask us how long we've been 
married and we tell them seven years, they 
are usually surprised and the subtle feeling 
comes through in their reaction "seven 
years and no children? What's wrong with 
you?!" Or when other women, usually 
older, ask me when we are going to have 
children and I tell them that we don't plan 
to have any children at this point, the sub- 
tle feeling comes through. "Oh. you poor 
dear! I'm sorry you are physically im- 
paired." My reply to that kind of reaction 
is usually that we feel God has other plans 
for our talents, and that we have a very 
large family already — the church. We will 
continue to live and love and share within 
that family. 

"When are we going to have a family?" 
you ask. We are a family, my friend. We 
are a family. D 

Robert Fritter 

Return together, 
back to the land 

The November Messenger was prophetic. 
It was also a call to Brethren to establish a 
new life-style. The next 25 years will 
produce a world in which the gap between 
rich and poor will become more of an 
obscenity than it is now. If we continue our 
present life-styles, we will find ourselves in 
the position of the rich man in the parable, 
but unlike him, we will not have the option 
to respond to the Lazaruses of the world 
because our wealth will be tied up in real 
estate, cars, stocks, and bonds. 

While the November writers call for our 
nation voluntarily to lower its standard of 
living in order to rescue a dying world, it 
does not seem likely we will respond. After 
all. isn't our vast defense budget necessary 
to protect "our way of life"? 

Individually, we cannot have the best of 
both worlds, but cooperatively, we might 
come close. Let me suggest a model for 
community which should reduce auto and 
food costs, guarantee your children's 
education, provide the best social security 
available, and make you a part of a loving. 

28 MESSENGER January 1977 


sharing community. In addition, it will 
release quantities of gifts for a needy world 
not possible by the separate families in- 

The commitment of time and money are 
minimal in this model, but could easily be 
increased (by vote of its members) to the 
100 percent level of Reba Place Fellowship. 
It might be called the Brethren Rural 
Cooperative or Christian Rural 
Cooperative. (I even toyed with 
Brotherhood Rural Experiment To Help 
Reduce Enduring Need — BRETHREN). 

Xnterested Brethren should purchase a 
sizable farm for the purpose of sharing a 
substantial portion of its crops, livestock, 
and profits with those in need throughout 
the world. Such contributions could be 
made through agencies like Heifer Project, 
CROP, or Church World Service. 

If housing exists on the farm, it must be 
decided how it will be used. If not. then the 
most efficient housing to build and main- 
tain is probably the condominium (less 
material and land space, a single heating 
and water source, one septic, etc.). 

One-, two-, and three-bedroom apart- 
ments could be built and sold to prospec- 
tive members. (The York Center 
Cooperative by-laws would be worth 

The building should be placed on a non- 
tillable portion of the land, if possible, and 
construction should employ such 
ecologically-sound ideas as thick insula- 
tion, solar heating, and a wood-burning 
furnace (for using a locally renewable 
energy source) with a possible back-up 
system of natural or LP gas. 

A large enough room should be included 
to serve as a meeting place and recreational 
and dining facility. 

After financing the housing by selling the 
units to co-op members, you still have the 
land to finance. I understand that the 
Federal Land Bank will make 60 to 80 per- 
cent loans for up to 40 years at the going 
interest rates. In order to get the necessary 
down payment, you could sell a share to 
each adult. The cost would be the number 
of adults divided into the down payment 
plus closing costs. This would be repaid to 
the party if it should ever leave. 

The ongoing financing would come from 
a 10 percent of gross income contribution 

or $20 per week per adult, whichever is 
more. This assures that everyone is con- 
tributing, and that the community has an 
income of at least $1,000 per year from 
each adult. This would be used to pay the 
mortgage, farm equipment, buildings, feed, 
and maintenance. 

For those lacking a job, the farm may 
decide to employ them in producing some 
marketable product for which wages can be 

Each member, including children old 
enough, would contribute a minimum of 
four hours labor per week. Assignment of 
tasks could be on a voluntary basis, 
selected by the group process or by a 
democratically appointed leader. 

The kind of farming you choose could 
differ from the farmer who must tend 
several hundred acres alone. Since there is 
a good labor supply, you might investigate 
some of the labor-intensive types of farm- 
ing such as berry, orchard, poultry, or 
truck. Good research and assistance from 
local agriculture departments should pay 
off. The prosperity of the farm will deter- 
mine its contribution, therefore the need 
for good stewardship in the research and 
planning phase. 

There should be a common garden, root 
cellar, and freezer within the co-op with 
distribution according to need. Time spent 
in this garden should be in addition to the 
four hours per member contribution. 

All farming and gardening should be by 
organic means. 

A random sampling of 20 Brethren 
families would probably find about 30 
automobiles. If the co-op had 20 families, 
how many cars would be sufficient? With 
car pools, could that number be reduced by 
half? This in itself would represent tens of 
thousands of dollars in savings. 

There are now available methane collec- 
tors which "brew" animal manure to yield 
methane gas. This is collected, bottled, and 
used to run autos which are equipped with 
a simple converter device, enabling it to 
run on gasoline or methane. Such equip- 
ment might pay for itself quickly on some 
co-op farms. 

An education fund should be established 
for all co-op children to relieve parents of 
this preoccupation, and freeing them to 
participate more fully in the work of the 
co-op. The entire community could con- 
duct money-making projects and programs 

to build this fund. 

Further questions and possibilities: 

What relationship might this community 
establish with local and city churches, nurs- 
ing homes and colleges? 

What about the co-op as an education 
and action center for world peace, en- 
vironmental and human concerns? 

Discussions on this proposal could begin 
in Sunday school groups, with the General 
Offices in Elgin serving as a clearinghouse 
for information and communication 
between interested groups. H 

Ken Brown 

God, guns, & guts: 
incongruous triad 

We travelled all night on return from An- 
nual Conference. In the early dawn along 
Interstate 70 somewhere between Terre 
Haute and Indianapolis, there suddenly 
loomed out from a shadowy hill a huge 
billboard. Its message was concise: "GOD, 

The incongruity of that triad, after the 
spirit of the Wichita conference, further 
wearied my travel-tired mind. To wed God 
and guns is as contradictory to us Brethren 
as to proclaim Christ and Hitler the twin 
foundations of morality. Whoever can 
reconcile physical injury and the teachings 
of the New Testament, wrote Robert 
Barclay in 1676, could also find "a way to 
reconcile God with the Devil, Christ with 
Anti-Christ, light with darkness, and good 
with evil." Barclay was a Quaker. We 
Brethren share his New Testament posi- 
tion. We cannot but be shocked by slogans 
defending guns as God's way. 

I drove the next few miles with a new 
alertness. I wondered how many 
Americans crossing the Hoosier state 
would be offended by that monstrous God- 
gun advertisement. No one knows how 
many Americans own guns. There 
probably are over 80 million handguns 
alone in the United States. The National 
Rifle Association spends 7 million dollars 
annually justifying our private arsenals and 
lobbying Congress against any form of 
effective control. Consequently, many good 
church people faithfully register their dogs 

January 1977 messenger 29 

h(B\r(B W m^mmd 

and CB radios but resist even mild 
proposals for gun registration. 

What reading of the New Testament 
message can justify a wedding of God and 
guns'? Jesus' teachings are clear about the 
kind of power that Christians are to 
employ against evil. And statistics, 
although they seldom convince, show the 
practical consequences of forgetting the 
gospel. Those who try to live by the gun 
die bv the gun. There are 3,000 accidental 
gun deaths in the United States each year. 
For every thief stopped by a gun, 5/.v fami- 
ly members die in gun accidents. Sixty-nine 
people are shot to death every day in our 
country. What many arguments against 
gun control (for instance: "When guns are 
outlawed only criminals will have guns") 
fail to consider is that over 70 percent 
(nearly three-fourths) of all murders by 
guns are between people who know each 
other — between lovers and spouses and 
relatives — rather than by strangers. 

Because guns are so readily available in 
the US. our gun deaths are many times 

/ ^ 

Vcfnard Elkr 

Of the ten books Vernard Eiier has 
written, Cleaning Up the Christian 
Vocabulary may prove to be his 
most popular and certainly the 
most useful. 


The author of The Mad Morality 
and The Sex Manual for Puritans 
applies both wit and scholarship to 
the bewildering subject of Chris- 
tian vocabulary. 

Vernard Eller proves that the 
terms most frequently bandied 
about In controversy need not 
cloud the truth. Instead, they can 
illuminate It. $2.95 paperback 

at your bookstore or from 


ELGIN, ILL. 60120 

V . 

those in other technological societies. In 
one city, Houston, there are four times as 
manv handgun murders as in all England 
and Wales, totaling 50 million people. Our 
murder rate is 200 times higher than that of 
crowded, industrialized Japan, where 
private ownership of guns is prohibited. 

These and other statistics are from the 
National Council to Control Handguns, an 
organization attempting to counter the in- 
fluence of the National Rifle Association 
(NRA). Brethren who wish to act on this 
issue should write: 810 18th St.. N.W.. 
Washington. DC 20006. 

1 have been to Europe five times in the 
past seven years, traveled to India, around 
the globe, and gone twice to Mexico, i 
mention these travels because one of my 
strongest impressions was the ever-present 
awareness that I was safer in the late night 
streets of Amsterdam or London, or walk- 
ing alone among sleeping poor on the 
pavements in Bombay or Madras, than in 
Chicago or Detroit. Mexico, unfortunately, 
shares our gun culture and its devastating 
consequences. I do not think for a moment 
that human nature in the United States is 
different from human nature in England or 

The accessibility of handguns, especially, 
has made us a more violent and dangerous 
people than we otherwise would be. 
Leonard Berkowitz. in Psychology Today 
("Impulse. Aggression, and the Gun") 
shows that the mere presence of a gun can 
stimulate violence. In insisting on the 
"right" to arm ourselves, we permit those 
same deadly weapons to the addict, the 
alcoholic, the depressed, and the momen- 
tarily enraged. In arming ourselves we arm 
our irrational as well as our rational selves. 
It cannot be any other way because we can- 
not predict who will be dangerous. Our 
guns increase killings; killings increase fear; 
fear accelerates our desire for greater 
means of "self-defense." The cycle spirals 
upward toward more violence and more 
tragedy. Primal fears arise, Phil Berrigan 
writes in Year One (August 1976) of a 
Cleveland recluse, terrified of robbers, who 
died of starvation beside an empty 
refrigerator in his own kitchen, surrounded 
by an arsenal of guns. The image too ac- 
curately reflects the present priorities of 
our nation. 

It is not "guts" that have brought us to 
dangerous neighborhoods and the bedside 
38 revolver. Fear is the motivating passion 
that insists on a handgun in the house for 

"protection." Millions of us are afraid to 
live unarmed. The kingdom or, for that 
matter, even a decent neighborhood, can- 
not be built out of fear. The willingness to 
kill another person out of fear or anger in- 
dicates a failure of spirit rather than 

Guns did not make this country great. 
The Revolutionary War, Gene Sharp 
argues ("Disregarded History." Fellowship, 
March 1976), probably delayed our move 
to independence. Guns did not sound out 
anything noble in our murderous conquest 
of this continent or in our "solution" to the 
South's secession. Neither did vigilantes 
nor guns tame the West. Guns have not 
made the world safe for democracy or 
stamped out fascism in this century. And 
domestic gun deaths since 1900 have cost 
us more lives than have our wars! 

It is not God who has made this nation 
great if by greatness we mean power that 
comes from the barrels of guns. As the 
Apostle Paul teaches in 1 Corinthians I, 
God chooses the weak, the low, and the 
despised to bring about redemption in the 

The billboard along 1-70 misleads in 
every way but one. It reflects accurately a 
sad aspect of our heritage: a perverted 
blessing of violence in God's name and a 
conviction that violence solves problems. 
Our culture is swamped in the mistaken 
assumption that violence offers quick 

Our hero-types promote "redemptive" 
violence daily in the mass media. John 
Wayne and Kojak are but two of countless 
examples. Alexander Mack, John Kline, 
you, and 1 represent a counter-heritage that 
desperately needs to be voiced in this land. 

In God's name, let us proclaim it. D 

Gordon W. Bucher 

Question: Who are 
these Brethren? 

It is rather difficult to answer that ques- 
tion. Brethren come in all sizes, "both sex- 
es," with feelings toward the right and the 
left. Nevertheless, it is possible to indicate 
from whence the heritage of the Brethren 
comes and to suggest where the 
mainstream of Brethrenism is currently. 
(1) Brethren are centered in the New 
Testament. From the beginning Brethren 

30 MESSKNGfiR January 1977 

looked at the pages of the Bible, especially 
the New Testament, for the revelation of 
God in Christ. 

(2) Brethren are Anabaptist. Brethren 
feel that becoming a Christian necessitates 
an adult decision to do so. Baptism was a 
symbol of that decision making as an 

(3) Brethren are Pietistic. Brethren felt 
that if one was going to be Christian, one 
needed to be an "imitator of Christ." 
Pietism meant that one was "good because 
one wanted to follow the leading of Christ 
into personal and social aspects of life. 

(4) Brethren are a part of the family of 
God. Because we have felt that we are not 
the only part of that family, we have par- 
ticipated with other "families" (called 
denominations) in councils of churches, 
ministerial associations, union meetings, 
etc. We, along with others, are independent 
churches attempting to fulfill the mission 
of Christ together where we can. 

(5) Brethren are for individual salvation 
and concerned about individual faith being 
expressed in our social areas of life. Con- 
cerns for evangelism, stewardship, peace, 
race, temperance, etc., come out of the 
same rootages of Pietism, imitators of 
Christ, and Anabaptist feelings. 

The mainstream of Brethrenism, as I see 
it, is not: 

(1) Extremely liberal. We are very 
orthodox in our basic doctrines. Our 
seminary is not so much liberal as it is 

(2) Extremely conservative or fun- 
damentalist. We never joined the literalism 
of the fundamentalist movement. The 
Bible is always open to research to discover 
what the authors had in mind, as well as 
what God had in mind. The Grace 
Brethren are more representative of this 
style of faith. 

(3) Particularly communal nor charis- 
matic. Although attempts at Chris- 
tian communes have been and are presently 
within Brethrenism, the church has never 
really seen gathering all Christians of like 
mind into one "system" of economics. 
Also, when the pentecostal (charismatic) 
movement first came to America many 
years ago, the Brethren shared their faith 
more in deed than in movements of 
ecstasy. With the more recent Charismatic 
movement, the Brethren still emphasize 
"the baptism of the Holy Spirit" as a God 
directed life more than an ecstatic 
utterance or experience. 

Certainly the groupings listed above 
have made their contributions to the life of 
the church. 

"Who are the Brethren?" They may be 
any one of the above. But the mainstream 
still attempts to be Anabaptist, Pietistic. 
centered in the New Testament, a part of 
the family of God, concerned about in- 
dividual salvation and also the witness in 

our social spheres of life. 

Regardless of your particular bent of 
faith, you and I are a part of 
"Brethrenism." May God continue to guide 
us and bless us as we attempt to be 
Christians and Brethren together. □ 

ReprinieJ. with pernits. 
Dlitricl Herald. 

on. fritni the Nc>rlhcrn Ohio 

Tve never 

this before... 

because, I'm convinced, there's never 
been a time like this. 
There's a revolution going on — a rela- 
tional revolution. And its effects are 
already shaping your future and mine. 
The world is turning away from 
machines and programs and institu- 
tions to a new people-centeredness. 
God seems to have been shaping our 
times so that people can hear what the 
Scriptures have to say about their rela- 
tionships — to God, to self and to others. 
I've found a fresh, new relational way of 
looking at Scripture. THE RELATIONAL 
REVOLUTION is, as far as I know, the 
first attempt to explain this relational 

show you how to help your church lead 
the nation's return to people- 

It's your invitation to explore with me 
this new wind of God's Spirit in our 

Now at your Christian bookstore. 

WORD BOOKS for people on the grow, Box 1790, Waco, Texas 76703 

January 1977 messenger 31 


The legacy of Kunta Kinte 

by Frederic A. Brussat 

Roots (Beginning January 30. A BC — 
9:00-11:00 pm ET) 

A village in Gambia. West Africa in 1750. 
Omoro Kinte (Thalmus Kasulala) watches 
his hut impatiently. Inside his wife Binta 
(Cicely Tyson) is giving birth. Sweating, 
she struggles for breath. The crying infant 
brings Omoro to the hut, and he sees his 
newborn son. What should the boy be 
named? Omoro asks the village school- 
master, but he is told that the naming 
responsibility is his alone. He decides upon 
Kunta — after his father's father. One night 
Omoro takes the naked, squirming boy out 
into a clearing. He holds Kunta up to the 
sky and says: "Behold the only thing 
greater than yourself." 

So begins the ABC television adaptation 
of Alex Haley's best-selling book Roots. It 
will be a multi-part twelve-hour presenta- 
tion following in the format established by 
last season's "Rich Man. Poor Man." This 
David A. Wolper production is an am- 
bitious venture in several respects. 
Dramatically, it asks viewers to change 
their traditional way of approaching a 
television presentation. Since it covers a 
timespan of over 100 years. RooLs has no 
single identifiable hero. The story itself is 
the hero with an admixture of fact and fic- 

Roots is unusual tv programming in 
other regards as well. Slavery is something 
many Americans have put out of their 
minds. It is now brought into our living 
rooms in all its horror and abomination. 
Our perceptions of this depressing dimen- 
sion of American history may never be the 
same again. 

The first three hours of Roots were shot 
on location in and around Savannah. Ga.. 
and the rest in Hollywood and Malibu 
Canyon. William Blinn (Emmy winner for 
"Brian's Song") served as script supervisor 
and has written the screenplay with Ernest 
Kinoy, James Lee. and M. Charles Cohen. 
Director David Greene (Emmy winner for 
a segment of "Rich Man. Poor Man") is at 
the helm for the first three hours, and Mar- 
vin Chomsky, John Erman, and Gilbert 
Moses for the remaining hours. 

In The Autobiography of Malcolm X, 
Alex Haley wrote: "For all blacks, we'll 

32 MESSENGER January 1977 

never know where we're going until we 
know where we came from." The author 
spent 12 years tracking down his ancestry 
and now in twelve hours we share in that 
story. Kunta Kinte (played as a youth by 
LeVar Burton) is captured and taken 
aboard a slaveship, the Lord Ligonier, 
when he is 16 years old. In America, he 
tries to escape on several occasions, losing 
his foot to his white masters on one such 
attempt. The adult Kunta (John Amos) 
marries Bell (Madge Sinclair), a plantation 
cook, and they give birth to Kizzy. His 
only real friend during this period is 
Fiddler (Lou Gossett), a cynical and ex- 
uberant musician. At 16. Kizzy (Leslie 
Uggams) is sold off to another plantation 
and raped by her new owner. Their off- 
spring Chicken George (Ben Vereen) 
becomes a well-known cockfighter in the 

Le Var Burton plays the youthful Kunte 
Kinte, captured and placed in slavery. 

South. He weds Matilde (Olivia Cole) and 
they raise eight children. One of them. 
Tom Murray (Georg Stanford Brown), 
becomes a blacksmith after the Civil War 
and settles down with his family as a free 
man in Henning. Tenn. One of his 
children. Cynthia, was Alex Haley's mater- 
nal grandmother. And she passed on to 
him the story of Kunta Kinte. 

Although Roots chronicles the agonies, 
deprivations, and humiliations of black 
slaves, it also depicts the extraordinary 
resiliency and tenacity of these individuals 
over the years. They never let go of their 
African ancestral heritage and family feel- 
ings. Producer Stan Margulies has stated: 
" Roots is a success story. It's about 
freedom in Africa in 1750 to eventual 
freedom in America. These people went 
through much suffering and pain, many 
emotional disasters, and endured numerous 
tribulations. Yet through all that, there 
is a thread of hope. It's criminal that it 
took so long, was so difficult, and isn't 
fully accomplished even today. But 
there is in the person of Alex Haley an 
example of what is possible as a free 
black American." 

Questions on segment one: 

1. Part One of Roots offers us a picture 
of black civilization which is at complete 
odds with the Tarzan film and tv image of 
African culture. Where have you gotten 
most of your impressions about early 
African societies? 

2. In his manhood training, young Kunta 
learns that for a warrior courage is not 
enough and that the goal of war is to win, 
not to kill. Contrast this with western at- 
titudes on the same subjects. 

3. Slater, the first mate on the Lord 
Ligonier, actually believes that the slavery 
of the "black breed" is the natural order of 
tnings; indeed, the blacks are better off for 
it. In his view, the cannibal heathens are 
being taken from the land of Allah and 
brought to the salvation of Christianity. 
How would you persuade Mr. Slater that 
his views were erroneous and even quite 

4. Do you identify with the conscience- 
stricken captain of the ship? Or do you find 
his attitudes all the more shameful since 
he's more highly educated than Mr. Slater? 
How can he separate his Christian prin- 

ciples from his business activities? What 
kind of faith perspective allows an in- 
dividual to live with such a split perspec- 

5. Some of the black actors and actresses 
who were hired to do the scenes in the dark 
of the ship's cargo hold did not return to 
the set the next day. Being in the position 
of playing their ancestors and realizing the 
degradation those people went through, 
they were emotionally unhinged. What are 
your feelings about the nature of wo/man 
as you witness these scenes in Roots? Did 
you have any idea that slaves were sub- 
jected to such horrors? 

Questions on the series: 

1. Some historians have stated recently 
that the evils of slavery were not as terrible 
as we think. Contrast this viewpoint to the 
overall impression you gain from Haley's 
depiction of it in Roots. 

2. Slavery was conceived within the con- 
text of and often blessed by the Christian 
church. Share your responses to the 
religious attitudes of slaveholders and some 
of the slaves themselves. 

3. In what ways are the experiences of 
black slaves in America similar to the ex- 
periences of the Hebrew people in the Old 

4. Is the right to determine one's own 
fate the most essential dignity a person can 

5. Discuss the importance of Roots in 
light of the following thought: "The con- 
tinuity between our root in Africa and our 
fruit in America has been broken and in 
part we're trying to re-establish it — because 
when there's a gap between the root and 
the fruit — . . . that's death."— The Rev. 
Jesse Jackson 

6. Has witnessing the result of Alex 
Haley's search for his roots interested you 
in learning more about your family tree? 
How far back can you go? 

7. "Soul signifies the moral and 
emotional fiber of the Black man that 
enables him to see his dilemmas clearly and 
at the same time encourages and sustains 
him in his struggles. Force connotes 
strength, power, intense effort and a will to 
life. The combined words — soul-force — 
describe the racial inheritance of the New 
World African; it is that which 
characterizes his life-style, his worldview 
and his endurance under conflict." — 
Leonard E. Barrett. Discuss Roots as a 
demonstration of the meaning of soul. !U 

t^[La[r[rDDDT]gj p©D[n]"i^^ 


James Castecl. licensed Aug. 15, 
1976. Greensburg. Western Penn- 

James Hall, licensed Aug. 15. 
1976. Greensburg, Western Penn- 

John P. Layman, licensed Sept. 
1976. York. " Southern Pennsyl- 

Alice Marie Martin, ordained 
Sept. 12. 1976. Washington City. 

Randall Lehman, licensed May 2, 
1976. East Chippewa. Northern 

Pastoral Placements 

S. L. Barnhart, Irom retirement. 
10 San Francisco, Pacific South- 

John David Bowman, from 
Glade Valley Fellowship, Mid-At- 
lantic, to Little Swalara, Atlantic 

Martin A. Gauby. from district 
executive. Northern Plains, to 
Boise, Mt. View. Idaho, Western 

Leon Hironimus, from Fair- 
chance-Fairvicw, Western Pennsyl- 
vania, to Ligonier, Western Penn- 

James Lissner, to Weston, Ore- 
gon ' Washington 

Ira Lydic, from Williamsburg, 
Middle Pennsylvania, to Di.xon, 
Illinois/ Wisconsin 

Paul E. McBridc Sr.. to 
Wakarusa. Northern Indiana 

James Merrifield. from Sidney. 
Southern Ohio, to Glendale. Ari- 
zona. Pacific Southwest 

Ralph F. Thomas, from Yellow 
Creek, Middle Pennsylvania, to As- 
toria, Illinois,' Wisconsin 

Michael 1. Walsh, to Lacey Com- 
munity. Oregon 'Washington 

David L. Wert/, from supply 
preacher, to Mt. Joy. Virlina 

Larry A. Whet/el. from secular, 
to Salem. Shenandoah 

Everett Willis, to part-time, 
Klamath Falls, Oregon /Washing- 

Galen D. Wine, from supply 
preacher, to Coulson. Virlina 

Charles E. Zunkel. from Akron. 
South Central Indiana, to retire- 

(Contrary to the August Turning 
Points, June Wolfe is not the pas- 
tor of Roann. South j Central Indi- 
ana. Her husband Claude is Ro- 
ann's pastor. — Ed.} 

Wedding Anniversaries 

Mr. and Mrs. Loy Bachman, De- 
fiance. Ohio, 62 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Butter- 
baugh, Dixon, 111., 60 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Circle, Ft. 
Wayne. Ind.. 63 

Mr. and Mrs, Howard Kimmel, 
Shelocta. Pa. 65 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold Layman, 
Cloverdale, Va., 55 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard Michael, 
Olympia, Wash., 61 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilmer Miller. 
Shelocta. Pa., 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Pence. 
Gettysburg. Ohio, 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy Spears. 
Waterloo. Iowa. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Starner. 
Glendora. Calif.. 70 

Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy Veazey. 
Columbia City. Ind.. 55 

Mr. and Mrs. Garland Working. 
Sebring. Fla.. 50 


Gladvs Ailing. 74. Cabool. Mo.. 
May 18. 1976 

Joseph Baker. 44. New Enter- 
prise. Pa.. July 27. 1976 

Francis Barto. 52. Kingsley. 
Iowa. April 9. 1976 

Guv H. Bashor. 59. Roanoke. 
Va.. Aug. 22. 1976 

Glenn Bloomfield. 72. Memphis. 
Mo.. June 2. 1976 

Robert Bollinger. 10. Middle- 
burv. Ind.. Julv 2.3. 1976 

Olive May Bond. SO. Troy. Ohio. 
Julv 13. 1976 

Paul Charles Bonsack. 79. West- 
minster. Md.. Aug. 6. 1976 

Lewis A. Booth Sr.. 62. Clover- 
dale. Va.. July 27. 1976 

Harriet Bowman. 66. Hunting- 
ton. Ind.. May 31. 1976 

Ora Burroughs. S3. Plymouth. 
Ind.. Julv 31. 1976 

Hassie Butcher. SO. Troy. Ohio. 
Sept. 1. 1976 

Blanche O. Cruet/. S2. Phila- 
delphia. Pa,. June 27. 1976 

Everett Cripe. 65. Flora. Ind.. 
Aug. 20. 1976 

Clifford Crist. 52. Coopersburg. 
Pa.. May 20. 1976 

Charles Eby. 66. Middlebury. 
Ind.. Julv 9. 1976 

Ovie kathryn Ecker. 83. West- 
minster. Md.. .Sept. 4. 1976 

John Ervin Flora. S3. Rocky 
Mount, Va.. Aug. 9. 1976 

Leon B. Fockler. 67. Ashland. 
Ohio, Aug. 8. 1976 

Nancy Gardner. 18. Woodridge. 
Va.. July 17. 1976 

Galen G. Gerdes. North Man- 
chester. Ind.. Sept. 1. 1976 

Clarence J. Hamer. 86. Water- 
loo. Iowa. July 8. 1976 

Orville Hamer. 90. Waterloo. 
Iowa. July 13. 1976 

Charles Hanes. 82. Glendora. 
Calif.. Aug. 13. 1976 

Rov Hardy. Defiance. Ohio. 
Aug. 9. 1976 

Randal R Haulman. 17. 
Lebanon. Pa.. Aug. 1976 

George Hcimback. 56. Matta- 
wana. Pa.. Aug. 25. 1976 

Frank Dewitt Hisley. 58. Bridge- 
water. Va.. June 24. 1976 

Kenneth Hooley, 63, Goshen, 
Ind., July 19, 1976 

Mrs. Johnnie Mills Hoy. 100. 
Callaway. Va.. June 13. 1976 

Harry Thomas Jackson, 85, 
Rocky Mount. Va., Aug. 29. 1976 

Flovd Jett, 74, Wawaka, Ind., 
July 22, 1976 

Carrie E. Jones, 85, Cloverdale, 
Va„ July 20, 1976 

Stella Keenan, 85, Troy, Ohio, 

Aug. 30, 1976 

Merlin Kimes. 77. Homcworlh. 
Ohio. Aug. 4. 1976 

Alfred Kingery. 93. Flora. Ind,. 
May 28. 1976 

Moyne Landis. 86. North Man- 
chester. Ind,. Aug. 10. 1976 

Ha/el McCumsey. 80. Goshen. 
Ind.. June I. 1976 

Edgar MeLear\. 72. Johnstown. 
Pa.. July 2. 1976' 

Eithel Miller. 76. Huntington. 
Ind.. Julv 17. 1976 

Glen F. Miller. 77. Leeton. Mo,. 
Aug. 25. 1976 

Ruth Simmons Minnich. 54. 
Bridgewaler. Va.. June 12. 1976 

Florine Moore. 75. New Market, 
Va.. Aug. II. 1976 

Richard B. Moycr. 70. Harleys- 
ville. Pa.. Aug. 23. 1976 

John A. Musselman. 79. New 
Carlisle. Ohio. Aug. 21. 1976 

Sarah Mvers. 76. Kendallville. 
Ind.. Aug. 19. 1976 

James Newman. 48. Akron. 
Ohio. Aug. 8. 1976 

Sarah G. Nye. 68. Manheim. Pa,. 
Aug. 24. 1976 

Nancy Pippen. 93. Nappanee. 
Ind.. Sept. 3. 1976 

Marguerite Ressler. 76, Notting- 
ham. Pa.. May 29. 1976 

Richard Schools, 18. Annvillc. 
Pa,. June 9. 1976 

Charles Schrcibcr. 82. Quarrv- 
ville. Pa.. Jul> 16. 1976 

Albert Schue. 85. Washington. 
Ind.. June 25. 1976 

Joseph P. Se\co. 66. Lebanon. 
Pa.. Aug, 4. 1976 

Ravmond Shilling. 77. Roanoke. 
Va.. Aug, 10. 1976 

Dora Shirk. 92. Goshen. Ind,. 
Mav 17. 1976 

Levi S. Shivelv. 91. La Verne. 
Calif.. July 17. 1976 

Edith Snaveh. 93. Lafontaine. 
Ind.. July 25. 1976 

Estie Snell. 92. North Man- 
chester. Ind.. Julv 29. 1976 

Glen W. Stall. 80. Clarksville. 
Mich.. July 16. 1976 

Frances Stoner. 73. Goshen. Ind,. 
June 17. 1976 

Paul Straycr, 71. Johnstown. Pa.. 
June 29. 1976 

Oliver Thompson. 81, Rocky 
Mount. Va., Aug. 26. 1976 

Grace E, Tripp. 85. Boonsboro, 
Md.. Aug, 10. 1976 

Laura Loney Wagoner. 66. Sac- 
ramento. Calif'. Sept. 9. 1976 

Marv Wagoner. 70. Flora. Ind,. 
June lb. 1976 

Jean Wallers. 44. Roaring 
Spring, Pa., July 20, 1976 

David M. Wareham. 76. Mar- 
tinsburg. Pa.. Aug. 20. 1976 

Lavinia Roop Wenger. 82. West- 
minster. Md,. July 10. 1976 

Samuel H. Werking. 75, Dun- 
cansville. Pa.. Oct. 12, 1976 

Merton A, Whisler, 90, Low- 
point. 111.. Sept. 28. 1976 

Mcrl G. Whitehead. 81. Goshen 
Ind., May 6. 1976 

Galen F. Wineland. 58. Martins- 
burg. Pa.. Aug, 10. 1976 

Blanch Witter. 88. Flora. Ind.. 
July 3. 1976 

January 1977 messenger 33 



the community 

ALL ARE f^m '• 

by Terrie Miller 

Life, worship, action, 

thinking, creativity 

should be happening 

at the Dundalk Church 

Venture into the musty stillness of most any 
church on a weekday, and the only sign of 
life might well be the proverbial church 
mouse nibbling on a morsel of stale commu- 
nion bread. 

Poke your head into the Dundalk 
Church of the Brethren and the unrelenting 
clatter from the kitchen competes noisily 
with the din from the offices, producing a 
decidedly unexpected atmosphere. 

Meals on Wheels volunteers zoom off to 
deliver lunch and supper to the elderly, 
counselors pop in and out for ap- 
pointments, and Lunch Plusers pass the 
time of day with their cronies. 

There are many things to be said about 
Dundalk. but one thing it isn't is quiet. 
And that means a lot. It means there is life, 
worship, action, people, involvement, care, 
thinking, creativity ... all the things that 
should be happening at a church are 
happening at Dundalk. 

Dundalk used to be like any other 
church until the congregation employed 
Monroe Good as its pastor. A missionary 
in Nigeria for twelve years, he came to 
Dundalk in 1965, and very shortly set the 
church on its heels, feeling that he had to 
be involved in a church that was doing 
something or else leave. Well, Monroe 
is still there, and the program of the 

!?eople, involvement, care, 

. all the things that 
It a church are happening 
of the Brethren . . . 

church is the reason why. 

The Dundalk church, located near 
Baltimore, Md., is the home of no less than 
six community outreach programs, an 
■astonishing statistic for a congregation that 
manages an average attendance of only 90 
people on Sunday morning. 

Five mornings a week the church base- 
ment and kitchen are overrun with 
volunteer cooks preparing for the Lunch 
Plus and Meals on Wheels programs. The 
same food is used for both programs, and 
they are both aimed primarily at the elder- 
ly, but their objectives are different. 

Lunch Plus, which is exactly what its 
name implies, is for anyone 60 years of age 
or older, who can make it to the church 
under his or her own steam. Sponsored by 
Government Title VII funds, the meal costs 
only 25 cents, regardless of the client's 
economic status. 

As well as being a nutritional and 
economic boon to the elderly. Lunch Plus 
provides the motivation for them to get 
dressed, get out of the house, and relate 
with the outside world. Many participants 
wander in at 10:30 or 1 1 a.m. reveling in an 
hour or two of conversation before lunch. 
Some stay for the program afterwards, 
which may be anything from a history lec- 
ture to square dancing, cake decorating. 

consumer education, or yoga. 

Before Lunch Plusers ever arrive. Meals 
on Wheels is off and rolling. Several of the 
120 available volunteers arrive at 8 a.m. to 
start packing the hot lunches and cold 
suppers that are delivered daily to 50 per- 
sons. Other volunteers arrive closer to 
noon to drive the route and personally 
deliver the food. 

The importance of the visiting aspect of 
Meals on Wheels has been recognized by 
Linda Johnson, who serves the congrega- 
tion as pastor of parish services. Linda has 
initiated a four-month pilot program in 
which she functions as the official home 
visitor for the Meals on Wheels clients. She 
spends more time with them than the food 
deliverer can and actually follows through 
on the obvious needs. Her job is to find 
agencies that can fulfill those needs or hire 
people to do the required task, which may 
involve anything from cleaning to 
providing transportation to just listening. 

While the care and feeding of the elderly 
at Dundalk is obviously a great concern, 
there are also the young people to attend 
to, especially the homeless ones. Recogniz- 
ing the necessity of keeping young people 
out of juvenile correctional institutions, the 
church started a group home for delin- 
quent boys. Although funded by the Law 

Above: Participants in "Lunch Plus" gel 
lunch plus motivation to get out and relate 
to the outside world. Below: Pastor 
Monroe Good serves a congregation vasth 
different front what it was when he came 

January 1977 messenger 35 

Ifs just like a big extended family, and 
somehow that comes awfully close to what a 
Christian community is meant to be. 

Enforcement Assistance Administration, 
the atmosphere at the home intentionally 
steers away from the legalistic tone and 
toward a caring, family situation. 

The purpose of the home is to give the 
boys, 14 to 17 years old, a setting where 
problems can be worked out on a personal 
level instead of through the courts. BVSer 
Laurie Miller, who with his wife Donna 
recently completed a term of service on the 
group home staff, explains that the boys 
receive counseling, help in finding jobs or 
in getting into school, as well as a home at- 

The strains of dealing with curfew 
violations, drug and alcohol abuse, the in- 
gratitude of the boys, and the extensive 
emotional output of the job are taxing. 

Below left: Paslor Good confers with staff 
members Ann Murray, Bernice Gosnell. 
and Clarice Ott. Bottom Left: Associate 
minister Linda C. Johnson. Center: Laurie 
Miller and Lynn Starss of the group home 
staff. Right: Volunteers prepare food for 
the Dundalk meals on wheels program. 

However, says Laurie, "The guys were great. 
Even having them trust me enough to con- 
fide in me was a big deal. In the situations 
they come from they really don't com- 
municate with anyone, and most of their 
dealings with adults are very negative." 

The Dundalk Youth Service Center 
(DYSC) is also located at the Church of the 
Brethren, and how it came to be there is a 
story in itself. When Monroe first came to 
Dundalk he was actively working in the area 
of human relations in the community. The 
congregation was small and faced some dif- 
ficult times. Some members moved out of 
the community; a few others decided to 
worship elsewhere. Along with the decrease 
in membership the church income dropped 

Since the congregation could not 
realistically support a full-time minister, 
Monroe got a part-time job with the 
Baltimore County Youth Commission. In 
his work with the commission he developed 
contacts with the Department of Juvenile 
Services, which ultimately asked the church 
to write a proposal for a youth service center. 

Cook Rose Heath washes up after another 
day of helping feed comtnunity oldsters. 

DYSC is now five years old and serves 
as a counseling, referral, and information 
center for youth. Counseling is considered 
to be its most important function and it 
takes place in many forms. There is crisis 
counseling, long term, individual, group, 
and family counseling. The active case load 
hovers between 90 and 1 15. 

Most of the people who come to DYSC 
are referred by the Department of Juvenile 
Services, which regards DYSC as a crime 
deterrent agency for runaways, truants, 
and youth in trouble because of family ten- 
sions. For this reason including parents in 
the counseling process is most helpful, says 
Monroe. "Parents want to get involved in 

The Keyhole Hotline handles everything 
from family hassles to legal matters. 

doing something to help their children. 
They get into counseling and realize they 
are part of the problem." 

Although people come to the church to 
obtain the services of DYSC, most do not 
become members of the church, and for 
Monroe that isn't an issue. "For some that 
is important," he concedes, "but the way I 
look at it, if we help people where they are, 
then we've done what Jesus said, ' ... as 
you did it to one of the least of these my 
brethren, you did it to me.'" 

"However," he continues, "none of this 
could have happened without a dedicated 
group of Christians. Their willingness to 
cooperate and let it happen shows a great 
deal of commitment to me." 

Another part of DYSC is the Parent 
Effectiveness Training classes held at the 
church and taught by several trained 
counselors. Aimed at any parent in the 
community who wants to build better fami- 
ly relationships, PET is a kind of preven- 
tive medicine for the ills that often con- 
front the relationship between parents and 
children. "Most parents do what their 
parents did to them," explains one 
counselor, "but parents need new skills to 
cope with traditional problems that can't 
be solved in traditional ways." 

To help parents communicate more 
effectively with their children, the course 
concentrates on five major relational 
techniques: active listening, stating discon- 
tent in terms of I instead of you, problem 
solving, openness to making physical ad- 
justments in the environment, and values 
clarification. The latter occupies a large 
chunk of the course. As one counselor ex- 

plained, "This is the point where a parent is 
stretched to think about new values and 
can be stimulated to grow." 

No sit-down-and-listen, go-home-and- 
forget-it type of course, PET is structured 
so that^parents can practice what they have 
learned in class before they try it in a fami- 
ly setting. Role-playing and sharing of 
responses to hypothetical situations are an 
important part of the class. 

One side benefit of PET is that much of 
what is taught is useful in relationships 
other than that of parents and children. 

One of the first programs to be 
developed at Dundalk was the telephone 
hotline service, dubbed Keyhole. Like 
many other hotlines. Keyhole was created 
to deal with crisis problems and to serve as 
a willing ear for lonely people. Everything 
from family hassles and legal matters to 
abortion and boy-girl problems have been 
discussed via "Ma Bell." 

In service only two days a week now, 
Monroe explains that there are several 
other good hotlines in the area open 24 
hours a day. "The best thing it has done," 
he says, "has been to help those we trained 
to run it." Because of the hot line ex- 
perience they have gained a whole new 
perspective on life. 


^ow can a congregation of 160 
members keep such an extensive program 
afloat? Since all projects receive some kind 
of government funding, there is no heavy 
financial drain on the congregation except 
for church maintenance. In addition the 
programs provide the part-time jobs that 
enable their two ministers to serve the 
church on a part-time basis, Monroe as 
pastor of community services, Linda as 
pastor of parish services. 

Many of the volunteers for the different 
programs are community people, although 
12 Meals on Wheels volunteers are from 
the congregation as are eight of the DYSC 
volunteers. The staff is ecumenical in 
nature, including people of the Catholic 
and Jewish faiths as well as other 

Several BVSers have been located at 
Dundalk including, currently, June 
Johnson and Karen Ward, who are work- 
ing in the group home. Clarice Ott has 
been serving as a BVSer in the Youth Serv- 
ice Center. Recently she has been named 

the supervisor of counsellors and has ex- 
tended her term of service from 12 to 16 
months. At the end of that period she will 
become a salaried staff member. Other key 
staff positions are held by members of the 
church. Beverly Kline, who describes 
herself as the go-anywhere-do-anything- 
that-Monroe-doesn't-have-time-to-do per- 
son, is administrative assistant. Ruth Gunn 
and Vi Cunha, secretaries par excellence, 
manage to keep the office unburied enough 
to work in, while dealing with the constant 
stampede through the office, unrelenting 
phones, and minor crises that seem to sur- 
face every few minutes. 

While some of the congregation 
members may not be directly involved in 
community outreach, there is wholehearted 
support for the programs. This may be 
because of the progressive nature of the 

Many members are involved in com- 
munity service jobs on their own. They are 
open to new ideas, and are not too set in 
their ways, always willing to step out in 
new areas of witness and service. 

As if its ministry in community outreach 
weren't enough, the congregation has taken 
it upon itself to conduct several other 
projects. It keeps a food pantry supplied 
for emergency use and is talking of start- 
ing an emergency fund for college students 
who need to borrow small amounts 
for books. 

Every year a Christmas offering is taken, 
and every year the goal is set higher and 
higher. One-third usually goes to the 
Brotherhood, one-third is for local use, and 
one-third is for a special project, something 
supported by Brotherhood giving. 

One of the most impressive aspects of 
the Dundalk congregation is the genuine 
feeling of community found there. The 
community outreach programs are indeed 
necessary and worthy of note, but would 
they be there without a group of people 
willing to make their church a house for 
people as well as for God? 

Noisy it may be, but at Dundalk there is 
an even more important quality in the air. 
There is no sense of estrangement or dis- 
tance. Love is parceled out equally to all 
who pass through. 

"It's like a big extended family," offers 
Ruth Gunn. And somehow that comes aw- 
fully close to what a Christian community 
is meant to be. D 

January 1977 messenger 37 

[b)©(Q)k [rswDsm^^ 

Fraternity on the frontier 

Lehman The Brethren Press, EIgm, III . 384 
pages. Paperback, Illustrated, S2 45 

What was the Fraternity of German Bap- 
tists (Church of the Brethren) hke a century 
and a quarter ago during the so-called 
wilderness period of the denomination? In 
his book. The Old Brethren. James H. 
Lehman gives us an exciting word portrait 
of a decade ( 1 840- 1 850) taken from the mid- 
point of the 250 years of Brethren life in 
America. This period was just before the 
onslaught of rapid changes in life-styles that 
characterized the last half of the 19th cen- 
tur\ and all of the 20th to the present time. 

Lehman, who came to writing the book 
as an assignment in the Church of the 
Brethren Heritage Learning Program, 
warmed up to it as a labor of love, es- 
pecially because he could relate to the early 
Brethren through some traditions he per- 
sonally experienced with his lovable grand- 
father, a bearded plain-coated elder. Since 
graduation from Juniata College and 
Bethany Theological Seminary, the author 
has served as a pastor and youth worker. 
He is presently engaged in free-lance 

Eight of the 13 chapters of the book are 
grippingly biographical, filled with intimate 
and human details of the experiences of 
Brethren leaders during the decade. The 
book proves, from careful citing of many 
hitherto unpublished sources, that the som- 
ber-coated Brethren elders of that day were 
nevertheless colorful in their personalities, 
the result of striving to live their lives in 
sharp focus with New Testament teach- 
ings. Lehman proves that the middle-dec- 
ade elders faithfully handed down the 
beliefs and practices of Alexander Mack 
and his associates of a century and a 
quarter before their time. In three of the 
other chapters, the author presents in detail 
the order of worship. Yearly Meeting oc- 
casions, the manner of holding love feasts, 
the foot washing, trine immersion baptism, 
the holy kiss, and the anointing as they 
were practiced during the decade; also the 
Brethren stance toward the world in 
defenselessness. nonlitigation, and noncon- 

Were the elements of the life-style of the 
early founders still recognizable in the mid- 
decade chosen by the author? His answers 
in the book are in the affirmative, especial- 
ly to those who are somewhat acquainted 

38 MESSENGER January 1977 

with the life-styles of the Brethren in 
Colonial America. Items: The refusal of the 
Christopher Saurs to aid the Revolutionary 
War effort is "born again" in Elder George 
Wolfe's refusal, for his congregation as well 
as himself, to fight in the Black Hawk War 
in Illinois; the historic Brethren stand 
against ownership of slaves is exemplified 
in a Virginia member's freeing his slave, 
Samuel Weir, who later became a Brethren 
minister and elder; Elder George Wolfe, 
though lacking in formal education, was 
nevertheless a speaker who was heard in 
the world as well as in the church; his out- 
spoken opposition to slavery was in- 
strumental in the admission of Illinois as a 
free state; and the publication efforts of the 
colonial Saurs in Pennsylvania came alive 
again in the mid-century Ohio spring 
house presses of Henry Kurtz. It could be 
said, too, that Peter Nead picked up the 
theological comments of Alexander Mack. 
The book details many more examples, 
evidence that the Brethren of the 
"wilderness period" were robust in living 
out the New Testament beliefs and prac- 
tices brought to America a century and a 
quarter before. 

The Brethren emphasis against 
drunkenness and social drinking came 
down intact, although they did not take the 
absolute, teetotalist position of the later 
temperance movement. For example, there 
was some harvest tippling on Brethren 

The Old Brethren: lives lived in sharp 
focus with the New Testament teachings. 

farms and the communion wine of that 
date was fermented, according to the 

What kind of dress came down to the 
mid-century point? Lehman concludes 
from his sources that the Brethren of that 
decade were not as rigid on dress as they 
were later in the century. Both lay-down 
and stand-up collars on coats were 
accepted as long as the coats were of 
somber color. Beards were required of 
ministers. Men in the laity were urged to 
wear beards but they were not a condition 
of membership. Annual meeting required 
sisters to wear caps while praying or 
prophesying. Most women of that day put 
on caps with strings at the time of 
marriage. Since most of them joined the 
church after marriage, they automatically 
wore caps. While the sisters' attire varied 
somewhat, it was always plain. 

Suitable for youth as well as adult 
classes in the church school, the book is 
strongly recommended as worthy of study 
and enjoyment by any individuals or 
classes interested in delving into a relatively 
little-known period of denomination 
history. A study guide to use with the 
publication is available, with the book, 
from Brethren Press, 1451 Dundee Ave., 
Elgin, IL 60120.— Norman F. Reber 


McClure Press, Verona. Va, 637 pages. 
Hardback Illustrated, $18,00 

I remember well an incident in "Prof" 
May's English class at Bridgewater College. 
I read aloud an essay which I had written 
emulating the style of Addison and Steele. 
As I returned to my seat, C. E. May, not 
one given to affirmative remarks, said dri- 
ly, "Just to look at Mr. Thomason, I would 
never have guessed he had any sense of 

Well, just to look at C. E. May I would 
never have guessed there was lodged 
beneath his g,r\xi{ sxienor a.n\ amor patriae 
for his native Shenandoah Valley. Then I 
read Life Under Four Flags. This book 
shows May a man who not only loves and 
appreciates his native land and his 
neighbors but understands well the 
relationship between them, both yesterday 
and today. 

In Four Flags you learn first of all about 
the land. To satisfy my own curiosity May 


C. E. May at 1823 Carters meetinghouse, oldest Brethren church building in Virginia and 
the parent church of the Tiinker sect that came to dominate the North River basin. 

would not have needed to go back to the 
upper Paleozoic era to begin the story of 
the formation of the limestone valley. 
hemmed in by the Allegheny and Blue 
Ridge ranges and threaded by North River. 
Non-geologists who survive that opener are 
faced with yet another chapter, apparently 
inserted to demonstrate that nothing new 
has been recently learned about pre- 
settlement Indians in the Valley, before 
they get to the heart of the book — the 
story of the Valley's settlement by the 
Scotch-Irish and Germans. 

I challenge any readers with multi- 
generational ties to the Valley to read the 
book and find their ancestors overlooked. 
They are all there, I believe. 

As with his geology. May takes many of 
the surnames of early settlers back to the 
upper Paleozoic era of etymology. We are 
edified with the knowledge that the sur- 
name "Hogshead" can be traced back to 
the Celtic "hogg" (a full-grown swine) and 
the Anglo-Saxon "heofan" to mean the 
keeper of hogs. 

But once they get started into the Valley 
and into May's book the Scotch-Irish and 
Palatinate Germans, the Irish Presby- 
terians, Lutherans, Mennonites and 
Tunkers, the McGills, Campbells, 
Herrings, Bowmans, Garbers, and Klines 
get into step and a magnificent procession 
takes the various groups into every nook 
and cranny of North River Basin during 
the period of the first flag. (The "four 
flags" of the book's title refer to those of 
the United Kingdom, 1716 to 1776; the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, 1776 to 1789; 
the United States, 1789 to 1861 and since 
1865; and the Confederacy, 1861 to 1865.) 

May tells it all — settlers and their life- 
style, Indian wars and the Revolution, 
development of roads and rivers, towns 
and villages, the slave system and the Civil 
War. There are log-rollings and house- 
raisings and other pioneer social events 
(John Campbell's funeral festivities in 1749 
included six gallons of liquor, we are told.); 

"Foxfire" material abounds (a witches' sab- 
bath at Seawrights Springs, home cures for 
multitudinous frontier ailments); personal 
accounts of bravery and suffering during 
the Civil War (many Brethren pacifists fled 
to West Virginia). 

The North River area was crisscrossed 
by Union and Confederate armies during 
the Civil War and Four Flags brings it all 
home as familiar and famous names inter- 
mingle. Stonewall Jackson's army crosses 
North River into Bridgewater on a bridge 
of planks nailed to a row of six-horse 
wagons. John Kline is the victim of 
bushwhackers Jake Acker and Joe Riddle. 

After the Civil War, May's interest seems 
to flag and so will that of the reader. A sec- 
tion in a later chapter, on the early days of 
Bridgewater College (including a notorious 
scandal) will revive the latter, as will the 
history and development of the town of 
Bridgewater, of which May once served as 
Mayor. But modern development gets 
scant attention and the dwindling number 
of area Confederate veterans (the last died 
in 1940) seems to serve as a thermostat for 
May's historical fervor. The book ends 
with obituaries of area notables of the 
post-Civil War era and 1900-1940 history is 
summarized in a single, closing paragraph. 

Throughout the historical section of the 
book the story of the Brethren ( May insists 
on calling them the "Tunkers") is inter- 
twined with that of other religious groups. 
May gives them full justice, even calling the 
Tunkers the dominant denomination in the 
end. The historical material on the 
Brethren and on Bridgewater College will 
make the book important reading for 
"Tunkers" far beyond the Valley. 

Life Under Four Flags in North River 
Basin of Virginia is a long and cumber- 
some book, like its title. It suffers seriously 
for lack of a full index. It is terribly expen- 
sive. But the wealth of material and the 
whimsical charm with which it is presented 
redeems it. A beautiful "four flags" dust 
jacket on the outside enhances it and 95 

FOR SALE-"House of Sanger-Vol II" is 
ready for distribution. $18,50 per copy incl. 
p & h, paid in advance. Over 80 pictures, 
With 9 generations in some lines. Hard cover, 
well bound. Order from: Rachel Sanger 
Bowen, 616 Marshall Ave., Bellwood, IL 

WANTED — Middle-aged woman for compa- 
nion to elderly woman recovering from 
broken hip. Live in. References. Write Mrs. J. 
W. Newman, Rt. 1, Box 36, Salisbury, PA 

TRAVEL— with Sister Anna Mow. Leave 
March 7, 1977, for 11 glorious days in Israel. 
Jordan. Egypt. Enrollment limited. $949 00 
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Conference Tour: 1 week London CHARTER, 
Host conductor Harold B, Brumbaugh. Infor- 
mation Weimer-Oller Travel Agency, Inc., 
405 Penn St., Huntingdon, PA 16652. (814) 


James H. Lehman. 

Centering on the decade 1840 — 
1850, this book touches on such 
aspects of Brethren life as life-style, 
the importance and use of the Bible, 
ordinances, dress, w^orship, love 
feast, baptism, the "order" of the 
Brethren, illustrious persons, eastern 
Brethren and western Brethren. A 
vivid portrait of a courageous com- 
munity that dared to be different, to 
live entirely according to the Bible 
"as it reads," and to dress and act in 
ways that often made them seem 
outlandish to their more sophistica- 
ted countrymen. $2.45 paper plus 
35(t: p&h. 

maps and photos on the inside enrich it. 
The difference between Four Flags and or- 
dinary books of its genre is the difference 
between walking through an orderly, sterile 
museum and spending a rainy day in an at- 
tic cluttered with tantalizing old boxes, 
trunks, and bookshelves. — Kermon 

January 1977 messenger 39 


A look at the company we keep 

If individuals are known by the company they 
keep, can the same be said of churches? Who we 
are in part is determined by who inspires us, who 
stretches us in our vision, who draws us into com- 
mon enterprise. 

One group deserving of serious scrutiny by the 
Church of the Brethren is the cluster known as 
"the young evangelicals." In its striving for a 
biblically rooted discipleship this group stands as 
a challenge not only to the evangelical cultural es- 
tablishment but to churches up and down the 
religious spectrum. 

Through such highly commendable periodicals 
as Sojourners and The Other Side, through the 
epochal 1973 Declaration of Evangelical Social 
Concern, and through such illuminating 
statements as Ronald J. Sider's "Call for 
Evangelical Nonviolence" (Christian Century, 
Sept. 15, 1976) this group has a growing public 
forum. This role is now further enhanced by the 
book. Agenda for Biblical People, by Sojourner 
editor Jim Wallis. 

Wallis and his associates see the gospel, when 
lived as intended, as being on a collision course 
with the systems of the world. His plea is for 
American church leaders to cease being chaplains 
to the culture and to begin being prophets, 
prophets who unmask such idols as "the con- 
sumptive mentality, the will to power and 
domination, the oppressions of race, sex, and 
class, the arrogance of national destiny, and the 
efficacy of violence." In short, to stop trusting 
the "goodness" of the world's powers and insti- 
tutions and, in the tradition of biblical faith, to 
respond at times in ways that may be "quite 

Within the church itself, Wallis contends that 
if renewal is to occur it will come neither through 
innovative projects of evangelism nor programs of 

social action . . . neither through new members 
nor new budgets . . . neither through the gift of 
tongues nor creative forms of worship. Rather, in 
the young evangelical consciousness the means of 
renewal is in radical obedience, becoming that 
new community, that prophetic minority which is 
a living testimony to the presence of the kingdom 
of God in the world. 

To be sure, that community is not to be 
turned in on itself nor is its sole concern personal 
redemption. Salvation in Christ is seen as having 
to do with personal sin but also as entailing 
liberation from enslavement to the powers of the 
world. The presence of the Christian community 
is to be felt foremost in the midst of conflict, at 
points where alienation and antagonism are most 
severe and where reconciliation and new life are 
most needed. The mantle of servanthood is taken 
on not as a denial of power but as an alternative 
mode of power that employs truth, creativity, vi- 
sion, sacrifice, dissent, suffering, healing, 
perseverance, conscience, obedience, resistance, 
and celebration as signs of the kingdom. 

In all that the young evangelicals are saying, 
there is much that is "Brethren" and, as might be 
hoped, there are Brethren individuals among 
them. But there is much that stands in judgment 
of the easy peace most of us in the church have 
with things as they are. 

If we as a church are to be known by the com- 
pany we keep, the body of young evangelicals is a 
constructive influence. Constructive, that is, if we 
want to face up to the quality of our discipleship, 
the character of our faith community, our calling 
to stand with the oppressed, the exploited, the 

Are we ready for company like that? — h.e.r. 

40 MESSENGER January 1977 

)i . • ->» 

\ I' IV 





"■**'' 5' ?-'-?*>., 




-% -^* ^. 

can entitle you to a charitable contribu- 
tion deduction 

can save long-term capital gains tax if 
funded with appreciated property 

' can provide an attractive income for life, 
with no management worries 

< can save estate taxes for heirs 

i can increase spendable income 

Write or call today. We will gladly pro- 
vide information based on individual 

Church of the Brethren General Board 
Office of Stewardship Enlistment 
1451 Dundee Ave.. Elgin, IL 60120 
Telephone 312-742-5100 

Please send me more information on the gift 
that brings results 




day yr) 







Messenger in Mercersburg 

Grandmother Royer couldn't get 
about much anymore but she still 
wanted to keep up with doings about 
the Brotherhood. And she did. 

From her rocking chair she kept up 
with the "contemplated meetings," 
"gains for the kingdom," and who 
among old acquaintances had "fallen 
asleep." She winnowed her way 
through "kingdom gleanings" and 
learned of local church activities from 
"correspondents notes." She knew 
what queries would be discussed at 
next Annual Meeting and who the 
newest missionaries were for China 
and Scandinavia. She set a great store 
by Bible studies and articles on 
Brethren beliefs. She learned to know 
all the great and good sisters and 
brothers of her day and before. 

How did Grandmother Royer, from 
her rocker, keep up with all the 
Brethren doings back there in 1917? 
She read Messenger! 

How can you keep up today? Read 



Margaret & John Metzler: 
World citizens 

CROP at age 30: 
Still brash and exciting 



•\ Q John and Margaret Metzler: World Citizens. Hardly 

anyone would look on an Idaho hilltop for "world citizens," but that's 
where Ken Morse went to interview John and Margaret Metzler and 
learn about their role in founding CROP. 

A 3 CROP at Age 30: Still Brash and Exciting. After 30 years 

CROP is still going strong and promises leadership in fighting world 
hunger in the years ahead. Story by Norman F. Reber. 

1 A The Touch of the Master. Carl W. Zeigler Sr.s Bible study 

points up the need, both physically and mentally, for persons to know 
the experience of touching. 

4 O Touch! Glenn Stanford follows up the theme of touching with a plea 
for more human touching. "It's a ministry like unto that of our 
crucified and resurrected living Lord Jesus." 

20 Shadows Into Dawn. S. Loren Bowman posed a question at last 
February's General Board meeting: "Is the usual enough?" It set off an 
exploration of priorities, on which the general secretary now reports. 

24 Where Belonging Begins, a church needs to know its story for 

the same reason that persons trace their own roots. Terrie Miller takes 
a tour of the denomination's historical library, the place "where be- 
longing begins." 

38 ^®**'"9 ^^^ Hang of Hunger, a Southern Ohio youth group 
gets the hang of hunger in a week-long simulation of rich nation/ poor 
nation conditions. Report by Byron M. Flory Jr. 

In Touch visits Willard and Estella Sellers of Bourbon, Ind.; Mark Tritt of 
Aurora, 111.; and Andrew Holderreed of Tacoma, Wash. (2) . . . Outlook 
reports on Richmond agenda; Lilly-funded program; N-PAC; NAACP leader; 
Aging ministry; Staff changes; Archbishop Trifa; RSV new edition; Good 
News Bible; Ebla tablets (start on 4) . . . Underlines (7) . . . Update (8) . . . 
Resources, "Shadows Into Dawn," by Shirley J. Heckman (24) . . . Column, 
"Reflecting on Cuba," by Merle Crouse (28) . . . Column, "Broadcast Share- 
holders," by Stewart M. Hoover (30) . . . Resources, "Easter Banner," by 
Wilbur E. Brumbaugh (32) . . . Turning Points (33) . . . Here I Stand, state- 
ments by Carl Eshbach, Louise Denham Bowman, Lerry W. Fogle, and Peter 
Michael (34) . . . Editorial (40) 


Howard E Royer 


Kermon Thomason 


Kenneth I Morse 


Clyde E Weaver, Ruby F Rhoades 


Gwendolyn F Bobb 


Galen B Ogden 

VOL 126, NO 2 


CREDITS; Cover-Art by Joyce Miller. 2 right. 
25 Edward J. Buzinski. 4 top Don Honick. 5, 8, 
12, 17, .19 RNS, 6, 21, 2.1. 24-27, 33 Nguycn-Van- 
Gia. II Wilbur E, Brumbaugh. 13 Norman F, 
Reber, 14 upper left Edward E. Schumann & 
Associates; others CROP. 15 CROP. 18 Wallo- 
witch. 29 Merle Crouse. 30 Carol Riggs. 

Messenger is the official publication of the 
Church of the Brethren. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug, 20. 1918. under Act of Congress of 
Oct, 17. 1917, Filing date. Oct, I. 1976, Messenger 
is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
a subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecu- 
menical Press Service, Biblical quotations, unless 
otherwise indicated, are from the Revised Standard 

Subscription rates; $6,00 per year for indi- 
vidual subscriptions; $4.80 per year for Church 
Group Plan; $4,80 per year for gift subscriptions; 
$3,15 for school rate (9 months); life subscription. 
$80,00. If you move clip old address from 
Messenger and send with new address. 
Mow at least five weeks for address 
change. Messenger is owned and 
published monthly by the General 
Services Commission, Church of the 
Brethren General Board, I45I Dundee 
Elgin. Ill, 60120. Second-class 
postage paid at Elgm. 111.. Feb. 1977, Copyright 
1977, Church of the Brethren General Board. 



Dear Mr. President: 

I write to congratulate you on winning the 
presidential election. My prayers for you shall 
continue as I rejoice at your victory. Be assured 
of my support, prayers, and encouragement. 

Within my strong puritanical heritage I was 
taught that Christians should not vote. Brethren 
always have been very careful to separate church 
and state. Political involvement was not only 
discouraged but considered sinful in my home 
church where I grew up saturated with 

However, as I continued to explore, examine, 
experiment, and grow in my faith, I made a deci- 
sion based upon my scriptural conviction that 
government was instituted by God. Therefore, I 
registered and began assuming more rights as a 

My persuasion in your direction began as I 
listened to you at the convention, watched you 
during the debates and read your Playboy inter- 
view in its entirety. I read much about you 
being born again. Your statement in my favorite 
weekly news magazine convinced me to vote for 
you when you said, "1 established a more in- 
timate relationship with Christ. I developed a 
deeper sense of inner peace." I believe God has 
chosen you to lead our country in his way. 

Under the divine leadership of Christ I know 
you will not disappoint me and the American 
people. God bless you, Mr. President. 

Ev./\MAE Crist 
Hallam, Pa. 


May I share a few thoughts on the passing 

Through the mass media we are being 
hammered continually with the idea that hap- 
piness and security can be bought. This is a lie. 
Our civilization is a monstrous lie. 

Which of us who claim to be Christian is not 
deeply entangled in this lie? "Do not lay up for 
yourselves treasures on earth." says Jesus. And 
again, "Why do you call me 'Lord, Lord,' and 
not do what I tell you?" Covetousness is idolatry 
(Luke 12:15; Eph. 5:5; Col. 3:5). Mammon is a 
false god. 

No person in this country can be elected to a 
position of power over us who does not repeat 
the lie. We insist on being lied to. Do we im- 
agine that God will tolerate forever a nation of 
liars? Ten million Jimmy Carters cannot stand 
between us and the judgment of God. Let's stop 
kidding ourselves. 

Christian Bashore 
Gettysburg, Ohio 


We ought to let these lines from Stephen Vin- 
cent Benet sink into our souls: 

Life is not lost by dying! Life is lost 
Minute by minute, day by dragging day. 
In all the thousand small uncaring 
ways .... 
Always and always, life can be 

psgs ©nm 

Lost without vision, but not lost 
by death. 

Maybe, after all, death is not the most tragic 
thing that can happen to a person. But we think 
so, and therefore it follows logically that the 
death penalty is the ultimate penalty to be paid. 

But life is not always lost by dying. Life is lost 
in all the thousand small uncaring ways. Our 
lives can be lost by not caring. Society's life can 
be lost by a lack of caring at the core of it. 

It could be that the most severe penalty to be 
paid by one who has nol learned how to live is 
to learn the an of living. That is difficult and 
hard. That takes faith, and it takes real guts. 

It is easy for society to kill a person. Gary 
Gilmore wants to die, and there are 200 
volunteers ready to pull the triggers to kill 
Gilmore. It won't be difficult when the time 
comes. And most of us will forget that Gilmore 
ever existed. 

But consider that the most severe sentence 
that could be put upon him, and the most dif- 
ficult task society could undertake, would be: 
"Gilmore, we are going to teach you how to 

How many volunteers do we have for that? 
200? How many have the faith it could be done? 
Probably not many of us. Maybe not one! 

But 1 doubt if God has given up on Gilmore. 

Life is not lost by dying, but in all the thou- 
sand small, uncaring ways. Life is lost when 
faith is lost! 

B. Wayne Crist 
McPherson, Kans. 


I have always been grateful for the experiences 
I had while at Manchester College. I do feel like 
a member of your community and carry this in 
my heart with pride. 

With joy, I read the November issue of 
Messenger. It states the wholesomeness of 
holistic stewardship in a clear, warm, and car- 
ing manner. 

Those who carefully read these pages will no 
longer reach only for their wallets when they 
hear the word stewardship but will realize their 
potential and responsibility in a world crying for 
their care. 

Thank you for dealing with the subject of 
Christian stewardship in a manner worthy of the 

NoRDAN C. Murphy 
Executive Director for Stewardship 
National Council of Churches 
New York, N. Y. 


With the Bicentennial year just ended, I feel 1 
must try to bring some Christian blessings into 
this great experience our United States of 
America had in 1976. 

Our country is a country of freedom. One of 
our freedoms is freedom of religion, and, of 
course, it was bought by revolution. The ancient 
biblical wars were not that much different from 
our own Revolutionary War. which gained for 

our ancestors the freedom they desirea: the 
freedom to raise their families as they wished; 
the freedom to worship God as they pleased; the 
freedom to teach their children about the God in 
which they believed. 

This has been an important year in our coun- 
try, and our children and grandchildren will read 
about it in our public schools. Let us not forget 
to remind them that we in this country have the 
freedom to worship God in our own way 
because of these ancestors. We should teach 
them that they should attend service on the Sab- 
bath; tithe, if possible; and work for the church 
every day of their lives. 

Mary Hoff Carson 
Riverdale, 111. 


The December Messenger is an excellent 
issue from the standpoint of history and make- 
up. There was much excellent material about 
issues and individuals that should be preserved. 1 
plan this evening to read Pat Helman's article 
about Ira Frantz to him. 

I am glad for the editorial boost to M. R. 
Zigler and Chuck Boyer in the GEP program 

However, I have these suggestions: 

1) The type of paper and the color is too ex- 

2) The type is often in this issue too small and 
too light for us older ones to read. 

3) We miss the church notes and obituaries. 

4) In this issue of notables the face of D. L. 
Miller, father-in-law of G. B. Royer is missing. 
Following him for 20 years was Otho Winger. 
Then in the last 50 years no one has influenced 
the church more than M. R. Zigler. 

5) It is difficult to turn the sentiment around 
that is prevalent among many who do not sub- 
scribe anymore to Messenger that the material 
is somewhat sophisticated. 

Lawrence W. Shultz 
North Manchester, Ind. 


The Catholic Guild for the Blind has worked 
for over 27 years to combat the limitations 
faced by persons with visual problems. One area 
of our work that is of a mutual concern is 
assistance for religious leaders. 

With the use of Large Type print (18 point) 
and special buff-colored paper it is possible for 
many who cannot read newspaper sized print- 
ing to be able to read again. 

Through the efforts of the Guild Volunteer 
Staff we are able to reprint those prayers, ser- 
mons, readings, etc., which are the vital elements 
of church leaders. 

There is no charge for the service thanks to 
the generosity of supporters of the Guild. 

Send requests for Large Type preparation to 
Rosemary Gillespie, Project Coordinator, CGB 
67 West Division St., Chicago, IL 60610. 

William F. Lynch 
Executive Director 
The Catholic Guild 
Chicago, 111. 

As our cover stories last month and this 
illustrate. Brethren opt for the ecumeni- 
cal route in their world ministries. It is 
.sometimes overlooked that the "um- 
brella" under which we are most often 
found is J/ an organization our de- 
nomina- |[ tion was ff instrumen- 
tal in \\/^ founding // j^ — Church 

World Service. This month we lift up the 
30th anniversary of CROP, the Commu- 
nity Hunger Appeal of Church World 

It seemed fitting to call Brethren atten- 
tion to this event by telling the story of 
John and Margaret Metzler, the Breth- 
ren most intimately connected with 
CROP beginnings. Messenger associate 
editor Ken Morse wrote the Metzler story 
and Norman Reber, post-30 BVSer on 
our communication team did the CROP 
companion article. 

General secretary of the General Board 
S. Loren Bowman, consultant for 
educational development Shirley J. 
Heckman, Latin America representative 
Merle Crouse. media advocacy consultant 
Stewart M. Hoover, consultant for 
worship/heritage resources Wilbur E. 
Brumbaugh, and Agenda managing 
editor Lois Teach Paul are other staff 
members contributing to this month's 

A twin-arUcle feature, on touching, was 
prepared by Carl W. Zeigler Sr., 
Elizabethtown College professor of 
religion and philosophy emeritus, and 
Glenn Stanford, pastor of the McFarland 
(Calif.) congregation. 

Byron M. Flory Jr. is pastor of 
Southern Ohio's Beaver Creek congrega- 
tion. Terrie Miller lives and works in 
Ithaca, N.Y., and Sandra J. Zinn is from 
Elkhart, Ind. 

Here 1 Stand statements were con- 
tributed by Carl Eschbach, Dayton, Ohio 
minister; Louise Denham Bowman, 
Washington Office manager/administra- 
tive assistant: Lerry W. Fogle, pastor of 
the Rocky Springs Community congrega- 
tion, Frederick, Md.; and Peter Michael, 
intern pastor of the Beacon Heights con- 
gregation. Fort Wayne. Ind. — The 

February 1977 messenger 1 

Willard and Estella Sellers: An extended family' 

Willard and Estella Sellers are like 
many other rural American couples. 
Both were born in Bourbon, Indiana, 
in the late 1890s, and they have lived 
there since. They were married in 
1918. reared three daughters, and 
they earned their living by farming. 
These are the simple statistics relat- 
ing to 58 years of married life — but it 
is the daily living of their faith and 
their commitment to the Church of 
the Brethren that sets them apart in 
many ways. 

In 1946 Willard was one of the 
"sea-going cowboy" crew on the 
twice-detained Halstcd taking cows 
to war-torn Poland. The first delay 
was a three-week longshoremen 
strike. Finally all was ready on the 
ship and they had been underway 
only a few hours when the ship col- 
lided with an empty tanker which 
then caught fire. The crew members 
of the Halstcd were convinced that 
the only thing that had saved them 
was the fact that "religious" men 
were on board. They were held up 
three more weeks while their ship was 
repaired and then were able to carry 
out their mission. 

Other international contacts for 
the couple came with spending three 
months in Puerto Rico in 1950 work- 
ing at Castaner Hospital — Estella 

mending, Willard pouring concrete 
and doing carpentry work. They 
opened their home in 1952 to a Ger- 
man exchange student and in 1955 a 
young Indian man lived with them as 
part of a farm youth exchange. 

Forerunners of the Post-30 
BVSers, Willard and Estella served at 
New Windsor in 1962-1963, followed 
by five months as houseparents for 
the BVS unit at Falfurrias, Texas. On 
several other occasions in later years 
they volunteered at the Church 
World Service Center in Houston for 
several months at a time. Their most 
recent volunteer work was one day a 
week at a day-care center in Ply- 
mouth, Ind. 

They continue to keep busy with 
the activities of their local Mt. Plea- 
sant congregation, and they enjoyed 
the "Seasoned Citizens" camp at 
Camp Mack last fall. Recent projects 
have been making corn husk dolls, 
wooden cars, blankets, and camp 
stools for gifts. 

The Sellers "family" includes not 
only three daughters and husbands 
(Margaret and Phil Zinn, Velma and 
Dale Bules. and Lorna and John 
Miller), 16 grandchildren, and 16 
great-grandchildren, but all of God's 
children. — Sandra Kussart Zinn 



> > :> V^- 


Mark Tritt: In the family 

His leonine mane and head-turning 
good looks would qualify him as a 
male model, but they are not what 
got him to Guatemala. 

Carpentry skills learned from his 
father — Ray Tritt, former Nigeria 
missionary, who built Kulp Bible 
School — plus high school Spanish 
are what qualified 18-year-old Mark 
Tritt of Aurora, 111., for a month of 
earthquake relief work in Guatemala 
last summer. 

It took Mark only one day to 
decide to go after a call came from 
New Windsor's Mac Coffman — 
Brethren disaster relief coordinator. 
The only stipulation Mark insisted 
on was being back home in time for 
the Brethren youth Study Action 
Conference at McPherson, Kans., in 
July and Annual Conference follow- 
ing — Mark is active in the Boulder 
Hill Neighborhood congregation and 
SAC was an event to which he had 
been looking forward. 

So on June 20 Mark and five other 
Brethren youth from across the 
Brotherhood flew from Miami to 
Guatemala City — near the center of 
the earthquake devastation. From 
there they went 50 miles to the moun- 
tain village of Patzicia, where some 
400 people had been killed and 90 
percent of the 7000 population left 
homeless when their adobe houses 
crumbled in the quake. 

Working in groups of three — along- 
side Mennonites and Salvation Army 
volunteers — the Brethren youth 
helped build new. sturdier homes for 
those citizens least able to rebuild. 

2 MESSENGER February 1977 


Mark's responsibility was with the 
roofing team. Some 500 homes were 
due to be completed by December. 

Mark was able to identify well with 
the Guatemalan villagers' life-style — 
so much reminded him of his child- 
hood in rural Nigeria. He was struck 
by the cultural difference between 
Guatemala and the US. "We have so 
many more material things," he said. 

Being with the Brethren under a 
Church World Service "umbrella" 
bothered Mark a little, he confesses. 
"I would rather have us getting in- 
dividual credit for our work," says 
Mark. "But I know the Brethren 
aren't there for the glory bit, and I 
can live with that. I'd do the same 
sort of thing again if I got the 

Probably that chance to serve 
again will come often. Mark is now 
in his first year at Western Illinois 
University, studying industrial arts 
and education, indicating he will fol- 
low — and elaborate on — the family 

Asked what he thought of an 18- 
year-old youth (Dan Petry; see 
Messenger, December, page 3) hav- 
ing been elected to the Church of the 
Brethren General Board, Mark 
grinned and opined, "If we 18-year- 
olds can go out in the world and 
serve our neighbors, I reckon we 
qualify for a voice on the Board." 

I reckon they do. — K.T. 

Andrew Holderreed: Serving people who hurt 

The young father was screaming in 
anger and grief as three police of- 
ficers restrained him. His four- 
month-old baby son had been found 
dead in his crib. 

"Crib deaths are among the 
hardest of the crisis situations that we 
have to work through," says Andrew 
Holderreed in describing the police 
chaplaincy service he has helped to 
organize and staff in Tacoma, Wash. 
"In this situation I was able to 
minister to the young parents and to 
the officers who were uncertain of the 
way they had handled the incident. 
It's at times like this that we are 
grateful for this opportunity that puts 
ministers where we can help to heal 
the broken." 

The Tacoma police chaplaincy 
plan was developed by city ad- 
ministrators and the pastors' associa- 
tion in 1968. Initially, a minister 
would ride in the squad with two of- 
ficers on Friday and Saturday nights. 
"We are not police, and we take part 
only as we are asked to accompany 
the officers in answering a call. At 
first we met with some suspicion. We 
were viewed as 'Holy Joe' intruders. 
Gradually the officers came to see we 
were interested in law and order but 
more importantly in the people in- 

The program soon evolved to the 
scheduling of chaplains at the police 
communication center. "A lot of 
police work is a sort of community 
baby sitting. Lonely, uneasy, 
frightened people will call the police 
just to talk to someone. 'Here's one 

you should talk to,' a sergeant would 
say and transfer to me. Sometimes a 
call will present an opportunity en- 
abling a chaplain to take over a 
problem that is better handled off the 
police blotter — a drunken, gun- 
wielding husband, who, when sober, 
is a hard-working family man with 
no police record; a young mother 
wounded from a beating, sitting in 
the bus station, with no place to go. 
The chaplain then becomes the con- 
cerned friend who listens to the 
husband's troubles, or the one who 
calls the woman's mother, then sits 
with her and her baby until the 
mother arrives." 

Recently the chaplains received 
radios, and duty has been extended 
to a week-long, 24-hour, on-call serv- 
ice. By now they are considered part 
of the team in calls where it appears 
that comfort, counsel, or aid will be 
needed. The police too are asking for 
counseling in their own tension-filled 

Andy Holderreed sees his service 
with the police chaplaincy as part of 
the mission work to which he 
dedicated his life and pursued as a 
Brethren missionary in India. To be 
able to serve people who hurt is a ful- 
fillment of his calling. The service- 
minded church he serves at Larch- 
mont feels so, too, for its members 
are working in additional programs 
in community service. Andy 
Holderreed's chaplaincy fits the 
Brethren tub and towel witness in 
Tacoma, Wash. — Lois Teach Paul 

February 1977 messenger 3 

Six new queries placed 
on Richmond agenda 

At least six items of new business and six 
items of unfinished business are on the 
docket for the 191st Church of the 
Brethren Annual Conference. The event 
will be held June 21-26 in the Coliseum in 
downtown Richmond, Va. 

Under the theme, "To Serve in a Chang- 
ing World," Moderator Charles M. Bieber, 
Brodbecks, Pa., will guide the six days of 
business and inspirational activities. Pastor 
of the Black Rock church in Southern 
Pennsylvania and former missionary in 
Nigeria, Bieber will be the keynote speaker 
at the Tuesday evening opening. 

Other speakers for general sessions in- 
clude S. Loren Bowman, general secretary 
of the General Board, Wednesday evening; 
Ruby F. Rhoades, Washington Office 
representative, Thursday evening; and 
Duane H. Ramsey, pastor, Washington, 
D.C., Sunday morning. The speaker for 
the Saturday evening general session is to 
be announced. 

Friday evening will offer a musical 
program of two segments, one led by Andy 
and Terry Murray of Huntingdon, Pa., and 
the other led by the Annual Conference 
Choir conducted by Harry L. Simmers of 
Elizabethtown, Pa. 

Leaders for the early morning Bible 
studies include Robert A. Byerly, La Porte, 
Ind.; Rick Gardner, Elgin, III.; Lauree 
Hersch Meyer, Charlotte, N.C.; Anna B. 
Mow, Roanoke, Va.; Stephen B. Reid, 
Atlanta, Ga.; and Armon C. Snowden, 
Hershey, Pa. 

Worship planning is under the leader- 
ship of Lena Miller, member of Central 
Committee, assisted by Theresa Eshbach, 
Mildred Hess Grimley, Jimmy Ross, and 
Harry L. Simmers. 

Insights Sessions, held at the conclusion 
of the general evening programs and on 
Sunday morning, again will offer an array 
of topics, formats, and experiences to con- 

New queries received in recent months 
by the Central Committee include the fol- 

• Sale and control of handguns. Sub- 
mitted by Pleasant Hill church and South- 
ern Ohio District Conference. 

• Violence and the use of firearms. Sub- 
mitted by the York Center church and Illi- 
nois and Wisconsin District Conference. 

• Reinstatement of the office of elder. 
Submitted by the New Hope church and 

1977 Moderator Charles M. Bieber will be 
the Conference keynote speaker on June 21. 

the Southern Missouri — Arkansas District 

• Editorial policy regarding sexist 
language. Submitted by Fellowship church 
and Pacific Southwest Conference. 

• Equitable representation of women on 
boards and committees. Submitted by 
Mid-Atlantic District Board and Confer- 

• Use of wealth and possessions. Sub- 
mitted by Northern Plains District Board 
and Conference. 

Items referred for study by the 1975 An- 
nual Conference at Dayton are the follow- 

• Review and evaluation of General 
Board program. Committee: Wayne F. 
Geisert, ch., William R. Faw, James S. 

Flora, Anna B. Mow, and Raymond R. 

• Marriage and divorce. Committee: 
Beth Glick-Rieman, ch., Helen Evans, 
John Gibble, Robert W. Neff, and Stephen 
B. Reid. 

• Christian ethics and law and order. 
Task Force, appointed by the General 
Board: G. Wayne Glick, Augusta Good, 
Henry Kenderdine, Joseph M. Long, Alice 
Martin, Timothy D. Rieman, Robert Rod- 
reiguez, and Charles Boyer. 

Items referred for study by the 1976 An- 
nual Conference at Wichita are the follow- 

• Teaching of ethics and morals in the 
public schools. Committee: Jeffrey Copp, 
ch., John B. Grimley, Ronald D. Spire, 
Marty Smeltzer West, and John F. Young. 

• Follow-up on 1970 General Board 
paper on equality for women. Committee: 
Louise Baugher Black, ch., Wayne Buckle, 
Violet Cox, Barbara Enberg, and David 

• Youth perspectives on the General 
Board. Committee; appointed by the 
General Board: Ralph Detrick. Dena 
Pence, and Dan Petry. 

The business and general sessions will 
convene in the below-the-ground arena of 
the Coliseum, which for stage events seats 
1 1,500. The S24 million structure was com- 
pleted in 1971. 

Insights sessions generally will be held in 
the John Marshall Hotel three blocks 

Information on housing was scheduled 
to reach the churches in January. Reserva- 
tions for hotel and motel lodging will be 
arranged through the Convention Bureau. 

Lodging will also be available at the 
Virginia Commonwealth University, 12 
blocks away, and camping at the State 
Fairgrounds, three miles away. 

Richmond's brick and copper Coliseum will provide modern facilities for Conference. 
It is located only three blocks from Conference headquarters. Hotel John Marshall. 


4 MESSENGER February 1977 

Foundation funds effort 
to train local leaders 

A Church of the Brethren pilot program to 
strengthen the small church has been 
awarded funding of $66,000 by Lilly En- 
dowment, Inc. of Indianapolis. 

Focus for the project will be con- 
gregations in the Southeastern and 
Western Plains districts lacking the means 
to support a full-time minister. The 
program sets out to train part-time, self- 
supported pastors to work with a core of 
lay persons in a shared ministry. 

Plans for the venture were drawn jointly 
by the Parish Ministries Commission and 
Bethany Theological Seminary. 

"Half the congregations of our 
denomination lack the resources to engage 
a full-time professional minister." ex- 
plained Earle W. Fike Jr., Parish 
Ministries executive. "Size is only one fac- 
tor. Concerns for ministerial leadership, 
feelings of inferiority, and isolation all con- 
tribute to the malaise." 

The proposal, termed Education For a 
Shared Ministry, tackles the leadership 
crisis by having the congregation elect a 
minister-in-training from among its 
members. The congregation then becomes 
the basic setting in which the minister's 
theological training occurs. 

At the same time the elected minister 
engages in specific vocational training in 
order to become self-supporting. The con- 
gregation, in turn, participates in the 
educational task and in the actual ministry, 
developing a concept of shared ministry. 

The minister chosen is to be one whose 
life goals are identified with the church and 
the community. To assist the elected 
minister will be five laypersons who will 
train for special tasks in ministry. 

Rick Gardner, Parish Ministries staff 
member and an adjunct teacher at Bethany 
Seminary, will administer the program on 
a half-time basis, working with related per- 
sons from the congregations, districts, 
seminary and Parish Ministries. 

The Lilly grant will finance the program 
through its first two years, and denomina- 
tional and seminary funding will cover the 
third and subsequent years. 

"One goal of the program is to affirm the 
local congregation as a base for theological 
training." commented Warren F. Groff. 
Bethany Seminary President. "And a se- 
cond is to develop within the congregation 
a new sense of vitality and purpose." 

The proposal also is seen as providing a 

strong alternative to the use of weekend 
supply pastors and to the calling into 
ministry of untrained persons who resist 
training and growth opportunities. 

Lilly Endowment approved the project 
as a competitive grants program in 
theological education based in the con- 

Drafting the proposal were Warren F. 
Groff and Donald E. Miller of the Bethany 
Seminary faculty. Earle W. Fike Jr. and J. 
Bentley Peters of the Parish Ministries 
staff, and Rick Gardner, associated with 
both institutions. 

N-PAC enlists support 
for peace academy 

A nonpartisan organization to enlist wide 
and sustained support for a national peace 
academy is already under way. 

Known as N-PAC. the peace institution 
advocates encourage citizens to enroll as 
regular contributors. Alan Deeter. 
Manchester College, who voiced Church of 
the Brethren support for an academy last 
year, is a member of N-PAC's steering and 
advisory committee. 

A top objective of N-PAC is to build 
support of Senate Bill 1976 which was con- 
sidered at congressional hearings late last 
year, but did not come up for a vote. 
S. 1976. to establish a "George Washing- 
ton Peace Academy," was introduced in 
June 1975 by Senators Vance Hartke (D. 
Ind.), Mark Hatfield (R. Ore.), and Jen- 
nings Randolph (D. W. Va.). Another pur- 
pose is to continue the bicentennial-year in- 
itiative for a peace academy by providing 
citizens with a mechanism to make their 
opinions known. 

The organization urges all people in- 
terested in peace to join as contributing 
members, study the issues, recruit members 
and organization sponsors, organize steer- 
ing groups by congressional districts, 
publicize the proposal and keep 
N-PAC advised on progress, ideas and 

N-PAC in turn would provide basic 
documents, monitor the congressional 
process, suggest local action at each phase 
and organize the lobby effort at the 
nation's capitol. 

Interested readers can contact the 
organization at N-PAC, 1629 K St., N.W., 
Suite 400. Washington. DC 20006 

Former pastor elected 
executive of NAACP 

New head of the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People is 
Benjamin L. Hooks, a Baptist minister, 
lawyer, a former savings and loan official 
and judge, and most recently a member of 
the Federal Communications Commission, 
He is serving concurrently through July 
with Roy Wilkins. retiring executive direc- 

As a pastor. Hooks served Baptist con- 
gregations in his native Memphis and in 

As a lawyer, he has been active in civil 
rights cases and criminal cases. 

He was the first black member of the 
communications commission, having been 
nominated by President Nixon in 1972. 

The 67-year-old civil rights organization 
he now heads has been hard pressed finan- 
cially for several reasons, among them a 
court judgment brought by white 
merchants in Port Gibson, Miss., as a 
result of a 1966 boycott. 

Representatives of ecumenical and 
denominational agencies pledged support 
through grants or loans to assist the 

beleaguered civil rights organization. 
Among the responses was a $1,000 grant 
by the Church of the Brethren World 
Ministries Commission from its emerging 
concerns funds. 

Membership of the NAACP stands at a 
half million. 

NAACP's Benjamin Hooks: "This is one of 
the most important /ohs in the country." 

February 1977 messenger 5 

The aging: Alternatives 
to brick and mortar 

Evidence the development and expansion 
of homes for the aging in the Church of the 
Brethren over the last decade or two and 
you will see where a heavy amount of 
resources of the church's people have gone. 
The care of retirees has become a front- 
rank ministry of the church. 

In Michigan, where Brethren in 22 con- 
gregations total a sparse 2,400, an alternate 
approach is being undertaken to serving 
the aging. The accent is on "residential 
ministries," a multi-faceted approach 
that steers clear of developing a single, 
centralized facility for use by a limited 
number of persons. 

To begin with, the district's committee to 
study life care communities noted that 
there are numerous church-related retire- 
ment homes in Michigan and adjacent 
states — Brethren, Baptist, Mennonite, 
United Church of Christ. Some have 
vacancies. Information about them is 
being supplied to all churches in the dis- 

Beyond the sharing of such information, 
the district seeks to offer guidelines and 
leadership on hometown resources. Tele- 
phone contacts, foster grandparent pro- 
grams, hot meals, and transportation serv- 
ices are among the approaches to reach the 
elderly in isolation. 

A third aspect of the district's plan is to 
assist congregations in preparing for 
ministries to older persons. Training work- 

shops on various types of ministry and 
Parish Volunteer Service are seen as ena- 
bling steps. 

Finally, the thrust of the Michigan ef- 
fort, which is being coordinated by a three- 
member committee and either part-time 
staff or trained volunteers, is to prepare 
and recommend options for residential 
care. "It is not our basic assumption that a 
retirement/ nursing home is the only option 
available to older persons," the study said. 

Alternatives the district is examining in- 
clude foster care homes, local cooperative 
housing initiated by older persons or by the 
church, and preparation of a handbook 
listing county and state resources that 
assist families in caring for older relatives 
in their own homes. 

How workable the proposal approved by 

New year brings changes 
on General Board staff 

Beginning March 1, Rick Gardner, PMC 
editor for biblical resources, will assume a 
new half-time assignment as director of 
"Education for a Shared Ministry." He 
will continue to serve as an editor and 
biblical consultant on a half-time basis. 

Jointly sponsored by the Parish 
Ministries Commission and Bethany 
Theological Seminary, EFSM is an effort 

degree. She is a member of the Mack 
Memorial Church of the Brethren, Day- 
ton, Ohio. 

Matt Meyer, consultant for evangelism, 
has taken over the duties of Annual Con- 
ference manager on a half-time basis to fill 
the vacancy left by the resignation of 
Hubert Newcomer, new executive director 
of the Florida Brethren Homes, Inc. at 
Sebring. Meyer assumed his new duties the 
first of the year, but continues as consul- 
tant on the evangelism team which includes 
Tom Wilson and Merle Crouse. This team 

person for global awareness/ life style. 
After graduating from Elizabethtown 
College in 1972. she served two years in 
BVS as an assistant in the office of the 
director of volunteer services before taking 
on the resource position. Her plans are un- 
certain at this writing, but she definitely 
hopes to continue her interest in global 
awareness and life-style issues. 

Staff changes in the mailing and ship- 
ping department went into effect with the 
beginning of the new year. R. Dean 
Wenrich succeeded Clinton I. Heckert as 

ft Gluk-Rienum 

R. Gardner 

A. Rensherger 

to train self-supported leadership in con- 
gregations with 100 members or less. (See 
"Foundation Funds Effort to Train Local 
Leaders," page five.) 

On April 1, 1977, Beth Ghck-Rieman, 
personal awareness coordinator in the 
leadership development program, will have 
expanded time released for her portfolio. 
She moves from a one-third time segment 
as a PMC field staff member to a half-time 
assignment as a full PMC staff member. 
Essence of the program is to sensitize 
groups and individuals about the issues 
of the roles of men and women, equality 
and personhood. Glick-Rieman is an 
ordained minister in the Church of the 
Brethren and holds a Doctor of Ministries 

is in regular contact with the Brethren 
evangelism counselor network across the 

Effective this coming September is the 
resignation of Annamae Rensberger from 
her World Ministries position as assistant 
director of BVS training. The same year 
she graduated from La Verne College, 
Rensberger entered BVS, serving in 
numerous European countries, including 
Germany, Sweden, and Yugoslavia. By the 
time she leaves her post, she will have 
served a total of 1 1 years in the position, 
starting at New Windsor and continu- 
ing at Elgin. 

Jan Martin has completed a two-year 
assignment in World Ministries as resource 

department supervisor. A Pennsylvanian 
from Lancaster County, Wenrich has a 
B.S. degree in printing management from 
Rochester Institute of Technology. He 
comes to his new post after a year and a 
half as a management associate in debug- 
ging a new technology for lithography for a 
can manufacturer. Wenrich and his wife 
Trisha have two children. 

Heckert has a record of 22 years of serv- 
ice with the General Board. During a six- 
year period at the old Brethren Publishing 
House at 22 S. State Street in Elgin, he 
worked up to supervisor of the bindery 
department. In 1958 he came to the present 
building and was appointed supervisor of 
mailing and shipping in 1961. 

6 MESSENGER February 1977 

the 1976 district conference will be is yet to 
be measured. What is known, explained 
John Tomlonson. district executive, is 
"a clear decision to apply our resources 
in ministries to person on the local com- 
munity level rather than in bricks 
and mortar." 

Charges against prelate 
poses dilemma to NCC 

A representative to the National Council of 
Churches from the Orthodox Church in 
America has been accused of atrocities 
against the Jews committed in Rumania 
during World War II. Jewish groups, in 
pressing the charge, have urged that the 
prelate. Archbishop Valerian Trifa. be 
either suspended or ousted from the NCC 
Governing Board. 

After a series of top-level deliberations, 
the National Council asked the archbishop 
to "refrain from exercising his duties" on 
the board until church and civil proceed- 
ings against him be completed. 

At the same time the NCC Executive 
Committee affirmed that "Archbishop 
Valerian must be presumed innocent until 
judged otherwise by a competent civil or 
ecclesiastical court." 

A key factor in handling the issue is that 
the NCC constitution gives a member com- 
munion sole authority in appointing or re- 
moving its representatives to the Governing 

Referring to the serious charges against 
Archbishop Trifa, the NCC committee said 
it was particularly concerned that the 
prelate reportedly has made "admissions 
that implicate him in such (anti-Semitic) 
speeches and acts." It added, "While it is 
important to note these accounts are jour- 
nalistic, they should be seriously in- 
vestigated to determine whether they are 

The NCC committee expressed gratitude 
that the Orthodox Church in America, 
which has a membership of one million, 
has decided to undertake an ecclesiastical 
investigation of the charges. 

A case by the US Justice Department, 
charging in a civil proceeding that Arch- 
bishop Trifa lied about his past when he 
obtained US citizenship in the early 1950s, 
also is pending in federal court in Detroit. 

As a result of the controversy, the NCC 
has appointed a special committee to 
review the council's constitution. Diana 
Eberly Bucher, Warsaw, Ind., a lay 
delegate to the NCC Governing Board, is 
among the seven members. 


SELF SUPPORT ... is the goal of SHARE for the minority min- 
istry programs it funds. One program newly attaining this 
status is Hispanos Unidos of Park Slope, Brooklyn, N.Y. , 
which was subject of a Messenger feature in February 1976. 
"Our growth from dependence to independence was accomplish- 
ed through people like you who granted us funds," Julio A. 
Guzman, executive director, informed the SHARE staff. 


has been undertaken by Jabani 

Mambula , former principal of Waka Teachers' College, Biu, 
Nigeria. He now is principal of Homo State School of 
Basic Studies in the Borno capital of Maiduguri . A minis- 
ter and musician, Jabani was one of four Nigerian church 
leaders who visited Brethren in the USA in 1973. 

Carol Smi th , South Bend, Ind. , has also been transferred 
by the Nigerian government from Waka to the new school. 


of the General Board at its Feb. 16-19 

meeting will be L. Wayne Fralin , Orlando, Fla. , a bank ex- 
aminer who chairs the Florida-Puerto Rico District Board. 
He fills the position vacated by Ngamariju Mamza , the Ni- 
gerian who was elected by Annual Conference last June and 
who was unable to clear travel time from his employer. 
Fralin was next highest in the Annual Conference balloting. 


Thousands of bales of clothing 

from the New Windsor Service Center left Baltimore harbor 
for Lebanon in November, to aid some of the 250,000 persons 
in dire circumstances. The International Committee of the 
Red Cross coordinated the distribution. 

ON REACHING OUT . . . Individual Brethren have been named 
to office in an array of leadership organizations. Enos B. 
Heisey , Manlius, N.Y., is the new chairman of the National 
Farm-City Council, Inc. , a voluntary group of 150 organiza- 
tions with interests in agribusiness. . . . John R^. Nantz 
of First Church, Harrisburg, Pa. , is executive vice presi- 
dent of Citizens Alliance to Save Harrisburg, a federation 
of 32 religious and coimnunity organizations. . . . Clyde E. 
Weaver , Elgin, 111. , is chairperson of the Conference for 
Religious Leaders of the National Safety Council. 

Two Elizabethtown College faculty meinbers who hold out- 
side offices are J. Henry Long , re-elected chairman of the 
board of directors of the American Leprosy Missions, and 
Louise Baugher Black , named secretary-treasurer of the Pub- 
lic Committee for the Humanities in Pennsylvania. 

IN MEMORIAM ... David Smith , 24, an In Touch stibject in 
last month's Messenger, died Dec. 16 in a South Bend, Ind., 
hospital. An advance copy of the Messenger story shared 
with David a few days before his death had made the rounds 
of friends and the hospital staff. 

Deaths elsewhere: O. W. Neher , 89, retired Manchester 
College professor, Oct. 18. . 

William H. Yoder , 93, 

who had served in district, regional, and national church 
affairs, Nov. 19, McPherson, Kansas. . . . Norman Ford , 
62, former pastor, Wilmington, Del., Oct. 27. 

February 1977 messenger 7 



1976 Annual Conferencegoers who 

chartered a full flight from the Virlina District to Wichi- 
ta, Kansas received a refund of $536 on their advance pay- 
ment. Rather than divide the sum individually, the group 
decided to contribute the entire amount to the Brethren's 
Home, Greenville, Ohio, an institution whose financial 
plight had been a part of the conference agenda. 


Russell Kiester , development pastor 

of the Lybrook/Nageezi Church of the Brethren fellowship in 
New Mexico, has been named interim facilitator of the Lybrook 
Community Ministry, succeeding David and Janet Fike . 

Within the Lybrook/Nageezi fellowship committees have 
been established for the tasks of nurture, witness, and 
stewardship. Mabel Hesuse is moderator and Tina Wiley clerk. 
The place of worship has been relocated to the school. Wall 
hangings prepared by the women adorn the walls of the new 
chapel. Pastor Kiester has been heavily involved in counsel- 
ing members and community residents . 

COMING EVENTS . . . Richard A. Bollinger , director of the 
division of religion and psychiatry at the Menninger Founda- 
tion, Topeka, Kansas, will be guest leader at the 27th In- 
stitute on the Ministry to the Sick. The institute will 
convene April 18-20 at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 
Baltimore, Md. Host and also speaker will be Clyde Shal- 
lenberger , chaplain of Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

A backpacking trip April 10-22 to the Grand Canyon Nat- 
ional Park is being projected by Camp Brethren Woods. The 
fee is $150. For data, contact David Pratt , Camp Brethren 
Woods, Rt. 1, Box 203, Keezletown, VA 22832. 

IN RECOGNITION . . . George Robertson , the retired pastor 
of the Chimney Run church. Warm Springs, Va. , was cited by 
the Covington Virginian newspaper for 57 years of ministry 
to one congregation. He is 81. . . . Samuel D_. Lindsay , 
Broadway, Va. , pastor of the Flat Rock and Stony Creek 
churches, commemorated 50 years of preaching by presenting 
the first sermon he had delivered. ... A lay member of 
the Everett, Pa., congregation, Galen Detwiler , was honored 
for 40 years of work with the church's youth. . . . Cali- 
fornians Max Baughman , Valley View church, was named Indus- 
trial Educator of the Year by the Los Angeles County Indus- 
trial Association, and Harvey Miles , Bakersfield church. 
Outstanding Employee of the Year by the California School 
Employees Association. 


James B. and Merle Bowman are at Waka 

Schools, Nigeria, James as vice principal of the Training 
College and Merle as teacher in the Secondary School. . . . 
Howard Bernhard is the new pastor of Brethren Village, Lan- 
caster, Pa. , succeeding the late James H. Berkebile . . . . 
David B. Eller , member of the denomination's Historical Com- 
mittee, is assistant professor of history at Bluff ton Col- 
lege in Ohio. . . . Swatara Hill congregation in the Atlan- 
tic Northeast District has installed Robert Turner as its 
first full-time pastor. 

8 MESSENGER February 1977 

RSV revision: On going 
the second kilometer 

In the Revised Standard Version of the 
Bible, Jesus says. "... if any one forces 
you to go one mile, go with him two 

But in the new edition of the RSV, 
scheduled for publication in the mid-1980s, 
Jesus may well suggest going the extra 

Because the United States is expected to 
switch to the metric system in the next 
decade, the RSV committee is considenng 
a similar change. 

Hundreds of other changes are also un- 
der consideration for what is to be the 
most substantial revision of that Bible 
translation since its publication in 1952. 
The RSV, which is the only translation 
authorized by Protestant, Roman Catholic 
and Eastern Orthodox leaders, has sold 
more copies than any modern version. It 
was produced under the auspices of the 
National Council of Churches' Division of 
Education and Ministry, which holds the 

The purpose of the revision is to produce 
a still more accurate translation, based on 
new information about the ancient Hebrew 
and Greek scriptures, and to reflect con- 
temporary trends in the English language. 
As a result, states Bruce Metzger. who 
chairs the revision committee, one aim is to 
"get rid of masculine-biased language that 
has been introduced by earlier translators." 
He cites as an example the passage in 
Matthew that says, "there men will weep 
and gnash their teeth." The original Greek 
does not use the word "men," Metzger 
says, so the committee has voted to change 
it to read; "weeping will be there, and 
gnashing of teeth." 

Metzger stresses that the committee's 
first concern is "to remain faithful to the 
original Hebrew and Greek texts." In many 
cases, the masculine form does appear in 
the original, reflecting the patriarchal 
culture of the times. Those masculine 
references will not be changed, he says. 

The RSV Committee consists of 24 Old 
and New Testament scholars from a variety 
of religious backgrounds. Metzger himself 
is a professor of New Testament language 
and literature at Princeton Theological 

"Because we are a committee, we usually 
end our discussions by taking a moderate 
position on issues of translation and 
literary style," Metzger says. "We want to 

retain as much of the flavor of the King 
James version language as possible while 
improving its clarity for readers today. We 
all have different ideas about where to 
draw the line." 

One decision the RSV committee has 
already made is to abandon the use of 
"Thou" and "Thine" in speech addressed to 
God. These pronouns were replaced in 
speech addressed to people in the first edi- 
tion of the RSV, Metzger notes. 

The RSV translation and literary style 
might be considered conservative in com- 
parison with some new translations, such 
as Today's English Version and The Living 
Bible, Metzger concedes. This contrasts 
sharply with the situation in 1952 when 
publications of the RSV brought strong 
criticism from some who believed, accord- 
ing to Metzger, that "strange things had 
been imported into the Bible." 

In fact, he says, the RSV is a more ac- 
curate translation than the King James ver- 
sion because it is based on older 
manuscripts discovered after the King 
James Bible was published. 

"The Bible was copied by scribes time 
and again and, over the years, errors were 
made," Metzger explains. "The 
manuscripts on which the RSV is based are 
almost 1000 years older than the 
manuscripts used in producing the King 
James version and so they contain 
fewer errors." 

A Bible as readable 
as the daily paper 

A Bible as readable as the daily newspaper 
is the aim for the Good News Bible pub- 
lished in December. Released by the 
American Bible Society, the edition is ex- 
pected to reach a circulation of 10 million 
by late this year. 

One reason for the optimism is the un- 
precedented distribution of Good News for 
Modern Man, the New Testament portion 
published in 1966. In the past ten years its 
circulation has exceeded fifty million 

The Good News Bible (the Bible in 
Today's English Version) avoids both slang 
and "church" language, aiming instead at a 
level of written English understandable by 
persons who have never read the Bible or 
who have discontinued reading it because 
they could not grasp its relevance for living 
in today's world. 

Thus the new version omits "thees and 
thous," replaces "begats" with "were the 

From Ebia, references 
to biblical accounts 

At a joint session of the American 
Academy of Religion and the Society of 
Biblical Literature in November, the chair 
announced, "Tonight you will have one of 
the greatest experiences of your life!" 

An overstatement? To be sure, but only 
slightly, responded Rick Gardner, editor 
for biblical resources for the Church of the 
Brethren. For what he and hundreds of 
other Bible scholars and students ex- 
perienced was an illuminating first-hand 
report of discoveries of a flourishing 
Semitic culture in Northern Syria. 

Addressing the group were Paolo 
Matthiae and Giovanni Pettinato of the 
University of Rome, who after 10 years of 
work unearthed clay tablets from the little- 
known Syrian kingdom of EbIa that ex- 
isted from 2400 to 2250 B.C. While most of 
the 16,000 tablets recorded transactions of 
a legal or secular nature, some of the 
writings contained biblical references. 

For example, the tablets offer accounts 
of the creation and the flood, refer to 
Urusalima which is an Eblan term for 
Jerusalem, and give frequent mention to 
Ebrium, or Eber, identified in Genesis as 
the great-great-great-great grandfather of 

The new data means a "real revolution 
for historical analysis of the entire Third 
Millenium (3000 to 2000 B.C.)," stated 
Father Mitchell Dahood, S.J., of the Pon- 
tifical Biblical Institute in Jerusalem, who 
assisted the two archaeologists in 
translating their findings into English. 

Father Dahood foresees the discoveries 
prompting scholars to abandon the notion 
that the "cradle of civilization" was 
centered exclusively around the Babylonian 
empire near the northern end of the Per- 
sian Gulf The origins of civilization will 

ancestors of" uses contemporary weights 
and measures, and avoids such a eu- 
phemism as Adam "knowing" Eve, saying 
straightforwardly, Adam and Eve "had in- 

Bible Society officials explain that the 
Good News Bible does not employ the 
loose wording of paraphrases, but rather 
uses the closest, natural equivalent in 
English to convey the original meaning. 
The Revised Standard Version, in contrast, 
adheres more closely in syntax and word- 


Nol an ultimate key to the ancient Near 
fiasi of Old Testament history, the Ebla lab- 
lets do refer to a Creation account, to a 
great flood, and to a God whose name 
seems related to the Hebrew name, Yahweh. 

have to be considered as encompassing an 
area much farther north, and ancient Syria 
can no longer be regarded as in the "boon- 
docks" of the Near East. 

While holding that opinions are yet ten- 
tative. Dr. Gardner believes the impact of 
the Syrian tablets on biblical history may 
be more indirect than direct. "Dating 500 
or more years before the patriarchs, the 
tablets are too early to shed light directly 
on the main features of the biblical story," 
he explained. "What they can do is help us 
understand the linguistic and historical 
background of the biblical materials more 
discerningly than was heretofore possible." 

"Eventually the tablets from Ebla may 
rank with the Dead Sea Scrolls in their im- 
portance for biblical studies." 

ing to the original Greek or Hebrew text. 

The Good News Bible is not intended to 
take the place of the Revised Standard 
Version or of such revered translations as 
the King James Version or the American 
Standard Version. Its purpose simply is to 
offer a common language alternative. 

The cost is $2.50 for hardcover, $1.90 for 
softcover, postage included, available from 
the American Bible Society, 1865 
Broadway, New York, NY 10023. Full pay- 
ment is to accompany orders. 

February 1977 messenger 9 

by Kenneth I. Morse 

Where on the globe would you look to 
find persons qualifying as world citizens? 
Some would point to power centers like 
Washington and Moscow, or headquarters 
for church and state like New York, 
Geneva, or Rome. Hardly anyone would 
think to look for a hilltop near Fruitland, 
Idaho; but that is where 1 went to visit two 
wonderful neighbors to the needy all over 
the world — John and Margaret Metzler, 

On the way north on Interstate 80, 
before turning off by the orchards around 
Fruitland, I was recalling another time I 
had been a guest of the Metzlers. Then, in 
1958, they were living almost literally at the 
heart of things, in Geneva, Switzerland, 
only a couple of blocks away from the ear- 
ly headquarters of the World Council of 
Churches. I remembered the varieties of 
cheese Margaret offered us as we sat on the 
balcony of their fifth-floor apartment. But 
mostly I thought of the way John arranged 
the 1 1 persons in our group in their living 
room so that three were on one side, eight 
on the other. The three represented the in- 
dustrialized nations — well fed, literate, and 
prosperous. The eight across the room, a 
little crowded together, represented the un- 
derdeveloped nations — ill fed, and minus 
many of the benefits of civilization. 


.hat was years ago — and world hunger 
still haunts us. Few persons have worked 
as steadily in dedicated and imaginative 
ways to feed the hungry as have the 
Metzlers. What would they have to say, 
besides recalling the past, about the 
challenge of hunger today? 

We found these world citizens enjoying 
retirement in a lovely home on a hilltop 
where on a clear day you can take in vast 
horizons. Be sure to notice the Snake 
River's winding path between Oregon and 
Idaho. The panorama of mountains and 
sky is vast enough to take your breath 
away. But don't overlook the orchards that 
give Fruitland its name or the valleys near- 
by that are so important in providing bread 
and meat and potatoes. 

You might think that, having found the 
perfect hilltop on which to retire, John and 
Margaret would be tempted to forget 
about those harsh years during and im- 
mediately following World War II — years 
when their lives were so closely inter- 
twined with hungry and homeless persons 

10 ME-sstsGKR February 1977 

Margaret and 
John Metzler: 
World citizens 

"Wherever they have lived they have 

demonstrated the response of persons 

who know what it is to tal<e up great 

commissions and go into all the world. " 

in Europe and the Middle East. But their 
lively interest continues as they struggle 
along with the rest of us to know how to 
respond to world hunger. And they have so 
many memories to share. 

It was about those memories especially 
that I wanted to talk to the Metzlers. Not 
accidentally, they happened to be in on the 
beginning years of so many developments 
that have been meaningful for Brethren — 
but not only for Brethren. Before 1940 
John had been a school teacher and part- 
time pastor in Indiana, but that year he left 
teaching and became the first full-time ex- 
ecutive secretary of a church district in the 
Church of the Brethren. Beyond his own 
district he worked for the Brethren Service 
Committee in securing material aid for 
conscientious objectors serving in CPS 
camps throughout the central region. 

As a district executive he worked with 
Dan West, a close personal friend, in help- 
ing to implement the idea Dan was then 
proposing, of sending heifers for relief to 
war victims. John says, "We used Northern 
Indiana as a testing ground to see whether 
the idea would appeal to people. In many 
of the early meetings we held, we ended up 
with promises of cattle." 

A few years later, in Maryland, John 
had further contact with the Heifer Project 
since New Windsor became a reception and 
shipping center, not only for cattle but for 
the volunteer "cowboys" who accompanied 

shipments of cattle to Europe. Later, when 
the Metzlers were in Europe, they talked 
with people who had received the gifts of 
cattle and observed that the descendants of 
the heifers were able to help needy families. 

The first experience the Metzlers had 
with opening a service center was in Nap- 
panee, Ind. That one developed as an out- 
growth of a collection system to provide 
food for Civilian Public Service camps. But 
soon the need was for clothing and food 
for overseas relief. About the time that 
facilities were developed at Nappanee for 
processing used clothing, at the invitation 
of Bob Zigler, John and Margaret took a 
look at the old Blue Ridge College facilities 
in New Windsor. They helped to in- 
augurate its new era as a service center. 


work camp composed largely of col- 
lege students in the east was set up one 
summer to begin the processing of cloth- 
ing and other relief goods at New Wind- 
sor. Margaret recalls that in the early days 
there the local community rallied around 
the volunteer workers and showed their 
love and cooperation by their contributions 
of food as well as volunteer aid. 

John and Margaret are quick to recall 
the names of volunteer workers who, either 
for a summer or a period of a year, gave 
generously of their time and effort at New 
Windsor. And this was a few years before 

Brethren Volunteer Service became an of- 
ficial program. Margaret notes, "The 
young people would work eight hours on 
project and then John would make the an- 
nouncement: 'There's chocolate cake at 
Metzlers,' and they would come up to our 
apartment and work until midnight, clean- 
ing baby shoes, getting children's shoes 
ready for use, and knotting comforters to 
be sent overseas." 

As director of material aid for the 
Church of the Brethren, John worked 
closely with several organizations that 
eventually combined to form Church 
World Service. He points out that CWS is 
organizationally an outgrowth of commit- 
tees set up many years ago for famine relief 
in China and elsewhere overseas. He says, 
".When World War U came along it was 
recognized that there would be need in Eu- 
rope as well as in Asia." The result was a 
church committee on overseas relief and 

In those days John Metzler and Bob 
Zigler attended many meetings of in- 
terested church groups in New York. The 
leaders of United Church Women were 
eager for some arrangements to handle and 
process clothing for relief. John notes that 
at that time the committees were heavily 
loaded with pastors and professors who 
were thinking about the theological aspects 
of relief but had little interest in clothing. 
The facilities at New Windsor were offered 

for baling and preparation for shipping. 
John says, "The church women were the 
first ones to send clothing, before there 
were other national sponsoring 

There were some dramatic results as 
relief work increased. The New Windsor 
Post Office had to hire more employees as 
its business mushroomed. The schedules of 
the Western Maryland Railway were dis- 
rupted; special express cars were loaded at 
Baltimore to be uncoupled at New Wind- 
sor. "The biggest day I recall was the time 
eight express cars full of relief goods were 
set off at New Windsor." 

X inally in 1946 Church World Service 
was formally organized. 

About this time women of Greek 
ancestry in the United States were offered 
85,000 yards of unbleached muslin which 
they were eager to see used to meet the 
need for clothing in Greece. John Metzler 
and Bob Zigler were convinced that 
Brethren women would help if there was 
some way to provide for the cutting of gar- 
ments for sewing. They found the necessary 
equipment and started the activity which 
has provided cut garments through the 
years at New Windsor and which is still 

Distribution of clothing and other con- 
tributions overseas was at first handled 

through various service agencies already 
operating in Europe. Soon these were coor- 
dinated by the Interchurch Aid Depart- 
ment of the World Council of Churches, 
which came into being in 1948. 

But what about the beginnings of 
CROP? It was a natural question to put to 
John; his name, more than any other has 
through the years been associated with the 
Christian Rural Overseas Program. Also, 
since 1977 marks the 30th anniversary of 
that organization, a lot of persons would 
like to know more about how it started. 

John recalls that "one of the early re- 
quests for food came from the Nether- 
lands, which had sent a purchasing com- 
mission to the United States to buy wheat. 
We asked the Dutch representative if his 
company would be willing to pay the ship- 
ping costs if we were to gather together 
carloads of wheat throughout the United 
States. He was glad to arrange for that; so 
the Church of the Brethren, along with the 
Evangelical and Reformed Church (now 
part of the United Church of Christ), and 
in some cases Mennonites, began develop- 
ing gifts of carloads of wheat for the 
Netherlands. Soon their needs were pro- 
vided for otherwise but this experience was 
the germ of the idea which later developed 
into CROP." 

Some church officials were not too 
enthusiastic about broadening the pro- 
gram since handling commodities in this 

February 1977 messenger 11 

His years of service abroad have brought John Metzler recognition from many countries. 
Here John receives a Greek government decoration as Commander of the Royal Order of 
King George I, recognizing his promotion of Christian cooperation and understanding. 

way was quite foreign to their usual ac- 
tivities. But an organization for rural over- 
seas relief had already been started in 
Northern Indiana. John says, "When 
CROP was first conceived. Bob Zigler and 
I spent a good deal of time in Washington 
and New York, discussing the possibilities 
of such an organization. One government 
official told us he believed the American 
farmer had to make such contributions in 
order to save his own soul." Another 
government official urged John to cut 
loose from the churches and to set up an 
independent corporation that could receive 
government assistance. But Andrew Cor- 
dier advised him to stay with the churches. 
As Cordier said, "You may not go as far, 
but if you move the whole body of 
churches a little distance, you have really 
accomplished more than if you get huge 
quantities of material." 


. he operation of CROP began with a 
$5,000 grant from the Brethren Service 
Committee and a corresponding $5,000 
grant from the Evangelical and Reformed 
World Service Commission. Jesse Reber 
accompanied John on a trip through a 
number of states, visiting councils of 
churches and other ecumenical groups to 
sound out the support they would give. 
This was the situation in 1947 when CROP 
began with a few rooms at Bethany 
Seminary in Chicago, a couple of salaried 
employees, and some volunteer help. 

The CROP program really got its push, 
observes John, with the Friendship Trains 
that were given wide publicity by a radio 
commentator. The details of arranging for 
placing contributions of grain on trains 
that would move across the United States 
were left with the CROP organization, but 
the program benefited by the special 

publicity given to it by Drew Pearson, a 
well-known radio personality. One train 
started in California and ran east to 
Chicago. A second was known as the 
Southwest Special because it started in 
Wichita and came to Chicago. Then there 
were the Abraham Lincoln Friendship 
Trains sponsored by CROP, one coming 
from central Illinois and another from Lin- 
coln, Neb., starting on Lincoln's birthday. 
Grain was shipped out of Chicago on boats 
known as "friend ships." 

Bethany Seminary students helped 
out in those days, giving many hours of 
volunteer service. But as CROP grew, the 
offices had to move out of the seminary 
and into a suite of rooms in a Chicago of- 
fice building. About this time Catholic and 
Lutheran organizations officially entered in 
the program. 

At first the contributions were actual 
commodities, primarily wheat and rice, 
which could be shipped and utilized most 
easily. "We reserved the right to translate 
(which means sell) any commodity that 
wasn't suitable for shipment into a form 
that would be suitable. For example, we 
would sell corn and turn it into syrup that 
could be shipped." 

In 1952 the CROP operation was 
moved from Chicago to Elkhart, Ind. 
The organization was changed so that the 
Protestant church activities, continuing un- 
der the name CROP, would be aligned 
with Church World Service and the 
National Council of Churches. 

After a few years, during which John 
Metzler found it necessary to spend much 
of his time working in New York as well as 
in Elkhart, he was invited to go to Europe 
and to become a staff member of the 
World Council of Churches, located in 
Geneva. Here he helped to set up 
organizations for the distribution of sur- 

plus commodities in many countries of 
Western Europe and some also in Eastern 
Europe. John notes, "Our big customers 
were those that had suffered the most from 
the war. Germany used large quantities, 
France lesser quantities, Italy large quan- 
tities, and so on with Greece, Yugoslavia, 
and Poland." 

For the first six years the Metzlers lived 
in Geneva; then for two years they lived in 
Athens, Greece. During this time the 
character of the program changed con- 
siderably. From 1954 on the economy of 
Western Europe recovered amazingly. 
Many countries, especially Germany, 
which had been recipient countries now 
became heavy donor countries. "We 
probably organized more distribution 
systems in more countries than any one 
person connected with the Protestant 
churches," says John. "And I'm sure we 
disorganized more than any other person." 

Margaret frequently accompanied John 
in his travels throughout Europe and the 
Middle East. She says, "When we went to 
Yugoslavia and Italy I practically always 
went into the homes with John, I could pat 
the baby's head, I could put an arm around 
the mother, 1 could always do something. 
If you can show a little love and affection, 
then they know you care." 

In 1962 John became the secretary for 
Europe and the Middle East at the Church 
World Service office in New York. He 
returned to Greece in 1965 to spend a 
summer there in connection with a project 
on the island Symi, where a solar still was 
put into operation under Church World 
Services auspices as a means of providing 
fresh water for the people of the island. 

JT^ew persons have had the opportunity 
that the Metzlers have had to participate in 
ecumenical activities at various levels. Not 
long after returning to the states from 
Greece John worked for a period of a few 
years on a part-time basis with the 
churches of Idaho, the last of the state 
councils of churches to be organized. And 
he was soon giving generously of his time 
also to serving as district secretary for the 
Church of the Brethren in Idaho. 

Observing ecumenical activities in a state 
council of churches, as a staff person in- 
timately involved at various points with the 
National Council of Churches and also 
with the World Council of Churches, John 
can speak with considerable experience 
about both the strengths and the weak- 
nesses of ecumenical activity. He thinks the 
biggest mistake in ecumenical efforts has 
been to start organizing interchurch activi- 

12 ME.SSKNGKR February 1977 

ty at the top. The various jurisdictions that 
come together sometimes forget that they 
are not the people they represent. 

On the other hand, the most successful 
ecumenical efforts, from John's perspec- 
tive, are those that operate on a pragmatic 
and "non-theological" basis. He says, "One 
of the biggest reasons for success in the 
early relief enterprise and in CROP was the 
fact that we didn't worry too much about 
the theology of it, we didn't split too many 
hairs, we knew there were people in need, 
and we worked at meeting that need." John 
observes that differences seem to be magni- 
fied when "we turn it over to those 
preachers who have been employed to tell 
us how we're different rather than how we 
are alike." 

I asked John and Margaret how they 
view priorities for the Church of the 
Brethren, especially where world hunger is 
concerned. John said, "I would like to see 
the Church of the Brethren specialize in 
education, education that means not only 
distribution of knowledge but also the im- 
plementation of that knowledge. When you 

approach the problem of world hunger, 
whether it is in local communities or 
among food-deficient people in the famine 
areas of the world, you must also work at a 
whole complex of related problems. So 1 
see meeting hunger needs not as an end in 
itself, but it is the best handle I know of to 
work with some of the basic problems of 
the world. Far better for me than 
theology." Margaret observed that "after 
the war we had people who were filled with 
thanksgiving that the war had not hit our 
country and with feelings of guilt that 
other people had suffered. I think now we 
still have feelings of guilt that we have so 
much, and so many people have so little. 1 
think it may be conversion even more than 
education that is needed to get us to the 
place where we will do without some of our 
extras in order to help share with others." 

This may not be the time, as the 
Metzlers see it, to follow some of the 
dramatic means that were so evident in the 
late 1940s and 50s. But yet they believe 
strongly that opportunities now available 
for volunteers may offer just as significant 

ROP at age 30: 

still brash 
and exciting 

by Norman F. Reber 

In its fourth decade, can CROP fulfill its 
hunger mission for Christ and his Church 
on a planet where many of our next-door 
neighbors are starving or suffering from 
severe malnutrition? 

This basic question, framed in the con- 
text of Space Ship Earth becoming an ever 
smaller, overpopulated, interdependent 
neighborhood, was probed by members of 
CROP'S national staff during a recent visit 
1 made to its headquarters at Elkhart, In- 

"I'm optimistic that CROP can be a 
strong factor in overcoming world hunger 
during the next decade, if our people but 
have the will," comments Ronald E. Sten- 
ning, CROP national director. "It is going 
to be a very crucial period in the history of 

this nation and of the world. My pessimism 
comes at the point where, as a people and 
as an international community, we have 
the will to make the hard personal, 
political and economic choices needed to 
overcome hunger." But Stenning is confi- 
dent that the dedicated national and 
regional CROP staff will give the 
leadership in what he terms an "exciting" 
decade ahead. 

What can churches that support CROP 
do to make their hunger educational and 
fund-raising instrument even more effective 
in the next decade than it has been during 
its past 30 years? Out of five hours of in- 
tensive conversations with staff members, 
these major points emerged: 

First, each member denomination. 

ways at working at world problems as were 
the contributions of volunteers overseas. 

"It is not so dramatic now to go and 
work with migrant families, or to be an 
associate pastor somewhere, or to take care 
of children someplace else, as it was to go 
to Kassel, Germany, where houses were de- 
molished, and people were rebuilding from 
war ruins. It may not be as dramatic to go 
to Northern Greece to try to work out a 
Christian education program with the 
youth department of the Orthodox church 
as it was formerly to go to villages and help 
them plant beans and to raise chickens. 
Our dramatic appeals come and go, but the 
opportunities to work directly with human 
need still remain." 

Talking with John and Margaret Metzler 
today, you are convinced that they are still, 
in every sense of the word. Christian world 
citizens. Wherever they have lived — Nap- 
panee. New Windsor, New York, Geneva, 
or Athens — they have demonstrated the 
immediate pragmatic response of persons 
who know what it is to take up great com- 
missions and go into all the world. D 

CROP'S Ronald E. Stenning: "I like to 
think of CROP at that point of still being 
brash and exciting, aggressive in the best 
sense of the word and yet growing in 
maturity into its fourth decade." 

February 1977 messenger 13 

through its own communications network, 
needs to make sure its individual churches 
and members understand that CROP 
represents the denomination in the 
ecumenical and ongoing hunger appeal in 
the communities across America. 

This is how the national director, Sten- 
ning former dean of the Episcopal diocese 
of Rhode Island, says it: "I see our job in 
CROP as part of the church. Our CROP 
organization is in the communities as part 
of the church. That fact is awfully impor- 
tant!" Stenning praised the effort in this ar- 
ticle to interpret CROP to Church of the 
Brethren families and expressed the hope 
that many other member denominations 
would do likewise early in the decade. 
"Also, there is never any question on the 
part of any CROP staff members that they 
are raising funds and educating in the com- 
munities as part of the ecumenical church," 
Stenning emphasizes. 

Second, the individual congregations in 
the member denominations need to give 

their moral support to the community 
CROP effort, not through offerings in the 
church, but through lending leadership 
outside the church in the community. 

Lila McCray, national CROP field direc- 
tor and an ordained Brethren minister, 
cited the illustration of Leland Wilson, 
pastor of the La Verne (Calif.) Church of 
the Brethren. In October, 1976, he helped 
organize a walk of 3,000 people in the 
Pomona Valley, California. It brought in 
$49,500! Church leaders, whether they are 
lay persons or pastors need to get outside 
the walls of their church and support this 
ecumenical effort, McCray insists. CROP, 
by the way, is forbidden to take offerings 
in the churches. The big objective is total 
community effort. 

Third, the individual churches of the 
member denominations need to have im- 
pressed upon them that the main thrust of 
CROP money goes for self-development, 
that is, to help people to help themselves— 
the hand up, not the hand-out. 

Eight Brethren who serve 

In addition to the hundreds of volunteers 
who give time, talent, and money, there are 
eight Brethren who serve in leadership 
roles in the CROP organization which 
began thirty years ago as a Brethren enter- 
prise. Two of these are on the national staff 
and the others serve as regional directors. 
They are: 

• Wesley P. Albin, Harrisburg, Pa., 
regional director: Pennsylvania. 

• Elvin D. Frantz, Topeka, Kans., 
regional director: Kansas. 

H )//'//) E Frani: 

• Terry L. Grove, Kendall Park, N. J.; 
regional director: New Jersey. 

• Max D. Gumm, Prairie City, Iowa; 
regional director: Iowa. 

• Lila McCray, Elkhart, Ind.; national 
field director. 

• John Metzler Jr., Nappanee, Ind.; cor- 
porate services director. 

• Stanley J. Noffsinger, Hagerstown, 
Md.; regional director: Mid-Atlantic. 

• John Thomas Sr., Guthrie, Okla.; 
regional director: Oklahoma. 

T Grove J. Thomas Sr. 

Examples cited by the staff were shovels, 
rakes, and seed for gardening in Cyprus, 
heavy shipments of seeds to Peru, and 25 
wind-operated windmills to Cape Verde to 
supply irrigation and drinking water. A 
total of $220,000 worth of seeds was 
shipped in 1976, according to Ann Taylor, 
in charge of commodity procurement. 
Three-fourths of CROP'S annual shipments 
go in commodities. This is the most 
economical way to give aid, states John 
Metzler Jr., associate director for cor- 
porate services. 

A ourth, the individual members of the 
churches need to examine their own life- 
styles which tend to worship the idol of a 
high standard of living rather than strive 
for a higher quality of life that shares with 
others. The Bible has little to say about a 
high standard of living but says much 
about a higher quality of life, Stenning 
points out. Lila McCray said it's difficult 
to ask others to sacrifice when one is not 
willing to share in a significant way. Both 
Stenning and McCray emphasize that 
CROP staff members do set the example in 
this regard. "Any of our CROP staff, all of 
whom are quite competent and educated, 
could be, from a personal point of view, 
remunerated by any one of a number of 
fund-raising organizations at two to three 
times the salary they are now receiving," 
says Stenning. "I guess I would not be see- 
ing most of our people involved in the 
CROP program if it were not for their 
deep sense of commitment to a Christian 
principle, like the Christians in the early 
church," McCray comments. 

Fifth, local churches need to get behind 
the CROP effort because they can help the 
hungry in their own communities. Up to 25 
percent of monies collected locally can be 
allocated to a local non-paid CROP com- 
mittee to channel aid to such agencies as 
Meals on Wheels and other hunger 
organizations, Stenning point out. 

Sixth, all Christians need to realize 
Planet Earth has really become a small, in- 
terdependent neighborhood. Sharing is not 
only a Christian privilege but a vital neces- 
sity to a better quality of life for all. This 
means the people of our country really 
need to let it sink into their minds that the 
developing nations have as much to give us 
as we have to give to them, not only non- 
renewable resources to keep our industries 
going, but know-how to make the CROP 
hunger dollar go farther and deeper. 

Today, for example, says Stenning, "we 

14 MESSENGER February 1977 

are importing more oil than we did during 
the crisis of 1973. Also, up to 27 of the 
basic nonrenewable resources out of the 30 
odd we need to keep our industries run- 
ning." The national director's comment 
reflected familiarity with the business 
world as a director of a machine tool com- 
pany before he studied for the ministry. 

From Lila McCray this insight on in- 
terdependent sharing of know-how: A 
relief agency sent in meat to refugees in the 
Sudan. It was fed to pregnant women. "We 
fed them so well," says Lila, "their babies 
grew so large that many of the women 
struggled in childbirth!" This reflected a 
failure of the agency to seek the know-how 
of local nutritionists and medical doctors. 
Communities receiving assistance in self- 
development have much know-how to 
share to get the most of their hunger 

CROP intends to continue and expand 
its unique and powerful method of making 
the act of fund raising also the means of 
education. All who participate in the 
walks, for example, identify with the peo- 
ple in the developing nations where almost 
everybody has to walk. A ten-mile hike lets 
all participants know a bit of how it feels. 
The fasts are also expected to grow, for 
while participants do without food, they 
are conditioned to pay solid attention to 
the slides and movies shown during the fast 
period. In one region a fund-raising con- 
cert was held. Education and entertainment 
do not need to be mutually exclusive, Sten- 
ning says. The main idea of the staff is to 
add new ideas while encouraging the tried 
and true ones. 


.he low-slung CROP building is bulging 
at its steel seams and plans have already 
been approved to enlarge it. Also the staff 
is considering the hiring of another person 
in the public relations department to free a 
person for more travel to the regional of- 
fices. This person would help the regional 
publicity directors build confidence in con- 
tacting news staffs and radio and tv people 
for CROP events. 

Stenning sees the crucial decade ahead 
clearly described in Deuteronomy 30:19: "I 
call heaven and earth to witness against 
you this day, that I have set before you life 
and death, blessing and curse; therefore 
choose life, that you and your descendants 
may live." The national director observes: 
"Now that was said to the people of Israel 
3,000 years ago about the nation of Israel, 
but I think those words today have more 

Left: John Metzler Sr. speaks at the 1969 dedication of CROP headquarters in Elkhart, 
Ind. Right: CROP-funded well digging makes the desert produce in a Niger palm oasis. 
The choice of Christians must be concern and action for the world's hungry and thirsty. 

import than they did when they were first 
spoken. 1 really believe that in this in- 
terdependent world God has set before us 
life and death, blessing and curse, and we 
must choose. We are to choose life so that 
we and our descendants can look forward 
to a good quality of life." The teaching and 
example of the Lord Jesus Christ is crystal 
clear on where the choice of believers must 
be, namely concern and action for the 
hungry and the thirsty everywhere, the 
director says. The whole CROP effort 
could not exist without Christian motiva- 
tion, he adds. 

All Christians pulling together to change 
the climate of public opinion in favor of 
life rather than death — that's the key in 
this next decade, according to Stenning: 
"The decade can have an exciting future if 
CROP, the denominations, and Church 
World Service get into the traces and pull 
together and work with other concerned 
groups like Bread for the World to change 
public opinion in this country." 

A recent example of united effort was 
the passage by Congress of the right-to- 
food resolution. A CROP letter to 24,000 
people on the mailing list helped to stimu- 
late a flood of letters to the legislators. 

"Representatives have told us that never 
have they received such an amount of mail 

on a piece of legislation. They heard from 
the people and the resolution was passed," 
Stenning says. 

The future of CROP in the fourth 
decade and beyond is tied up with youth. 
They have been enthusiastic in the walks 
and stand to lose most from selfish and 
destructive policies. "Our youngsters 
understand in a way we never did under- 
stand that this is a very small world. I 
think young people are more sensitive to 
the needs of the developing nations because 
they see these needs portrayed all the time 
on television. It's not as though it's 
something happening on the other side of 
the world, but rather it's something 
happening right here!" Stenning says. 


/ooking ahead, Stenning has this to say: 
"CROP is 30 years old right now. In hu- 
man terms, there's still a lot of excitement 
and brashness in someone who is 30." 
Also, at age 30 there is that magic point of 
moving from the brashness of youth to the 
maturity of middle age, really beginning to 
put the pieces together. "I like to think of 
CROP at that point of still being brash and 
exciting, aggressive in the best sense of the 
word and yet growing in maturity into its 
fourth decade." D 

February 1977 messenger 15 

The touch of Ihc 

Read Matt. 8:3. Matt. 9:29, Mark 7:33, 
Luke 6:19. Luke 18:15. 

Nothing less than a personal touch with a 
person in need would satisfy Jesus. 
Touching was the familiar gesture of his 
healing. It was the expression of his spon- 
taneous sympathy and compassion. God's 
love which dwelt in Him became flesh. 

The blind felt his touch and received 
their sight. The one troubled with "an issue 
of blood" touched the tassel of his robe 
and was healed. The unclean, ostracized 
lepers felt his touch and were no longer un- 
clean, but were cured and were again 
accepted into their society. The little 
children had the Master's hands placed on 
their heads, and how their mothers loved 
this, and how their own hearts were 

Social agencies may be indispensable in 
our society, but there can be no adequate 
substitute for the outstretched hand. No 
committee nor organization can supplant 
the touch of the understanding heart. 

High thoughts and noble in all lands 
Help me: My soul is fed by such. 

But ah the touch of lips and hands, 
the human touch! 

Warm, vital, close, life's symbols 
dear — 
These need I most, and now and 
here. — Richard Burton 

In his healing ministry our Lord 
reached out across barriers created by the 
culture and society of that day. The 
Gadarene demoniacs, the Syrophoenician 
woman, and the lepers are typical ex- 

The greatest sense in our body is the 
sense of touch. It is the mother of the 
senses. Perhaps next to the brain, the skin 
is the most important of all our organ 
systems. Touch, the sense most closely 
associated with the skin, is the earliest to 
develop in the human embryo. Ashley 
Montague in Touching: The Human 

Significance of the Skin (Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 1971), writes, "It is through 
bodily contact with the mother that the 
child makes its first contact with the world, 
through which it is enfolded in a new di- 
mension of experience, the experience of 
the world of the other. It is this bodily con- 
tact with the other that provides the essen- 
tial source of comfort, security, warmth, 
and increasing aptitude for new ex- 

The human significance of touching is 
profound. Basic human meanings and 
needs are associated with touch. The need 
for it is universal. It is important for the 
healthy behavioral development of every 
individual. A deprivation in infancy and 
childhood may result in behavioral inade- 
quacies in later life. Most cultures 
recognize this. 

JThysically speaking, we cannot survive 
without experiencing the touch from 
another and also giving the touch to 
others. In like manner our spiritual health 
depends upon the sense of touch. It is the 
touch of the Master, and the touch of those 
who have had "the love of Christ shed 
abroad in their hearts" (Rom. 5:5) and our 
own willingness to extend the touch of love 
"which binds everything together in perfect 
harmony" (Col. 3:14). If there is anything 
better than to be loved, it is loving. "The 
heart of him who truly loves is a Paradise 
on earth, he has God in himself, for God is 
love" observed Felicite Robert de Lamen- 

The kiss upon the cheek of our brother 
and sister, "Greet one another with a holy 
kiss" (Rom. 16:16), symbolizes love and 
affection. The handshake is a touch of fel- 
lowship. In the anointing service the hands 
placed upon the head represent the touch 
of rapport from the officiant as well as the 
touch of healing sought from the Great 
Physician. Through the laying on of hands 

in the various rituals of the church, we 
become receptacles for the grace and 
quickening power of the living Christ. It is 
his touch. We believe that Christ came to 
give life, through his body, the church, and 
through her ordinances. There is un- 
precedented power and by reaching out our 
hands we can touch the hem of his garment 
and in turn be touched by the Master. 

Paul's favorite metaphor for the church, 
the body of Christ, takes on added mean- 
ing as we think of the sense of touch. We 
are Christ's hands. Christ's kiss, Christ's 
legs, Christ's speech. "'Truly, 1 say to you, 
as you did it to one of the least of these my 
brethren, you did it to me'" (Matt. 25:40). 

"And whoever gives to one of these little 
ones even a cup of cold water because he is 
a disciple, truly, I say to you, he shall not 
lose his reward" (Matt. 10:42). That cup of 
water, insignificant as it may seem to us, is 
indeed the touch of the Master. 

The world around us is literally dying for 
the touch of the Master. How can this be 
realized? The obvious answer is through 
the lives of committed believers who have 
been touched. Jesus appointed the disciples 
"to be with him, and to be sent out to 
preach" (Mark 3:14). There is a contagion 
in Christianity that needs to be spread. 

The healing church welcomes in his 
name the sick, the fearful, the sinful and 
the sorrowing, the weak and the spiritually 
hungry, "... Where two or three are 
gathered in my name, there am I in the 
midst of them" (Matthew 18:20). The 
church through prayer groups can be the 
means of unleashing the power of the 
Master's touch. Group prayer is the great 
tradition of the Christian church. There is 
healing power in prayer! 

Long, long ago the hands of Christ 
Were nailed upon a tree. 

But still their holy touch redeems 
The hearts of you and me. 

— Leslie Savage Clark 

Miracles of healing are not confined to 


nqsica q ana spincua q, wg hgot 

16 MESSENGER February 1977 


If I onlx touch his garment 

(Mall 9 21) 

the New Testament. Christ heals today. 
The day of miracles is not over. The 
changed lives of alcoholics, the mentally 
and emotionally ill, and those with physical 
disabilities are all evidences of the living 
Christ and the healing power of his touch. 
We are realizing that there is a definite 
relationship between the healing of the 
spirit and the cure of the body and the 
mind. As one doctor puts it, "We believe 

that total health depends upon healing the 
person who has the disease, not merely the 
disease the person has." Another doctor 
has said, "I have long since learned that 
when I have done all that 1 could do, the 
Great Physician takes over." 

On this earth we may not see his face, 
but as we step into the light of his healing 
presence, and feel his touch, we can know 
the end of darkness. To know the healing 

Christ is to see Christianity transformed 
into what it was meant to be — a dynamic, 
living, and demonstrable reality. 

In the last stanza of the hymn, "At Even, 
When the Sun Was Set," Henry Twells 
(1823-1900) expressed it. 

Thy touch has still its ancient power; 

No word from Thee can fruitless fall; 

Hear in this solemn evening hour. 

And in Thy mercy heal us all. D 


oq Carl W Z^igl^r 5r 

February 1977 messenger 17 

"The language of touch is becoming 
more topical all the time. It's as 
though some feel it to be a newly 
discovered art. All we have to do 
is look in the Scriptures to 
rediscover the art of touch 

by Glenn Stanford 

"How touching?" 

Touching is beheving. At least it was for 
our good friend Thomas in John 20:24-31. 
Thomas was a disciple; he loved and 
served our Lord Jesus but, he could not 
believe that Jesus died and arose from 
death . . . until ... he actually saw Jesus 
and touched Him with his finger, and then 
with his whole hand. Disbelief fell from 
him and he knew for certain. Seeing was 
important, but touching did the trick. "My 
Lord and my God," cried Thomas. He 

Just look how often in the Scriptures 
that touch confirms belief. The touch of 
the Master's hand, according to the 
familiar poem, makes all the difference in 
the world. Jesus touched and people were 
healed — the blind, the deaf, the crippled. 
And people wanted to touch Jesus, even 
just the hem of his robe or his fingertips. In 
Luke 18:15 infants were brought to him 
just so he could touch them. In Luke 6:19, 
we see that whole multitudes of people 
would try their best just to touch Jesus. 
There is power in touch; there is strength, 
deep affection, and love that is transmitted 
through touch. 

In Luke 8:43-48 a woman who bled all 
the time slipped up and touched Jesus. Her 
faith in him stopped her hemorrhaging. In 
the same chapter, Jesus told the dead 
daughter of the Jewish synagogue leader to 
arise, and he took her by the hand, and she 
lived. He touched her. In John 13, perhaps 
the most tremendous object lesson we have 
ever received, Jesus washed his disciples' 
feet. He touched everyone of them, and 
said something in the process that they 
might not have heard any other way. 

We all ought to have a warm feeling for 
the father of the prodigal son, in Christ's 
parable. The runaway youth finally came 
home and the father ran and fell on his 
neck and kissed him. At times like that. 

there's no timid handshake or stand-offish 
"Welcome home, boy." No sir, we want to 
touch the prodigal in our joy and 
thanksgiving. It could have been very, very 
embarrassing for the woman of the streets 
in Luke 7. Jesus was in the Pharisee's 
house eating when she came in, washed his 
feet with her tears, wiped them with her 
hair, and then kissed his feet. She touched 
Him. The Pharisee was mad, but Jesus 
forgave her all her sins right on the spot. 

While Jesus didn't touch every time in 
order to heal, there is an abundance of 
"touchingness" in the life of Christ and in 
the Bible; too much to be overlooked. 
There is need fo'r us to acknowledge the 
value of touch then, and to have faith in 
touchingness now. In a very real sense, 
touchingness is uplifted by the truth of 
Jesus being alive today and touching us 
with his Spirit. We must know that Christ 
has touched us. to be led of his Spirit. 

A lack of touch destroys. Newborn 
babies will die just as surely from not being 
held, fondled, cradled, and touched as they 

will from a lack of food, and just as quick- 
ly. Infants must be touched a lot. One 
juvenile court judge wrote that hundreds of 
youthful offenders and their parents had 
been brought before him, and he had never 
once seen a parent enter that courtroom 
with a protective arm around the child's 
shoulder . . . never once. Parents out of 
touch with their children. 

As a pastor, I've heard from men, some 
of whom are in the local church, who said 
they weren't going to make a sissy out of 
their son. "My boy might become 
effeminate if I kiss him and hug him." we 
hear. How agonizingly pitiful. There's 
more value in hugs and kisses than all the 
toys, presents, and candy that a parent 
could ever buy for a child. Unless the 
parent touches that child with affection, 
there is going to be no closeness between 
them, no tenderness, no growing mutual 
love. What a mistake to think we'll harm 
our children by loving or holding or kissing 
them too much. 

There are clinical cases on record where 

18 MESSENGER February 1977 

not only infants, but walking children have 
gone into convulsions for the sole reason of 
having been deprived of holding. A feeling 
of isolation in children may produce 
isolated, rebellious, cynical adults — adults 
who find it difficult, if not impossible, to 
touch the hem of Jesus their Savior. 

Jesus knew what he was doing in picking 
up the children that came to him. He knew 
the value of closeness, tenderness, and 
touch. He knew the tremendous power of 
touch. Look at all the sacraments of the 
church, ordained and instituted by Jesus. 
Baptism involves touch. We dedicate in- 
fants, as Jesus was dedicated, and we touch 
the child, symbolizing the touch of Jesus. 
We use a simple ceremony of laying on of 
hands from Acts 6:6 and 8:17, and 
I Timothy 4:14, symbolizing the touch of 
God. From James 5 and Mark 6:13; we 
anoint persons in the name of the Lord. In 
so doing, we touch them, praying for 
restoration of health, and increase of faith, 
and forgiveness of sin. At our Lord's last 
supper on this earth, he not only washed 
the disciples' feet, but he also picked up 
and touched the bread and also the cup. It 
was an act of blessing. He did this also as 
he fed the five thousand with five loaves 
and two fishes. How beautiful ... to touch 
and bless. All the sacraments of our Lord's 
church point to the value of touch, and 
God's healing and forgiveness through his 
touch. The lesson for us is to be in touch 
with people. 

A psychiatrist writes: "I have good 
reason to know how often human 
problems are caused by the simple failure 
of people to make contact with other peo- 
ple. The great paradox of our time is that 
we can bounce messages off the planets 
and send men to the moon, but find it 
harder and harder to communicate with 
the minds and hearts of those we love." 

How true it is. Every pastor, marriage 
counselor, and doctor hears all too fre- 
quently, "1 just can't reach him," or "I talk 
my head off but that child won't listen," or 
"I can't get through to her." Parents out of 
touch with kids. A common problem. 
There's no easy answer, but there is one 
certainty, it didn't suddenly happen. It 
developed over a period of time. 

One counselor has a standard set of 
questions to ask couples with marital or 
child problems, and the questions are the 
same no matter what the problem in the 
home. Surely these questions puzzle the 
adults a bit: 

Sir, how long has it been since you've 

walked with your arm around your wife? 

Sir, do you ever get down on the loving- 
room floor (yes, that's loving room) and 
roughhouse or tussle with your children? 

Mother and Dad, does your family ever 
hold hands around the table when you 
offer thanks to God before your meal? 

Mother and Dad, do you teach your 
children to kiss and make up before they 
go to sleep at night? Do you enfold their 
little hands in yours as you pray? 

How often do you kiss your spouse on 
the cheek as you go and come? 

What place does touch have in your 

The language of touch is becoming more 
topical all the time. It's as though some feel 
it to be a newly discovered art. All we have 
to do is look in the Scriptures to rediscover 
the art of touch. 

Touch can help provide a climate of 
love. No wonder sex is such a meager sub- 
stitute for some. People looking for sexual 
thrills? It may well be because human 
touch was missed earlier in life. Sex then, 
becomes the fulfillment of the need to be 


touching climate is what we need. 
He's troubled, and she simply rests her 
hand upon his for a moment. He helps her 
put on her coat, and just for a second rests 
his hands on her shoulders. He ruffles his 
son's hair lightly and casually. She chucks 
her daughter under the chin after buttoning 
her blouse. All ways of saying, "I love 
you." Communication just as certain as if 
written with lightning in the sky. 

We "proper Americans" are the foolish 
ones when we laugh at the papoose on the 
mother's back, or the baby in a sling 
around the mother's side as she works, or 
the Frenchman kissing the cheek of his 
male relative or friend, or the Latin who 
gives the "abrazo," the embrace of greeting. 

The Christian salutation of New Testa- 
ment times, the Holy Kiss, is about gone. 
The Holy Kiss of the King James Bible has 
been replaced by a handshake in the pop- 
ular Living Bible version. And not just 
once, but in Romans 16:16, I Corinthians 
16:20, I Thessalonians 5:26, and I Peter 
5:14. It's as though we feel the handshake 
is more sanitary, or we fear that someone 
might think we're homosexual, or that we 
might be too emotional by embracing and 
kissing. In our homes, the handshake 
ought not replace the hug and kiss. 

Our fear of outward affection, for 

whatever reason, creates great problems in 
our homes and in our society. We've 
become so sanitation minded, for instance, 
that newborn babies are placed in cribs by 
masked nurses, rather than nestled in their 
mothers' germ-ridden arms where they 
belong. Life should begin with lots of 
touch. Touchingness is worth nearly any 

Thank God that we are finally coming 
around to see the value of touch after near- 
ly losing it. I read where in some school 
districts now, teachers are encouraged to 
use a high degree of touchingness, even to 
have the young child read the daily lessons 
while sitting on the teacher's lap. Special 
educators for disturbed children have dis- 
covered that one of the most helpful things 
they can do is to have sympathetic adults 
hold and touch these kids, to put an arm 
around them, as if to say, "Don't worry, 
I'm here, I'm concerned about you." 

Parents, we need to say that same thing 
ofien to our children. We need to express 
our love emphatically by touching. The 
magic of touch says so much. It can heal 
wounds. It can provide strength. It can 
soften hard hearts. It can bring light to 
darkness. It can express so much . . . but 
perhaps never as much as the greatest 
touchingness of all time: when Jesus al- 
lowed himself to be crucified for our sin, 
that through the cross and resurrection he 
might be in touch with us for always. All 
we must do is reach out and accept his 

The World War II story is told of the 
city that was besieged by bombs during an 
air raid. A concert pianist found herself in 
an underground bomb shelter that was be- 
ing used to care for the wounded and dy- 
ing. She didn't know a thing about nurs- 
ing, but volunteered to help in this 
makeshift hospital. What could she do? 
She approached a young man who was 
writhing in agony, his body shredded from 
an explosion. She couldn't stop his 
bleeding. All the nurses were busy, as the 
place was a mass of humanity in confusion. 
The pianist took the dying man's face in 
her strong hands. He grabbed her hands 
and held on tightly until minutes later he 
died. That's what she did all night; held the 
faces of the moaning, screaming, injured, 
and dying. Her touch was a comfort. 

Our loving touch is a comfort. There's 
no shame in it. It can ease pain or express 
our love. It's a ministry like unto that of 
our crucified and resurrected living Lord 
Jesus. □ 

February 1977 messenger 19 



^eally, now, what chances do dark 
shadows have of becoming a bright, new 
dawn? Pretty good, if you apply one 
specific definition of the key words to the 
current human scene: shadows are de- 
scribed as gloom, as unhappiness. as dark- 
ness; dawn is marked by the appearance, 
the emergence of the new. 

The prospect of hght out of darkness, 
new out of the old, hope out of despair is 
not strange to persons of faith. It is a cen- 
tral biblical theme— beginning with the 
creation in Genesis and repeated time after 
time, concluding with the promise of a new 
creation in Revelation. The contrasting 
symbols leap out in a forceful manner in 
Isaiah 58 and in the prologue of John's 
"...Loose the bonds of wickedness, 
. . . undo the thongs of the yoke, 
... let the oppressed go free, 
...share your bread with the hungry. 
and bring the homeless poor into 
your house; when you see the 

naked . . . cover him Then shall 

your light break forth like the 


...your gloom be as the noonday." 
(Selected from Isaiah 58:6-10; 
also see John 1:1-18) 
But our life is set in the closing years of 
the 20th century— not in the days of Isaiah 

or John — and the shadows now have their 
own particular forms of darkness. The 
issue of our faithfulness, however, is the 
same. What responsibilities shall we under- 
take to help "light break forth like 
dawn". . . . the "gloom be as noonday?" 
What responses do we need to make in our 
situation to see that "the light is not over- 
come by darkness?" The Isaiah passage 
makes the promise conditional: when per- 
sons respond to their times in keeping with 
God's love the light breaks through the 
darkness to reveal a new day. Personally, 
congregationally, and denominationally, it 
is a time to ask: how are we helping the 
shadows of our times turn to dawn, to a 
new day? 

About a year ago the General Board began 
exploring what Brethren might do as a group 
in this particular historical moment to make 
more likely the fulfillment of God's promise 
of another dawn. The search was stimulated 
when I pointed to the great disparity between 
our good situation as an institution and the 
unhappy lot of so many persons in our global 
community, and asked, "Is the usual 
enough?" "Are you ready for a new day?" 

From almost every community and na- 
tion we receive daily reports of the suffer- 
ing, the despair, the poverty, the persecu- 
tion, the distrust, and the fear which mark 
the lives of many of our neighbors. At 

"The gloom of suppression, 
injustice, militarism, and war 
needs to give way to a dawn 
lighted by liberation, justice, 
peace, and well-being. " 

home one survey recently indicated that 
more than two-thirds of our people feel 
"our country is on the wrong track." And a 
number of self-styled prophets insist that 
doom awaits us around the corner, though 
we have safely passed the dates some set 
for the end of civilization. 

But there are other voices, if we can 
hear them. From various fields of thought 
these persons call for new roads to the 
future, for viewing life as risk or oppor- 
tunity, for seeing history as human events, 
for bold, new efforts that move our society 
toward justice and peace. They believe that 
radical changes can be made by the volun- 
tary choices of people of good will 
throughout the world. 

The question may be raised from either 
side: are the dislocations, frustrations and 
inequities at such a high level in our society 
that persons may be able to consider new 
approaches? Are the breakdowns in our 
basic institutions so widespread and deep 
that persons may be convinced to accept 
new life patterns? Are the voices of hope, 
the proponents of justice and the advo- 
cates of new life-styles sufficiently strong to 
turn "the gloom to noonday?" 

Obviously the question cannot be 
answered definitively; it is an if oi history 
that only tomorrow can answer. My hunch 
is that the combination of forces at this 

"The despair 
that grows ou 
meanings, twi 
confused direi 
touched by th 
hope, and wh 

20 MESSENGER February 1977 


particular moment offers real possibilities 
for a major turnaround in our society. I 
share the judgment of those who feel that 
the forces at work in our common life will 
bring significant changes during the next 
decade: we may choose and direct the 
changes or refuse to choose and have 
changes forced upon us. It was this con- 
viction that led me to challenge the General 
Board to new initiatives — to say that the 
usual is not enough at this pivotal point in 
our society. 

A year-long search by the Board has not 
produced specific descriptions of whai 
might be done or how new forms of 
witness might be expressed. (These are the 
tasks being worked on during the early 
months of 1977.) Our work has tagged a 
number of issues which need new light to 
dispel the shadows which cast gloom over 
so many lives. These issues are so inter- 
twined in our daily experiences however, 
that 1 can do no more than cluster them at 
this point in our consideration. A 
preliminary sketch of three related clusters 
may help you enter into our struggle in a 
small way. 

The gloom of suppression, injustice, 
militarism, and war needs to give way to a 
dawn lighted by liberation, justice, peace, 
and well-being. 

It is easy to make extended lists of 

yf shattered 
^d values, and 
ons needs to be 
ight of healing, 

by S. Loren Bowman 

groups, communities, and nations when 
persons are suffering indignities that deny 
the worth and freedom of the human spirit. 
Here are random samples of per- 
sons/places where gloom is deeply felt (you 
may prefer to make your own list): blacks, 
women, native Americans, Hispanic 
Americans, school dropouts, unskilled 
workers; inner cities/ ghettos of Chicago, 
Detroit, New York, Los Angeles, 
Memphis, South Boston . . . Northern 
Ireland, Lebanon, Bangladesh, Brazil, 
Chile, Haiti, Rhodesia, South Korea, 

Fewer and fewer people across the world 
are enjoying the freedoms we claim as 
human rights. David Brinkley reports that 
"only 19 percent of the people on earth live 
in what we would call freedom and that 
about two million people a day lost their 
freedom" during 1975. 

In different forms from land to land, 
there is discrimination based upon class or 
sex that ends in social and economic in- 
justice. There are discrepancies in income 
between whites and blacks, male and 
female, skilled and unskilled which high- 
light the injustice that crushes the spirits of 
many persons. These practices of dis- 
crimination encourage feelings of second 
class citizenship that tend to destroy a 
sense of responsibility and erode the moral 

foundations of community life. 

Further, the opportunity for improved 
living conditions and for productive work 
is sharply reduced in today's world by the 
arms burden of the nations. Worldwide 
trade in arms has grown from 300 million 
dollars to 18 billion dollars in the past 25 
years. Our country is the major arms 
merchant — selling or granting non-nuclear 
weapons to 70 countries in 1975 valued at 
1 1 billion dollars. This massive expenditure 
for arms exploits the resources of the earth 
and threatens the future of the human 

It is time for the people of the world to 
call a halt to this arms race, to our dis- 
crimination against each other and to our 
use of the earth's resources for the privi- 
leged few. It is time for dawn to break (Is. 

The despair of brokenness that grows 
out of shattered meanings, twisted values, 
and confused directions needs to be 
touched by the light of healing, hope, and 

This cluster moves us to life-styles, moral 
issues, personal values, and environmental 
concerns. Individual, family, and com- 
munity values have been bombarded by 
wave after wave of social pressures since 
World War II. Again, you may wish to 
make your own list — (but these may 

''Our congregations should be 
moved by the problems of 
these times, the hope in the 
good news of the Gospel and 
the claims of the total human 
family to engage in more 
vigorous efforts in education, 
nurture, and witness. " 

February 1977 messenger 21 

prompt you in the task): the civil rights 
movement, the protests of the Vietnam 
War, the rapid developments in com- 
munication, the use of the computer, the 
growth of the drug culture, coed living on 
college campuses, the relaxation of divorce 
laws, the scandals of Watergate, industrial 
and governmental blackmail and bribery, 
the glorification of media, entertainment, 
and sports stars, loss of faith in our basic 
human institutions, the preoccupation of 
music, movies, tv, and advertising with sex, 
crime, and violence. 

JLf we are to avoid serious deterioration of 
human values, it is urgent for communities 
and concerned persons across the nation to 
challenge the pervasive influence of public 
media in shaping the patterns and the 
meanings that dominate life in our times. 
Specifically, it is time to challenge the 
public media on the excessive portrayal of 
violence and the distortion of values 
represented in the salaries paid to stars in 
the movies, tv, and professional sports. It is 
time for a turn-around, time for creative 
attention to human values of decency, 
worth and responsibility. The challenge 
may be in protests or in face-to-face con- 
versations regarding the social responsibili- 
ty of public media to the nation. 

Our congregations should be moved by 
the problems of these times, the hope in the 
good news of the Gospel and the claims of 
the total human family to engage in more 
vigorous efforts in education, nurture, and 

In a day when public education has 
become highly specialized and amoral, it is 
urgent that the church and the community 
provide the necessary elements to bring 
personal wholeness and global perspective 
to the educational experience. We need to 
take this task more seriously and support 
each other in its fulfillment. Biblical, 
theological, and historical dimensions need 
to be translated into meaningful ethical 
bases for membership in the church and for 
living in a human community that knows 
no boundaries. Such a task calls for a dis- 
ciplined, supportive group, a community 
that points to God's love for the world 
(John 3:16-17) and moves toward the 
promised new creation (Is. 58 and Rom. 
8:19-25). The goal is to have our con- 
gregations become dynamic centers of ex- 
perience that produce new perspectives, 
life-styles, and commitments for turning 
shadows to dawn, and darkness to noon- 

As congregations make clear the mean- 

ing of the gospel, each member should feel 
a challenge to be faithful to Christ in 
his/her personal life. This means weighing 
the kind of personal responses required by 
God's desire for the well-being of the 
human family. It calls for seriously ponder- 
ing such questions as: In a world of 
strikingly different economic levels, do I 
need to voluntarily limit my income? In 
light of the widening gap in living stan- 
dards, both within the US and between the 
US and Third World countries, do I need 
to reduce the goods and services used in 
the daily life of my family? In the face of 
mass hunger and malnutrition, do I need to 
increase my giving to the church? And to 
other responsible agencies working at these 
problems? In a broader sense, at this mo- 
ment of world need, what does the gospel 
say about the kind of vocational choice I 
should make as a Christian? What is 
worthy of the daily investment of my life? 
Between now and Annual Conference in 
Richmond the General Board hopes to 
describe specific efforts the Brethren may 
undertake to exert a greater positive im- 
pact upon our nation and the world in the 
search for peace and justice in today's 
global community. Even if we fail, our call 
is to share faithfully the light which comes 
to us from the Gospel — to do our part to 
assure that "the light is not overcome by 

You can assist the General Board in de- 
veloping these forms of witness by ex- 
pressing your judgment as to which issues 
within the clusters are most urgent and 
most appropriate for the Brethren to ad- 
dress at this time. In addition to naming 
the urgent issues, you can help by suggest- 
ing the approaches which may be effective 
in bringing about value changes in this 
historical moment. Your responses will be 
considered by the General Board as it 
shapes proposals to be shared with the An- 
nual Conference. 

The prophetic words of Isaiah are active- 
ly related to the injustices and dis- 
criminations of that earlier society; "loose, 
undo, let, share, bring, cover." And when 
these things are done, he said, "your light 
shall break forth like the dawn, your gloom 
be as noonday." 

Today our decisions should be made in 
the interest of all people, our one planetary 
family. In today's world there are no 
geographical boundaries that determine 
who or where our neighbors live. The 
promise that the present shadows may turn 
to dawn rests in no small measure upon 
our ability to see the unity of the church, 
the human family and the whole creation 
and to make our decisions in terms of the 
worth and well-being of all persons. "For 
the creation waits with eager longing for 
the revealing of the children of God." D 

Report on a search 

The article by S. Loren Bowman is a report of General Board explorations over 
the past year. The process began with a series of questions and challenges posed by 
the general secretary at the February, 1976 General Board meeting — a statement fre- 
quently identified by the title, "Is the Usual Enough?" 

A committee appointed by the Board developed a plan for further study, a study 
which has involved district executives along with board and staff members. These 
steps followed: 

1. Study materials, with response forms were distributed and summaries pre- 
pared for a meeting at Wichita last July. 

2. A presentation by a guest resource person and discussion comprised the July 

3. Additional study materials followed in September. (See Resources, page 23 
for a listing.) 

4. A two-day retreat at Williams Bay, Wis., in connection with the October 
General Board meeting, tagged the issues of most urgent concern to the group. Two 
guest resource persons addressed the retreat. 

5. From now until June, descriptions of specific responses the church chooses to 
make to selected issues will be developed. 

The response of Messenger readers and the church at large is invited to help 
shape proposals to be submitted to the 1977 Annual Conference. Write either 
Messenger or Office of the General Secretary, Church of the Brethren General Of- 
fices, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin. IL 60120. 

22 MESSENGKR February 1977 



S. Loren Bowman suggests in the 
preceding article that the Church of the 
Brethren can influence the turning of 
shadows into dawn. Study materials were 
used by members of the General Board and 
Staff in preparation for and during ex- 
periences in which the question of "Is the 
Usual Enough?" was considered. Included 
among the written resources were an ad- 
dress to the Fifth Assembly of the World 
Council of Churches in December 1975; ar- 
ticles from The Progressive. US News and 
World Report, Messenger, Intpact. JSAC 
Grapevine, and Population bulletins: and 
The Radical Bible and The Coming Dark 
Age, an Anchor Paperback by Roberto 

Study materials are needed by in- 
dividuals and groups who want to respond 
to the general secretary's call for "more 
vigorous efforts in education, nurture, and 
witness." Described below and suggested 
for use are a study/ action kit called 
Metamorphosis: Christians Choosing 
Lifestyles for a World in Crisis, The 
Radical Bible, and a periodical named the 
other side. 

Doing the Word 

Metamorphosis: Christians Choosing Life- 
styles for a World in Crisis 1976. A Doing 
the Word Resource published for Christian 
Education Shared Approaches by John 
Knox Press, Atlanta. Available for SI 5.00 
plus postage and handling from The 
Brethren Press, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 
IL 60120. 

Doing the Word is an approach to 
education in the church designed to sup- 
port those who seek to apply the message 
of the gospel to the urgent issues facing our 
society today. A variety of resources are 
part of the approach. Most of them are 
study /action resources for adults and 
youth with a few recommended for use 

with children. Each congregation receives 
two copies of the listing of recommended 
resources from the Educational Resourcing 
System. One copy is sent through Agenda 
to pastors and nurture chairpersons. The 
other is with the order form sent in the 
spring to the person who orders materials 
for the congregation's education program. 

Metamorphosis is a study/ action kit. 
The 150 loose-leaf sheets of the design pack 
for learning and leading have material in 
five sections. 1) Reasons Behind Life-style 
Change includes articles by seven contem- 
porary Christians. 2) How to Do It: An In- 
tergenerational Study has five units. 3) 
Resources for Increasing Awareness in- 
cludes a sermon by Clarence Jordan and 
life-style interviews on a cassette, question- 
naires, value clarification exercises, and a 
section on the Bible and life-styles. 4) Tools 
for Analysis includes helps for studying 
and using a pamphlet "America, Is It Too 

Late?" and a book by Richard K. Taylor 
Economics and the Gospel. 5) Ideas for 
Implementing Action provides help in 
planning and carrying through on pur- 
posive action. Also included in the Design 
Pack is a listing of additional resources for 
continued study and action. The kit in- 
cludes an audio-cassette, a book, two 
pamphlets and a 150-page design pack. 

The Radical Bible 

The word "radical" is defined in the in- 
troduction of The Radical Bible. The 
definition is then applied to the Bible: "The 
word of God deals with the very ROOT of 
things. It contains a FUNDAMENTAL 
message about life, life's CENTER, and its 

Scriptural passages have been selected 
and put with contemporary commentaries 

on what is happening today. The focus is 
on justice and the poor and powerless 
peoples of the earth — most of whom live in 
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. 
The eight sections are included: 

1) The World Was Made for Everyone 

2) Israel; Model for Mankind 

3) God Is on the Side of the Oppressed 

4) The Kingdom of Peace — a Utopia? 

5) Where Do the Churches Stand? 

7) What God Reserves to Himself 

8) "I Was Hungry ..." 

The Other Side 

the other side is a magazine of Christian 
discipleship. John Alexander, editor of the 
magazine, in an article on "The Bible and 
the Other Side" (September-October 1975. 
page 57) uses these words to explain the 
name of the periodical: "Our name — the 
other side — refers to the poor and op- 
pressed, the downtrodden people who live 
on the other side of the tracks. 

"The world of tv serials, glossy 
magazines, and first grade primers is full of 
people who are prosperous, healthy, youth, 
and white. But that is only one side of our 
world. The other and much larger side is 
hungry, defeated, and miserable. The peo- 
ple on this side live in old folks homes, 
slums, Indian reservations, refugee camps, 
shanty towns, and insane asylums." 

Some of the issues about which the other 
side has spoken in recent years include the 
family, economic exploitation, hunger, 
black evangelicals, the strategy of Jesus, 
understandings about mission, young 
evangelicals, rich and poor, and politics. 

Published every other month, the sub- 
scription rate is $6 for nine issues and $10 
for 18 issues. Order from the other side. 
Box 158, Savannah, OH 44874. 
— Shirley J. Heckman 



February 1977 messenger 23 

T^o know ourselves we need to 
know our stories, those ragged 
timelines left in the wake of each 
individual as we battle, celebrate, 
hurt, and delight in life. 

A church needs to know itself in the 
same way. To know our background, 
our beginnings, our ancestors, our 
flounderings, and our triumphs can help 
quench a thirst for belonging and instill a 
sense of partnership in the church. There is 
comfort and security in knowing where we 
came from. 

But that need for Brethren sense of 
ownership in its history has not always 
been met. Until 40 years ago our story was 
collected and protected by only a few con- 
cerned Brethren, who functioned without 
sanctions from Annual Meeting. 

in 1898 the Eastern District sent a 
query to Annual Meeting asking that the 
German Baptist Brethren Historical 
Association be recognized as an official 
arm of the church. 

Abraham H, Cassel, known as the 
greatest Brethren historian, antiquary, and 
bibliophile of his time, was president of 
that organization, and in essence was offer- 
ing the Brethren greater accessibility to his 
extensive and valuable library. 


>ut Annual Meeting at that time did not 
find merit in officially authorizing the 
maintenance of records and responded: 

"We appreciate the value of our church 
documents and the importance of preserv- 
ing them, and the work our Brethren have 
done in organizing an association, but we 
do not think it best to incorporate it into 
our church work at this time. We, however, 
recommend that the Brethren concerned be 
encouraged to carry the work forward." 

The issue was submerged as the Brethren 
moved on to more controversial themes 
such as women preachers, women passing 
the bread and cup, the dress question, and 
changing the denomination's name, and 
did not surface again until 1937. 

Meanwhile the 50,000-volume Cassel 
library gradually slipped into other hands. 
Before his death 2,000 volumes went to the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Later, 
thousands went to two Brethren colleges. 
Mount Morris and Juniata. Still others 
found their way into the open market, in- 
cluding the Alexander Mack Jr. Journal 
and the Germantown Poorbook, the two 
most basic documents pertaining to 

24 MESSENGER Februarv 1977 

Brethren history in the US. Those two 
books have recently been acquired by the 
General Board. 

Why did the Brethren drag their feet in 
establishing a historical library? 

According to Edith Bonsack Barnes, 
former editor on the General Board staff, 
and presently a volunteer librarian in the 
historical library along with Mildred Etter 
Heckert. the old Brethren regarded record- 
keeping as a form of bragging. 

"The Brethren wanted to be so humble 
that they avoided making a record of their 
achievements," Edith explains. "They 
didn't want to boast; I think that was 
rather fundamental. Also we were not so 
highly organized in those days. We did 
things by word of mouth." 

"Our belief in living apart from the 
world has changed and now we are just the 
opposite," she continues. "We want to get 
involved in political life and government to 
try to change trends. That's where we can 
make ourselves felt. This attitude began in 
the 1940s and became even stronger later. 

This is manifested by greater records dur- 
ing the more recent history." 

Edith's perceptions are verified by 
records which put 1937 as the first year 
that the official church took responsibility 
for historical documents, establishing a 
Joint Historical Commission to make plans 
and recommendations regarding the, 
"collection, translation, and preservation of 
historical materials." 

In 1941 Annual Conference was asked t03 
give the commission board status. This was 
turned down, but in 1944 the Brethren 
Historical Association (the group that 
made the original query in 1898) again 
asked for official recognition. Finally, in 
1945, Annual Conference gave instructions 
to merge the two organizations and es- 
tablish central collection points for 

In 1947 the General Brotherhood Board 
was created and the Brethren Historical 
Commission became a committee under 
the Christian Education Commission. 
Since the 1969 reorganization it has been 

The Church of the Brethren Historical Library 

is a repository of denominational memories. 

Here our individual identities receive 

support from a past 

larger than our 

own. Here is . . . 


by Tenie Miller 


^hN.^' -vt'ti/ diVie .>5Jm1>l! Iinl* .uH 

^ -''*'!:-' *• *•'..*: . 

4 . » # ♦ i' t • 

<-, C( # 

" *' /e, ' ^ . 

under the auspices of the General Services 

The Historical Library itself first took 
shape when the General Offices were 
located on State Street in Elgin. There the 
library shared a cramped space with the 
book store. 

The present location, a large basement 
room at the General Offices, is fast shrink- 
ing as records, files, books, and gifts ac- 
cumulate from myriad sources. What is to 
be found there? 

There are, of course, books in 
abundance — volumes not only on Brethren 
life-style and doctrine. Brethren history, 
and Brethren people and groups, but books 
on any subject authored by Brethren. 
Works of poetry, a nature study, a 
sociological survey . . . the library is a 
showcase of the Brethren literary con- 
tributions to society. 

Ephrata additions 

Last November excitement ran high among 
Brethren historians when a whole slew of 
rare Ephrata and Snow Hill items were put 
up at auction by the Lancaster (Pa.) Men- 
nonite Conference Historical Society. 
Historian Don Durnbaugh was on hand to 
bid for the Brethren Historical Committee, 
supplied with funds hastily gathered from 
various staff budgets (answering an 
emergency appeal by library overseer Gwen 
Bobb). Competition among bidders was 
stiff but Don came away with real treasures 
for the library, including the hand-done 
Snow Hill Choral Book (see illustration, 
page 25), a product of the religious group 
in Franklin County, Pa., that was an off- 
shoot of the Ephrata Cloister. 

Other books purchased at the auction in- 
cluded a beautiful copy of a portion of 
Jacob Boehm's Aurora, a 17th century 
mystical work which helped to shape the 
Ephrata philosophy (the copy was 
transcribed by hand in 1758); Conrad 
Beissel's Deliciae Ephratenses, a group of 
epistles written by the renegade Dunker 
who founded the Ephrata Cloister; and 
Beissel successor Peter Miller's Chronicon 
Ephratense, the sourcebook for much of 
the Ephrata story. 

The November treasure trove is now 
lodged in the Historical Library in Elgin. 

Among the collections related to the 
church, a quick browse reveals everything 
from Brumbaugh's history to TTie Tall 
Man (Remember? "John Naas was a tall 
man. He lived in a Prussian village . . "). 
There are children's books, cookbooks, 
song books, books about China, books of 
sermons, books in German, and books in 
English. And that's only the beginning. 

The valuables inside the vault are ob- 
viously the main attraction of the library. 
There the prizes of the rare book collection 
have been squirreled away: the five Saur 
Bibles with the master's imprint still intact, 
old psalterspiels and prayerbooks from the 
Ephrata and Saur presses, and dozens of 
other hymnbooks and Bibles, almost all of 
them in German. 

Not only their content but the books 
themselves hold a fascination. The hinged 
metal clasps keep the crumbling bindings 
together and lend a "long lost treasure" 
appearance to each book. The dried 
flowers tucked between the pages are color- 
ful bits of nostalgia and folded corners are 
a reassurance that even our venerable 
ancestors failed to read books all the way 

Other plums of the past kept in the vault 
include over 100 green boxes marked with 
curious labels like, "Some Very Early 
Historical Documents," "Letters of John 
Kline," and "Stories to Tell." There are 
Annual Conference tapes, films, two huge 
photograph albums of ministers and 
churches, and a 16th century Bible bound 
in sheepskin. 

Also donlinating the library are 
periodicals . . . The Pilgrim, Primitive 
Christian, The Christian Family Compa- 
nion, The Gospel Visitor. The Gospel 
Messenger ... all forerunners of the 
current Messenger. According to Gwen 
Bobb, staff person in charge of the library, 
the magazine collection is virtually com- 
plete. A few very early issues are missing, 
however, and the historical committee is 
always on the lookout for these. 

A random skimming of these old 
periodicals provides an illuminating cross- 
section of old Brethren values and life- 
styles, some becoming as faded as the old 
magazines, others still part of our present 
experience. The 1884 Gospel Messenger 

"Week before last the thermometer in 
Northern Illinois went down to 41 degrees 
below zero. 

"Three young damsels forsook the ranks 

Upper: AtJiong the Brethren's rarest books 
is the journal of Alexander Mack Jr.: it 
names many of the Germantown pioneers. 
Lower: This 1776 Saur Bible is one of 
five owned by the Historical Library. 

of Satan, and united with the people of 
God in the Logan Church, Ohio. 

"The Unitarian Church of Clinton, 
Mass., has voted unanimously to use water 
instead of wine at their Communion table. 

"A younger brother was baptized in Ben- 
ton Co., la., where Bro. Ashenberger was 
holding a series of meetings. Ice was two 
feet thick and had to be removed. 

"We had several calls from railroad 
agents recently. They are anxious to take 
our Brethren to Annual Meetings, and at 
very reasonable rates." 

The Brethren story can also be glimpsed 
through a pamphlet file, a biographical file, 
genealogies, district conference newsletters 
and minutes. General Board minutes, per- 
sonal records of missionaries, taped inter- 
views between M. R. Zigler and church 
leaders, and the Gish Fund Library. 

There are also the inside, "juicy" stories: 
picture files, diaries, journals, old letters, 
deeds, and papers from prominent 
Brethren families. A box of old letters to 
and from John Kline and the diaries of 
Peter Nead and John Emmert are there, 
along with some courtship letters of James 

Other less personal but nostalgic 

26 MESSENGER February 1977 

memorabilia include old college and 
seminary annuals from days when everyone 
knew everyone in their class and dubbed 
each other with nicknames like "Fats." 
And there is a postcard album, memorable 
if only for the one-cent postage! 

A glass-topped case displays Brethren 
paraphernalia that is startlingly represen- 
tative of what we are about today: a 
wooden foot tub from the Germantown 
church, a square nail from John (son of 
Alexander) Mack's home in Pennsylvania, 
baggage checks from the 1894 Annual 
Meeting. And from more recent history, 
several Annual Conference gavels and a 
chalice from the church in India. 

An ever changing feature of the library is 
the researchers poring over its rich store of 
information. They may be Brethren 
students researching papers, visitors work- 
ing on family genealogy, or often just staff 
persons from upstairs checking their facts. 
The library is always open to researchers 
during regular office hours. Also the 
librarians willingly display rare books for 
visitors to the General Offices. 

Apparent to visitors and researchers is 
the work that always remains to get done 
in a historical library. The burgeoning 
numbers of books, tapes, files, and memen- 
tos point to the need for putting more 
current materials on micro-film and for 

Upper left: Library memorabilia include 1894 Annual Meeting baggage checks, early 
devotional readings, gavels, old nails, and souvenir cups and glasses. Upper right and 
lower right: Edith Barnes and Mildred Heckert, who serve as volunteer librarians, are 
themselves among the library's valuable resources. Lower left: Library overseer 
Gwen Bobb demonstrates the vault, which protects the library's most valuable items. 

more staff to reorganize, index, and 
catalogue the materials. A volunteer, one 
preferably with both library skills and 
archival experience and willing to put in a 
year of service, is currently being sought. 
Gwen Bobb explains. 

It is conceivable that stashed away all 
over the country in Brethren attics, 
basements, and closets are old records, 
minutes, certificates, diaries, and books. 
Anything resurrected from old trunks, box- 
es, or shelves that might seem even vaguely 
pertinent to Brethren history should not be 
discarded. The best course of action is to 
drop a note to Gwen Bobb with a descrip- 
tion of the item. If she believes the material 
to be important, arrangements can be 
made to see the "goods!" Whatever is 
decided, nothing should be destroyed or 
altered until it has been evaluated. 

The discovery of old Brethren 
documents is not an everyday occurrence, 
but one item received recently was a copy 
of the minutes of an Iowa district con- 
ference meeting held during the 1860s. Says 
Gwen, "We didn't even know that district 
was organized then." A find like this fills 
an unexpected historical gap. Other more 
obvious items to keep on the lookout for 
are any items from the Saur, Ephrata, or 
Kurtz presses. 

The Historical Committee is also in- 
terested in gathering current materials: 
local church histories, records of special 
events such as anniversaries and 
dedications, books by Brethren authors, 
family genealogies, and dissertations by 
Brethren scholars. 

Stories. They are everywhere you look in 
the library. In the book. To a Dancing 
God, Sam Keen designates a childhood 
souvenir, a peach seed monkey, as the 
kernel of truth from which his story grew. 
Many Brethren remember love feasts and 
potluck dinners as the events around which 
their lives have flourished. Others recall a 
mission in China or India, a Sunday 
School class, a BVS experience, an Annual 
Conference debate. 

Having a memento, a peach seed 
monkey, enriches the memory process and 
makes our stories more of a reality. No 
thanks to the 1898 Annual Meeting, the 
Brethren have a whole library of peach 
seed monkeys to browse through, to ex- 
tract from, to absorb. Here our individual 
identities receive the gift of support from a 
past larger than our own. Here is where 
belonging begins. □ 

February 1977 me.ssenger 27 

by Merle Crouse 

Reflecting on Cuba 

J. went to Cuba in September, 1976, with 
an ecumenical group of 1 1 persons in order 
to learn something of what the truth is 
about that nation and the Cuban churches 
and to help communicate for understand- 
ing. Life in Cuba feels very different from 
life in the USA. The difference is their uni- 
que experience there known as "The 

Revolutionary Cuba. The Revolution 
was not over when Batista got on the plane 
for Miami in December, 1958, and ab- 
dicated power to the revolutionaries. The 
real revolution started at that time as 
Cubans, under the leadership of Fidel 
Castro and his colleagues, addressed the 
tasks of redesigning their society to affect 
revolutionary goals. Priorities of the 
revolution have come to be: 1) defend the 
revolution from those forces which oppose 
it, 2) reshape the attitude of Cubans from 
one of self-service to one of service to the 
whole people, from individualism to collec- 
tive identity, 3) provide with equity the 
basic human needs of each and every 
Cuban, 4) develop sound economic struc- 
tures and facilities for Cuba, 5) be an 
idealistic and practical Marxist-Leninist 
society, and 6) exercise solidarity with 
other oppressed people of the global fami- 
ly. These are serious goals that affect 
Cuba's life-style and relationships. 

The decision to be a socialist society was 
made in 1962. Of the original guerrillas in 
the mountains, only one was Communist. 
Castro was opposed by the old Cuban 
Communist Party at first, but eventually he 
came to believe that Marxist-Leninism was 
the ideological vehicle able to carry the 
goals of the revolution. He was more 
nationalist and practical than Communist. 
Now his commitment to Marxist-Leninism 
is complete. 

By 1975 the first Communist Party Con- 
gress was held in December in Havana 
which laid the ground work for the in- 
stitutionalization of the Cuban revolution. 

During 1975 and 1976 a constitution was 
written and approved and elections held 
for establishing the democratic base for the 
revolution. Fidel Castro is now the prime 
minister and a member of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party. He 
seems to be loved and admired by most 
Cubans. He is the spokesperson for the 
revolution and has won respect for his in- 
tegrity, identity with the common people, 
humor, and ability to respond to difficult 

Cuba is called a dictatorship of the 
proletariat, of the people. The society is be- 
ing shaped to give dignity and the basic es- 
sentials to the common people, the 
workers. The constitution says: "In the 
Republic of Cuba all the power belongs to 
the working people, who exercise it either 
directly or through the assemblies of 
People's Power and other organs of the 
state which derive their authority from 
these assemblies." 

JTrom the literature I have read, from the 
people I have talked to, and from what I 
have seen in Cuba, I gather that some 
creative and humanitarian development is 
taking place in Cuba in health delivery 
services, in education, in agriculture, in in- 
dustry, and in planning for covering basic 
needs of an entire society. Work is a 
primary value and there is more than 
enough for everyone. Students, prisoners, 
the handicapped, and hospital patients are 
expected to work if they are able. There is 
need for more workers. 

The state guarantees work, free medical 
and dental care, food and subsistence, 
education, and housing. The principle is 
followed of "From each according to his 
ability, to each according to his work." 
Property is mostly held by the state. Twen- 
ty thousand farmers still own their own 
land and have the right to do so indefinite- 
ly, but are encouraged to sell to the state 


and join the collective system. 

There is an effort to do away with racism 
and sexism. The Federation of Cuban 
Women is a recognized organization of 
strength that seeks to work at enabling 
women to achieve an equitable place in 
society. There is a family code that 
guarantees that no woman must do more 
than 50 percent of the household duties. 
The same law gives men the same protec- 
tion. Day care is provided from the age of 
45 days and reasonable maternity leaves 
from work are provided. Women are 
beginning to achieve placement in positions 
of authority, but few are in top positions. 
There is much emphasis on education. 
An intense campaign to wipe out illiteracy 
resulted in a 1973 celebration of the 
eradication of illiteracy in Cuba. Many 
people of all ages are studying. Day care 
centers educate children with intentionalitv 
and seriousness. There is free education 
through university and trade school for all 
who qualify. Adults are encouraged to go 
as far as they wish in education and at least 
through the sixth grade. Many middle-aged 
people are entering the university and tak- 
ing up sophisticated professions that they 
could not consider earlier in life. The 
general atmosphere is one of high aspira- 
tion, austerity, and dedication to tasks, and 
a feeling that Cuba has a heady future and 
a major mission for common people 

The Church. The Christian churches in 
Cuba, both Catholic and Protestant, have 
been going through profound struggle since 
the revolution. The Roman Catholic 
Church has been heavily identified with the 
former government and with the well-to-do 

28 MESSENGER February 1977 

Top: Raul Fernandez Cevallos, a Cuban 
Council of Churches leader, raps with the 
US visitors. Center: New multi-family 
housing is a current priority. Bottom: 
A US tank, trophy of the Bay of 
Pigs, prominently displayed in Havana. 

and had a large percentage of foreign 
priests in its leadership. The Protestant 
churches were strongly oriented to North 
American mission boards and missionaries 
which did not prepare them for sympathy 
with the revolutionaries and their goals. 
Many leaders left as the exiles departed 
from Cuba and the churches have had to 
pick up and re-gear themselves with the 
personnel who have remained. They have 
had to accept the reality that the revolution 
is for real. 

In talking about the situation of the 
church in Cuba, a seminary professor in- 
dicated that he feels the church, like the 
children of Israel after leaving Egypt, has 
needed to spend time in the desert and is 
now in that stage of its life. The church is 
sorting out who it is and what its role 
should be in a Marxist society with an 
atheistic base but strong humanitarian 
goals. Some of the Christians have become 
revolutionaries and feel that in the fullness 
of time the revolution, ordained of God, 
has come for their society. They feel that 
they are discovering a new dimension of 
what it means to be Christian in the heavy 
emphasis of the revolution on justice and 
on the collective good. They feel that the 
extremely individualistic kind of approach 
to the faith which they used to hold is in- 
complete in the light of new learnings 
about community which have come with 
the revolution. 


'hristians are basically free to worship, 
teach, and evangelize as long as activities 
take place on church property. The con- 
stitution says: "The socialistic state, which 
bases its activity and educates the people in 
the scientific materialist concept of the uni- 
verse, recognizes and guarantees freedom 
of conscience and the right of everyone to 
profess any religious belief and to practice, 
within the framework of respect for the 
law, the belief of his preference." 

More conservative evangelical groups 
continue to evangelize vigorously through 
personal contacts and are growing quite 
well. Public, mass evangelism does not take 
place. One denomination has come into be- 
ing during the revolution, since 1965, and 
has found a style both evangelical and 
revolutionary. A youth camp of this 
summer had 1400 campers, many more 
than expected. One seminary could accept 
only half the students who applied last fall. 

Yet, many Christians feel caught 

between the times and between two orien- 
tations that conflict for them. Some groups 
feel that the revolution represents evil be- 
ing visited upon them and describe the 
harassment they suffer. The Roman 
Catholic Church has been hit especially 
hard and is at a low point in its history. 
The church has been accused of having had 
only perfunctory concern for the masses at 
best, and at worst, of being an active ex- 
ploiter of the poor. Blue collar Cuba has 
left the Roman Catholic Church. 

These quotes from a number of Chris- 
tian leaders reflect mixed responses to the 
direction of their national life and what it 
means to them: 

"The church in a revolutionary setting is 
in its ideal environment." 

"This revolution is more mild and benign 
than revolutionary Christianity." 

"Here in Cuba the youth are not suppor- 
tive of a 'bla-bla-bia' church. If the church 
does not respond to them, they are gone." 

"Every Church must do theology, work 
out its faith afresh. The Church must not 
see itself as a socio-economic institution. 
We are the Church. I need to be a citizen 
here from a Christian point of view. Marx- 
ist motivations in one person and Christian 
motivations in another person can lead to 
the same results — cut cane for Cuba. I 
have no problem with the Revolution. We 
needed it very badly." 

"The constitution guarantees religious 
freedom. Our problem is not discrimina- 
tion against us at the top, but rather 
pressure from zealots at the local level." 

"If each Christian does not have a vision 
and willingness to struggle, he will not stay 

"The Church here in Cuba has not re- 
solved the role of the Church in a socialist 

"Things are very delicate." 

"We are poor but have the joy of the 
Lord and the presence of the Holy Spirit. 
Our facilities need repair badly but 
building priorities are for homes first and 
we cannot get materials. After all, which is 
more important, the roof of a home with 
children or the roof of church buildings?" 

"The fullness of time has come, the 
Church has begun to be born." 

All Cubans with whom I conversed, both 
Christian and non-Christian, look forward 
to the time when the blockade will be lifted 
and relations restored again for Cubans 
and Americans to be in fellowship on the 
basis of mutuality and respect. [_] 

February 1977 mkssenckr 29 

by Stewart M. Hoover 

Broadcast shareholders 

At has been estimated that by the time a 
child graduates from high school, he or she 
will have witnessed more than 13,000 
deaths by violence. Chances are that not 
one of these will have been witnessed in 
real life, but at least this many will have 
been seen on television. Television is a 
classroom where the average child spends 
three hours a day, seven days a week, 
learning about the world. And the lesson 
learned there is by and large the lesson that 
violence and belligerence are the best ways 
to solve problems. Cooperation is rare, 
compromise rarer still. Our traditional 
Brethren understandings of simple living 
and a nonviolent life-style is foreign to the 
television "world." 

We are all aware of the fact that many 
people have been concerned about televised 
violence and its effects. The American 
Medical Association, the PTA, and certain 
organizations within the advertising in- 
dustry have all been questioning the long- 
term good of television's anti-social 
messages. Churches and church people 
have been among the most vocal and most 
active in working to counteract violence. 
Our own Brethren Media Education and 
Advocacy Project was begun by the 
General Board in 1975 in order to address 
this and other problems in the mass media. 


he problem is always "Where do we 
begin?" Where can we, as Brethren, bring 
our perspective and witness to bear in the 
most creative and helpful way? What do we 
have to say to a societal institution which is 
so powerful and seems to be counteracting 
some of our most basic beliefs? 

In the past, churches have risen to exer- 
cise moral leadership in media reform. 
They have done so through local activity in 
station license-renewal, through involve- 
ment with Congress and with the Federal 
Communication Commission. These have 
been profitable directions, and we will 

move in these areas as there are important 
legislative and regulatory issues to be 
faced this year. 

The Board has felt that some extra ac- 
tion is warranted by problems such as 
violent television content. There simply 
hasn't been enough done to ensure that this 
steady diet of anti-social and anti-human 
curriculum is stopped. Pressure for out- 
right censorship is strong. Indeed, this is a 
likelihood, if the public outcry were to 
motivate Congress to such action. Cen- 
sorship is, however, a dangerous solution. 
As was pointed out in our own 1962 An- 
nual Conference statement on the media, 
censorship is a precedent which could be 
turned on any ideas or messages society 
deems inappropriate, such as our own 
denominational positions on the draft. 

Xn the middle of the various proposed 
solutions to the violence problem, one area 
of responsibility for the violent program- 
ming has been overlooked until now. In 
terms of direct accountability, it is only the 
local broadcast station, out of all of the 
various parts of the broadcast industry that 
is held responsible for serving the public in- 
terest by its programing. The other parts of 
the process, the networks, sponsors, adver- 
tising agencies, producers, etc., are, by and 
large, unregulated. 

As a denomination, we hold stock in a 
number of these corporations, and as 
owners, we are beginning to ask them how 
their activities can be more socially respon- 
sible with reference to the problem of 
televised violence. 

Religious investors have, in recent years, 
been asking this sort of responsibility ques- 
tion with a variety of corporations, and 
have had success in acquainting these com- 
panies with the social consequences of their 
activities. No one has, as yet, done this 
with parts of the broadcast industry to any 
great degree. Working through the Com- 

munication Commission of the National 
Council of Churches and through the In- 
terfaith Center on Corporate Responsibili- 
ty, our staff has rallied a number of 
denominations and Catholic orders to the 
cause. We are proceeding this year to ap- 
proach sponsors whose products have been 
identified with the most violent programs. 

Studies done last season by the National 
Citizen's Committee for Broadcasting have 
provided us with a list of corporations 
whose advertisements have been most often 
on violent programs. We Brethren hold 
stock in a number of them, and have 
selected two to whom we will go this year 
with resolutions. These resolutions are 
taken to the annual meeting of the cor- 
porations, where they can be heard and 
voted on by all stockholders. The 
resolutions merely ask that these two com- 
panies. Proctor and Gamble, and Pillsbury 
(whose Burger King subsidiary was the 
second worst violence sponsor last season) 
stop allowing their ads to appear in violent 
programs. We are already in conversation 
with these companies and with the networks 
(which are also in our portfolio) and may be 
able to persuade them to institute this 
policy. Others of the sponsors are being ap- 
proached by other groups, and all of them 
are being made aware of our actions. 

We feel that it is important to exercise 
our rights in this area. It has always been 
up to the church to provide moral 
leadership in such things. We call upon 
other churches and individuals to join us 
by looking at those corporations they may 
also invest in. Persons interested in more 
information may contact us in Com- 
munications at Elgin. D 

30 MESSENGER February 1977 




James H. Lehman 

Centering on the interesting ten years between 1840 and 1850, this book 
touches on such aspects of Brethren life as life-style, the importance and use 
of the Bible, ordinances, dress, worship, love feast, baptism, the "order" of 
the Brethren, illustrious persons, eastern Brethren and western Brethren, 
and other completely fascinating stories about the pioneer Brethren in a 
young America. 

A vivid portrait of a courageous community that dared to be different, to live 
entirely according to the Bible "as it reads," and to dress and act in ways that 
often made them seem outlandish to their more sophisticated countrymen. 
$2.45 paper plus 35$ p&h. 

Order from The Brethren Press 

1451 Dundee Ave. 
Elgin, IL 60120 


Fia. B 

(right way) 

i ^ 

/=/G. C 
(wrong way) 

Hanging the banner properly is important for effective display. The simplest method is to 
use a wooden rod with a notched end. Cut the cord and the rod the same length. 

In the name of our God set up our 
banners! — Psalm 20:5 

Here is how to make a festive banner to 
add color and excitement to your Easter 
celebration. A banner is like a colorful 
stained-glass window done in fabric, 
thread, and glue. 

Choose a design 

If this is your first banner, you may want 
to copy the design on the opposite page. 
You may want to choose your own text 
and design. The theme comes first. Then 
the design. Use bold letters and few pieces. 
Keep it simple for stronger impact. 

How big? 

Determine the size by where it will be 
used. Don't think too small. Draw a grid 
like the one here. Enlarge each square to 
any size. 

Reproduce the total grid on a large sheet 
of paper the same size as the finished 
banner. Then draw the design, one square 
at a time. The whole design will eventually 
appear, the size you want. This is your 

Cut out the cloth 

Felt is the easiest and nicest fabric to use. 
It comes in many bright colors and won't 
ravel. For this design we suggest a green 
background, bright yellow sun, orange 
sunrays, white letters. Choose your own 
colors. Keep them bright. 

Trace the letters and design pieces on to 
thin tracing paper (like dress pattern 
paper). Pin these to the felt and cut them 

Lay out the banner 

Pin each felt piece to the background felt. 
When everything is in place, glue each edge 

32 MESSENGER February 1977 

To test our pattern we made a finished 
banner. Ours is 4x6 feet. We did a zigzag 
stitch around each of the pieces. 

(inside edges of letters, too) to the felt. Use 
a white glue like Elmer's Glue-all. A little 
will do, don't let it run out the side. For a 
more finished look, sew by hand or with a 
zigzag stitch all around each piece of felt. 
Use a matching or very dark thread. 

Finish the banner 

Hem the top with a sleeve large enough to 
allow a dowel stick (broom stick, curtain 
rod, other interesting things will do well, 
too) to slide through. See Fig. A for a way 
to attach the cord to the ends of the 

Finish the bottom, also. Either cut the 
felt to make a fringe, or sew on a fringe , 
from the fabric shop. A sleeve like the one 
on top could add weight to make the 
banner hang smoothly. 

Display it 

The cord should be flat across the top like 
Fig. B, not Fig. C. It will stretch to just the 
right length. Use any cord that matches in 
color, or black. Heavy yarns are good. Go 
to your fabric shop to get ideas. 

Your banner will be a glad announce- 
ment not only Easter Sunday, but every 
day that we serve a risen Lord. — Wilbur 
E. Brumbaugh 

IboiiiriniDDiig [p(S)D[rD"i^^ 


Marlin Bricker, ordained Aug. 
17. 1976, Back Creek. Southern 

.lerry Lee Fair, received on 
former ordination. United Breth- 
ren in Christ. Southern Ohio. Sept. 
7. 1976 

Lloyd Burton Hildcbrand, or- 
dained Sept. 19. 1976. Linville 
Creek. Shenandoah 

Albert Frank Richards, licensed 
Sept. 5. 1976. Olean. Virlina 

Kenth Welch. Licensed June 27. 
1976. Prairie City. Northern Plains 

Otto S. Zuckschwerdt. ordained 
Oct. 31. 1976. Muskegon. Michi- 

Pastoral Placements 

Thurman Andrews, to New 
Hope. Southern Missouri. Arkan- 
sas. Missouri. Northern Plains 

Stanley Barkdoll. to Clo\is. 
Southern Plains 

Duane Beals. from Bethel. 
Northern Indiana 

Harold Burgess, from Mount 
Pleasant. Northern Indiana 

Roger Burtner, from CROP m 
Maryland, to interim. Manor, Mid- 

Donald Clapper, from free min- 
istry, to Falling Spring, Southern 

Alma Coffman. from interim pul- 
pit supply. Salem, Shenandoah, to 
Ottawa. Canada Mennonite 

Dave Emerson, from Raven Run. 
Middle Pennsylvania, to Pleasant 
Valley, Tennessee. Southeastern 

Merlin Garber, from Frederick, 
Mid-Atlantic, to retirement 

Pius R. Gibble. from Nettle 
Creek. South Central Indiana, to 
Franklin Grove. Illinois/Wisconsin 

Ronald K. Harris, from other 
denomination, to Koinonia Breth- 
ren Baptist (formerly First Grand 
Valley). Western Plams 

.Arthur and Nettie Krall. from 
secular, to Mud Lick, Southern 

Chester A. McCloskey, to Ar- 
denheim. Middle Pennsylvania 

D. Bristoc Osborne, retired from 
Peak Creek. Southeastern 

Dan Petrv. to Akron. 

South Central Indiana 

Robert Roller, from Franklin 
Grove. Illinois Wisconsin to secu- 

Claude Sumner, from secular, to 
Pyrmont. South Central Indiana 

James C. Tilley. to Bristol-Pleas- 
ant Hill. Southeastern 

John O. Wagoner M. from secu- 
lar, to Surrey. N. Dak.. Northern 

Robert Winkler, from interim, 
Kaskaskia. Illinois/ Wisconsin 

Mark Wolfe, from Crab Or- 
chard, Virlina, to Cave Rock, Vir- 

Wedding Anniversaries 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis Bopp, 
Johnstown, Pa.. 52 

Mr. and Mrs. Dave Bowman. 
Modesto. Calif.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Wayne Clough, 
Waterloo. Iowa. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Crabill. 

Woodstock. Va.. 60 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Hartman. 
Wenatchce. Wash.. 50 ' 

Mr, and Mrs. Ray Henderson. 
Perkins. Okla.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Guv E. Keltner. 
Pearl City. 111.. 60 

Mr. and Mrs, Russell S, Landis. 
Greenville. Ohio. 60 

Mr. and Mrs, Arthur Lees. Ko- 
komo, Ind-. 58 

Mr. and Mrs, Stewart Lehman. 
York. Pa,. 51 

Mr, and Mrs. John Leyda. Har- 
din. Mo,. 60 

Mr, and Mrs, Perry l.iskey. Ship- 
pensburg. Pa.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs, Harrv Lo7,ier. 
Warsaw. Ind., 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Medford Neher. 
Pompano Beach. Fla.. 57 

Mr. and Mrs, Loyal Nickler. Elk- 
hart. Ind,. 50 

Mr. and Mrs, Earl Petry. West 
Manchester, Ohio, 6.1 

Mr. and Mrs, Ray Piper. N, 
Manchester. Ind.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. J, Arthur Smith. 
Lancaster. Pa.. 66 

Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Weber. 
Dallas Center. Iowa, 67 

Mr, and Mrs. Howard Weiss. 
Neffsville, Pa., 72 

Mr, and Mrs. Harvey Winland. 
Akron. Ohio. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Minor Zimmer- 
man. Mt- Solon. Va.. 50 


Katherine Root Adams. 63. Mil- 
ford. Del., June 16. 1976 

Gerald E. Baker, 61, New Enter- 
prise. Pa,. Sept. 26. 1976 

Elmer Banks. Tucson. Ariz.. 
Sept. 2, 1976 

James M. Berkebile. 63. Neffs- 
ville. Pa.. Aug. 14, 1976 

Bertha Birkenholt?. Prairie City. 
Iowa. Jan. 1. 1976 

Iota Bowman. 93. Johnson City, 
Tenn.. Aug, 8. 1976 

Vernon W. Bowman. 65. Lan- 
sing. N, Y.. Sept. 3. 1976 

Guv H, Brammcll. 83. McPher- 
son. Kans.. Aug, 25. 1976 

Durward P, Brandt. 58. Rock 
Lake. N, Dak., Aug. .30. 1976 

Rhoda M. Brown. 57. Effing- 
ham, 111.. Aug, 9. 1976 

Mary Susan Brubaker, Prairie 
City. Iowa. Feb, 3. 1976 

Grace Brumbaugh. Altoona. Pa.. 
Sept. 6, 1976 

Celia Overholtzer Burnham. 104. 
Whillier. CaliL. Aug, 5. 1976 

Connie Carpenter. 81. Clarks- 
ville. Ind.. April 20. 1976 

Eula Mae F, Craun, 71. Mt, 
Crawford, Va.. Aug, 4, 1976 

Thomas Aaron Davis. 92, Grot- 
toes. Va.. July 19, 1976 

Eva Deppen. 70, Elizabethtow^n. 
Pa.. Julv3l. 1976 

Mary Belle Sauble Ecker, 84. 
Westminster. Md,. Sept, 25, 1976 

Joseph O- Edwards. 65. Easton. 
Md., Julv 24. 1976 

Bessie V. EIrod. 87. McPherson. 
Kans., Sept. 29. 1976 

Naomi Stem Etzler. 59, West- 
minister. Md.. Aug. 22, 1976 

Reba Annie Flora. 52. Rocky 
Mount. Va,. Sept, 13. 1976 

Addie Walter Garber, 85, Grot- 

toes. Va.. Aug- 14. 1976 

Emma Givens. 86. Bridgeville. 
Del.. Feb. 16, 1976 

Roscoe Griffith. 87. Green 
Mountain. N.C.. July 1976 

Lulu Dull Hagman, Palm 
Springs. Calif.. March 31, 1976 

Lee Hanigan. 57. Yakima. 
Wash.. Aug. 10, 1976 

Richard Harris. 75. Denver. 
Colo.. Oct. 2. 1976 

Martha Hessong. 83. Peru. Ind,. 
.Sept. 1. 1976 

John Holsmger. 91. Woodstock. 
Va,. Sept. 17, 1976 

Miriam Huber. 73. Chambers- 
burg. Pa,. Sept. 6. 1976 

Mildred Jamison. 64. Ottawa. 
Kans,. July 10. 1976 

Mike Kettering. 31. Wenatchee. 
Wash.. Aug, .30. 1976 

Leon Kopp. 57. Brodbecks. Pa.. 
Aug, 15. 1976 

Mary Lav. 77. Chambersburg. 
Pa.. Aug. 5,'l976 

Albert Loken. 69. Cando. N. 
Dak.. Sept. 30. 1976 

Clavton Miller. 91. Lancaster. 
Pa.. Aug. 26. 1976 

Henrv Miller. 42. Greenwood. 
Del.. Sept. 6, 1976 

Homer J. Miller. 67. Harrison- 
burg, Va.. Sept. 1. 1976 

Margaret Miller. 77. Lewistown. 
Pa.. Sept, 13. 1976 

Charles Warren Mills. 79. Peru. 
Ind.. Aug. I. 1976 

Grace Murphy. 89. Peru. Ind.. 
Aug. 9. 1976 

Nellie Murphv. 73. Seymour. 
Ind,. April 19. 1976 

Lura Pittenger. 94. Trov. Ohio. 
Sept, 13, 1976 

Abram Price. 80. Chalfont. Pa.. 
Sept. 5. 1976 

Marie Wright Redington. 53. 
Lansdale. Pa.. Sept. 4. 1976 

Eva Rosenberger. West Willow. 
Pa.. April 18. 1976 

Harrv Rowland. 60. Mt. Morris. 
III.. Sept. 11, 1976 

Harold Arthur Rust. 64. Cabool. 
Mo.. Oct. 3. 1976 

Mae Saylor. 83. Roaring Spring. 
Pa.. Sept, 7, 1976 

Mary Sharp. 87. Wenatchee. 
Wash.. Sept. 5. 1976 

Bert W. Shellhaas. 94. Trot- 
wood. Ohio. Sept. 20, 1976 

Henrv Shelton. 49. Westminster. 
Md.. May 27. 1976 

Pearle R, Shreckhise. 89. Weyers 
Cave. Va.. April 1. 1976 

Goldie Smith. 78. Laura. Ohio. 
Aug. 31. 1976 

Pearl Smith. Harrisonburg. Va.. 
Sept. 5. 1976 

Arthur Stealv. 64. Goshen. Ind,. 
Sept, 9. 1976 

Jav Stine. 80. McVevtown, Pa., 
Sept.' 27. 1976 

Fred Teubner. 78. Cando. N, 
Dak.. Sept. 6. 1976 

Flovd Vote. 73. Cando, N. Dak.. 
Sept, 8. 1976 

Chervl Zeiler Watson. 21. Love- 
land. Colo.. July 31. 1976 

Bertie W, Wenger. 91. Weyers 
Cave. Va.. Aug. 2. 1976 

Mrs. Edwin Wheeler, McPher- 
son. Kans.. May 14. 1976 

Arnold Wilson. 47. Wenatchee. 
Wash.. Aug. 16. 1976 

Ruth Zurowski. 72. Cleveland. 
Ohio. Aug. 17. 1976 

February 1977 messenger 33 

h(B\r(B D 

On Cunningham, queries, charismatics, calling 

Carl Eschhach 

Lloyd Cunningham: 
a 'good camper' 

Dr. Lloyd Cunningham, a faithful and 
devoted missionary of the Church, served 
as a missionary in China for twelve years 
and in India for ten years. He died last 
March 21 in Fresno, Calif. 

A full life story of any person would 
consider ancestors, early childhood, 
schooling, growing up, family, aims and 
goals, successes, failures, hopes, and 
promises, and each story would be worth 
reading. However, frequently a brief period 
in a life is enough to reveal adequately the 
basic qualities or special attributes a person 
is privileged to share not only for that brief 
period but for all of life. In this spirit I 
write of Lloyd Cunningham. 

Almost four of those years under China 
service were spent in a Japanese internment 
camp in Baguio. Philippines. Dr. Cun- 
ningham with his wife Ellen and their 
young son were attending the Chinese 
Language School in Baguio when war 
came to the Philippines in December, 1941. 
Twenty days after Pearl Harbor, with other 
American and British civilians in that com- 
munity, they were prisoners of the 
Japanese military. It was a group of ap- 
proximately 500 men, women, and children 
and it included people from all walks of 
life — a cosmopolitan community. 

When you live for that period within the 
limits of a small compound, you really 
have "togetherness" and it was in such a 
situation that Dr. Cunningham and I 
became very good friends and co-workers. 

The camp elected its own officials to 
regulate and govern the activities of the in- 
ternees and Dr. Cunningham was chosen 
as chairman of the health department for 
the latter period of the camp experience. 
This was the most difficult time of the en- 

7b hold in respect and fellowship those in 
the church with whom we agree or disagree 
is a characteristic of the Church of the 
Brethren. It is to the continuation of this 
value, and to an open and probing forum, 
that "Here I Stand" responses are invited. 

tire period for food was scarce, people were 
in poor health, and it was difficult to main- 
tain good spirit and morale in the camp. 

The camp committee met weekly and it 
was Dr. Cunningham's responsibility to 
report all recommendations of the medical 
committee and to keep all of us informed 
of particular health problems. His over- 
sight extended to the hospital, dispensary, 
pharmacy, sanitation of the entire camp, 
special diets, nursery, and even the alloca- 
tion of very limited supplies of milk and 
eggs. Imagine the responsibility of deciding 
which patient whould receive one of the 10 
to 12 eggs received daily from the small 
flock of chickens we were able to secure or 
who needed the few ounces of milk re- 
ceived from the camp cow or the very 
limited supply of canned milk. These items 
seem very insignificant and even humorous 
in this present day but in days of starvation 
it was an important decision. 

The minutes of the general committee 
reveal that among other things Dr. Cun- 
ningham made helpful suggestions for the 
better use of the limited facilities for health 
care and it was through his efforts that 
some patients were allowed to use hospital 
service in Babuio where better equipment 
was available. In cooperation with other 
doctors in the camp he helped prepare and 
compile a record of the health care of the 
internees. In spite of the few drugs and 
medicines, the unselfish efforts and wise 
planning of the doctors and nurses enabled 
many of us to maintain a fair degree of 

We were fortunate to have men like Dr. 
Cunningham who willingly shared their 
medical knowledge and proficiency for 
every one. 

In addition to his medical service he was 
a loyal supporter of other camp activities 
that helped to develop a community or 
corporate unity. The church, the school, 
the work details, the barracks living could 
all count on his interest and good judg- 
ment. In all of this his witness for Christian 
living and sharing revealed a deep sense of 
Christian commitment and devotion for 
the "glory of God." He was a "good 
camper" and truly God's helper in a most 
difficult time. 

I am confident these are the same traits 
of Christian character that enabled him to 
give distinguished service in all of his mis- 
sionary activities at home and abroad. | ] 

Louise Denham Bowman 

Let's do homework 
on AC queries 

At the risk of being misunderstood, I want 
to raise a concern I have related to the 
stewardship of valuable resources expend- 
ed by our denomination's Annual 
Conference — human resources, that is. 

For the past two years I have been 
privileged to be a member of Standing 
Committee. Working through queries that 
have been passed to Annual Conference 
has given me a greater appreciation for 
background studies and research which ac- 
company some queries as well as the ap- 
propriate phrasing of queries. 

Annual Conference and its committees, 
including Standing Committee, expend 
considerable resources in efforts to move 
the church as it sees its mission. Therefore, 
concerns which come in the form of queries 
should be accompanied by evidence of 
study, research, and thoughtful analysis on 
the local and /or district level. Such 
previous "homework" could: I) make dis- 
position of the query possible before 
reaching Annual Conference: 2) provide in- 
sight to the nature of the query (not always 
obvious); and 3) provide material to Stand- 
ing Committee and Annual Conference 
which substantiates the basic concern of 
the query. 

Some queries which are passed to An- 
nual Conference are phrased so that reply- 
ing in the affirmative to the concern would 
put the church in direct confrontation with 
the United States Constitution. Thoughtful 
attention needs to be given to wording and 
phrasing so that the church can respond af- 
firmatively, if it chooses to do so. 

The Manual of Brotherhood Organiza- 
tion and Polity (Revised. Sept.. 1970) 
states that the procedure for queries at the 
local level is to "evaluate and try to answer 
the concern through research and inquiry" 
(page A-2). On the district level, the man- 
ual states. "The query should be reviewed 
by the district board, or the district can ap- 
point a committee to investigate the merits 
of the query, hold hearings to evaluate 
different sides of the question, and seek to 
find a satisfactory answer" (page A-3). 

I plead that we continue to listen careful- 
ly to concerns and to keep the dialogue go- 

34 MESSENChR February 1977 

to repentance 

ing. But I further plead we give more 
careful attention to procedures which can 
be helpful in keeping that dialogue clear 
and responsible. By another name, this 
process can be called Christian 
stewardship. [J 

Lerry W. Fogle 

Charismatic view 
of Valparaiso 

It has been several months since the Con- 
ference on the Holy Spirit. I have read 
several accounts of the conference from 
Brethren reporting on it from a "non- 
charismatic" view. In all fairness to the 
conference and what God accomplished 
there, he has led me to pass along some 
observations from a "charismatic" point of 
view. These thoughts will hopefully glorify 
our heavenly Father and are not intended, 
in any way, to be a means of literary 

In anything we do as Christians, we will 
only put into something that which we 
want to get out of it. Whether it be sports, 
debating, group discussion, family life, or 
worship, and whether or not we are a par- 
ticipant or spectator, the underlying princi- 
ple of "receiving to the degree we give" 
comes into play. 

Brethren and non-Brethren from all over 
the country assembled on that Lutheran 
campus with varying needs and desires. 
Many came to praise the Lord, pray, study 
the Word and be in fellowship. The 
spiritual blessings they received as a result 
of that input were beyond measure because 
they will reach far beyond Valparaiso to 
the lives of those still searching for the 
answer in Christ Jesus. 

It was obvious that many came with 
skepticism and doubt, seeking to know 
more of the Holy Spirit and his work 
among the body of Christ. Those that came 
with that attitude can't be faulted because 
we all need to continue in our seeking the 
fullness of God's will in our lives. The error 
that I have detected in most of the reports 
published on the conference was that of 
looking to the imperfection of people and 
not to the perfection and unifying of the 
Holy Spirit in and among the Brethren. 

As our brother Paul so very aptly notes 

in his letter to the Galatians, the Spirit and 
flesh are constantly warring one against 
another. The most divine Spirit-filled Chris- 
tian should not be made an example for 
others. Only Jesus can be our perfect exam- 
ple. As Christians, whether filled with the 
Holy Spirit or not, we are being changed and 
molded continually into Christ's likeness. 
Until that happens completely in glory, none 
of us will be perfect. It is the purpose of 
Christ's body to unite itself and be about the 
work to which Jesus commanded us. 

I came to the conference looking for 
what God was going to do. Beyond all the 
imperfection and weakness of those 
assembled, God did some very beautiful 
things. There is not an easy way to es- 
timate, but 100 to 200 persons or more 
responded to the salvation calls. This 
number may have included those who were 
rededicating their lives to Jesus . . . and 
that's also important. A substantial portion 
of those people and others received the in- 
filling of the Holy Spirit besides. Their 
greatest hindrance now might be accep- 
tance into the local congregations which 
could use their precious spiritual 

Some were healed of sickness, disease, 
strained relationships, emotional problems 
and a various assortment of worldly bur- 
dens that many others will carry with them 
to their graves. But these souls dared to 
trust God to meet their needs. And he did! 

The teaching was very good. I say this 
not to boast of the one small class I taught, 
but for the total teaching experience of 20 
to 30 well-selected subjects related to the 
Holy Spirit and the church. The only non- 
Brethren teacher, a Presbyterian brother 
from Virginia, commented that the teach- 
ing at Valparaiso was the best he had ex- 
perienced at any charismatic conference. 
The tremendous importance of teaching 
can be found in Acts 11:26 where believers 
were first called Christians. This teaching 
also resulted in group dialogue in which 
everyone had the opportunity to share their 

Finally, there was one dimension of the 
conference which may not have meant 
much to some but meant everything to our 
God. That was the praise and worship we 
brought before his presence. The Chapel of 
the Resurrection was filled with "psalms 
and hymns and spiritual songs . . . making 
melody ... to the Lord" (Eph. 5:19). God 

has called us to be a royal priesthood. The 
sacrifice of praise at the Conference on the 
Holy Spirit could only be measured by our 
Father in heaven who deserves them. 

As the events of the conference are con- 
sidered, they reflect the "acts" of the early 
church. This early church moved by the 
power of the Holy Spirit as Jesus had said 
it must. It had its strengths and it had its 
weaknesses, but nevertheless it moved on. 
The Brethren are dedicated to that life re- 
vealed in the New Testament. The Holy 
Spirit, as in all other denominations in the 
world today, must be allowed to move in 
our denomination. There will be times 
when we handle it all wrong and the un- 
saved of the world will be "turned off." But 
there will be so many more times that God 
will triumph in the lives of non-believers 
through the church vessel, empowered by 
the Spirit and carrying the precious gift of 
eternal and abundant life. 

It is the prayer of many that the Church 
of the Brethren continue to mold itself 
around the teachings of Jesus. The con- 
ference with all its observed faults still 
served to meet a variety of needs for those 
attending as well as ministering to God. 
For me, it was the closest thing to the 
scriptural definition of the New Testament 
church that I have experienced since I 
became a member of the Church of the 
Brethren in 1963. 1 hope it's not the last. 
I'm glad to be a part of this precious 
denomination but even more so to be a 
part of the family of God. [ I 

Peter Michael 

call to repent 

"Do vou turn away from all sin and will 
you endeavor by God's grace to live 
according to the example and the teachings 
of Jesus'?" 

"Do you believe that Jesus is God's Son 
and do you receive Him and trust Him as 
your Savior?" 

These words are part of the baptismal 
vows suggested in the Brethren Book of 
Worship. The early Brethren who gathered 
together to form a new Christian com- 
munity knew the importance of salvation 
as an "inner spiritual experience" as well as 

February 1977 mfssengkr 35 

the necessity of consistency between faith 
and hfe-style. They believed this to be an 
imitation of primitive Christianity and in 
accordance with scripture. To join this new 
community meant a real sacrifice — often 
the loss of homes and wealth, and in some 
cases, even imprisonment. 

The story of the rich young ruler in 
Matthew 19 may have been one of the 
Bible passages the early Brethren meditated 
on, for we know they studied the Scrip- 
tures diligently. In these verses, the writer 
of this Gospel tells of the young man who 
came to Jesus asking what he needed to do 
to gain eternal life. This question im- 



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mediately indicated that the young man 
was wishing to satisfy his self-centered 
desires for comfort and security rather than 
become a servant of God and others, 
motivated by His love. 

Jesus replies to the young man that 
he should "keep the commandments" but 
interestingly, only mentions those com- 
mandments which deal with a person's 
relationships to other persons. Could this 
possibly have been because Jesus knew the 
man acted very piously on the Sabbath but 
was unwilling to make any sacrifices by liv- 
ing each day in a way befitting a person 
who was truly doing God's will? 

After the young man answered that he 
had obeyed the commandments. Jesus goes 
on to say that if he really wished to com- 
plete God's will ("be perfect") he should 
sell his possessions, give them to the poor 
and follow Him. This statement comes as a 
surprise to us. The young man seemed 
zealous in his interest and likely would 
have brought with him a considerable 
amount of enthusiasm to this budding new 
cause. He is the kind of person whom 
others are very anxious to have join their 
group, political campaign, or church. If, as 
Luke suggests, he was a ruler, he would 
have brought with him the respect of 
others, giving credibility to these new 
teachings. He would have had influence 
with other leaders and likely would have 
had many friends who would then also 
consider joining. His wealth would certain- 
ly be an asset to any organization. He was 
an ideal recruit. 

But Jesus, rather than minimizing his ex- 
pectations in order to encourage the young 
man to become a disciple, does precisely 
the opposite. He required of the young 
man the very thing he was least willing to 
surrender — his wealth. Jesus did not even 
ask that the money be given to him but to 
the poor where it could never be recovered. 
A. Plummer has said that "Disciples who 
may come upon their own terms are easily 
won, and easily lost. If Christ had lowered 
the terms for the sake of gaining this man 
and his wealth, He might for a time have 
had one more enthusiastic follower with 
the risk of having later a second Judas." 

Most Brethren churches today, in 
variance with Christ and with the early 
Brethren in regards to discipleship. expect 
very little of persons joining the church. 
Many persons stay on the membership 
roles without having tasks of ministries and 
often even failing to participate in regular 
church worship services. It is humorous 

even to consider Christ condoning such 

Though such change towards minimizing 
expectations has been a gradual process, 
the actions of the 1958 Annual Meeting are 
worth noting. That year a report, adopted 
by the General Board and passed by the 
delegate body, called for an "endeavor to 
earnestly win the total community to the 
Lordship of Christ." To help this "church 
extension" the Conference report stated 
that congregations could accept persons 
from other denominations who had not 
been baptized as an adult on a confession 
of faith. It went on to state that con- 
gregations could celebrate the Eucharist 
apart from the footwashing and love feast. 
It is certainly admirable that the denomina- 
tion was reaching out to the world, but 
new members should not be bought at the 
expense of watering down the gospel of 
Jesus Christ. The baptism and love feast 
are not the real issues but symptoms of a 
church seeking to please the world rather 
than Christ. 

Even apart from the will of Christ, one 
might further question the practicality of 
lowering expectations of members to at- 
tract them to the church. There has not 
been any rapid growth in the church since 
1958, which this resolution had intended to 
precipitate, and yet other religious groups 
placing very high demands on their 
members have been growing steadily. Dean 
Kelley hypothesizes that we long to ease off 
from any arduous labor but when we do 
fully relax, we soon become restless and 
irritable. But there are times when we are 
roused to maximum exertion and commit- 
ment and we remember these times as real- 
ly lived moments. People are looking for 
persons or groups who will challenge and 
inspire them to give their best, and to work 
at their maximum potential. 

If we as a church are to be faithful to the 
Word of God. we need to stand in the 
tradition of the founders of our denomina- 
tion, calling people to present themselves 
as "living sacrifices." Rather than milk- 
toast preachers whose sermons are titled 
"Go ye into the world and smile." we need 
persons who will unapologetically call peo- 
ple to repentance, sacrifice, and a life of 
radical discipleship. Though there will be 
persons like the rich young ruler who will 
go away saddened, there will be others who 
will rise up out of the ranks of Christ's 
followers and will be persons like Simon 
Peter, the Apostle Paul, Alexander Mack 
or John Kline. L] 

36 MESSENGER February 1977 

Promote Brethren pamphlets in 
your church n art hex 


15C each; $1.50 for 
12 of one title 

What being a Christian means in 
terms of daily living, life-styles, 
attitudes, and in personal and 
group behavior; this is what the 
new Brethren series of Christian 
Life pamphlets is ail about. 
Where the Spirit Is, Carroll M. 

Simple Living: A New 
Necessity, T. Wayne 
Guideposts in the Sexual 
Wilderness, Guy E. 
Wampler, Jr. 
You've Got a Lot to Give, 

Robert Neff 
Reaching Toward the 

Promise, Warren F. Groff 
Hunger: A Biblical Perspec- 
tive, Richard Gardner 


250 each; $2.75 for 
12 of one title 

The earliest Brethren searched 
the Scriptures, looking for the 
principles and practices that 
would characterize a New Testa- 
ment church. They agreed on 
certain ordinances and ideals 
that are basic for Christian life. 
The Foundations Series is a 
group of these Brethren writings 
recently redesigned and 
reprinted for modern readers. 

The Brethren Love Feast. 

William M. Beahm 
Anointing for Healing, 

Warren D. Bowman 
The Meaning of Baptism, 

William M. Beahm 
Ideals of the Church of the 

Brethren, D. W. Kurtz 


Edward K. Ziegler 
400 each; $3.50 for 12 

Please send Brethren pamphlet 
display unit containing 12 each 
of 11 different pamphlets. 
$22.00 including p&h. 



State Zip_ 


1451 Dundee Ave 

Elgin, III 60120 

February 1977 messenger 37 

Getting the hang of 


What's it like to go hungry while 
others are well fed? For this youth 
group a world hunger simulation 
gave a touch of reality to the 
problem our nation faces when 
others need to share our plenty. 

by Byron M. Flory Jr. 

A casual observer would not have noticed 
anything amiss about the group eating at 
the picnic shelter. But a closer look would 
have raised questions about the menu — 
among the youth and adults, several were 
eating only rice, several others were eating 
only corn-cakes and the rest were working 
at heaping plates of American type food — 
steak, vegetables, and salad. Only the latter 
persons seemed to be enjoying themselves. 

This microcosm of the world hunger 
problem was enacted last .luly by a 
Southern Ohio senior-high group and its 
leaders at Camp Woodland Altars. The 
meal marked the beginning of a week-long 
rich-poor simulation which formed the 
basis of a study of human interactions and 
relationships. The overall theme was "Does 
the Money Tree Yield Fruit?" and the meal 
that evening was designated as a Third 
World Banquet. 

No information preceded the meal; no 
one knew what kind of food each would be 
receiving. Reactions were varied. Some 
could not tolerate the rice or the corn 
cakes, others accepted this kind of "ration" 

38 MissiNGiR Kchruarv 1977 

in good grace. Some ate their American 
portions without thinking or sharing. Some 
exchanged food out of concern and curiosi- 
ty. Some shared their steak and vegetables 
with those given the Third World portions. 
Conversations centered around "taste" 
of food; feelings of guilt about having 
more than enough; and pangs of hunger 
which yet existed. Some were seriously 
involved, some only at the level of "fun 
and games." But the real involvement was 
yet to come. 

Tuesday morning's series of events began 
at the dean's tent for a preview of the day 
and description of the special roles to be 
played. Groups one and two accepted their 
lot as being "poor" for the next eight 
hours. Their food (including both breakfast 
and lunch) was to be prepared and eaten at 
the living areas and was of the same style 
and amounts as served to "Third World" 
persons on Monday evening. Groups three 
and five received American food in abun- 
dance. Expressions such as "I can't believe 
this is happening"; or "Why did I have to 
be in this group"; or "I'm glad this is only 
for a da\" were heard. 

Woodland Altars currency was given to 

each group according to its "status." 
Money could be earned by the poor groups 
to buy swimming time or given by the rich 
groups out of concern for those less for- 
tunate. An offer was made by a "rich" 
group to a "poor" group to perform tasks 
for a given amount, but this was im- 
mediately turned down out of fear this 
would involve too much time and work. 
Another offer was made and was likewise 
refused. Poor groups identified with each 
other, but the rich groups did not feel the 
need to communicate. Rich groups had 
persons who felt ill at ease in their role. 
Money was given by one rich group to a 
poor group out of concern so that swim- 
ming time could be purchased. 

Debriefing sessions at the end of the day 
revealed many personal and group feelings. 
Some of these were: "I did not like being 
rich, for I felt more comfortable in the 
poor role"; "We saw no need to share, or 
the poor group would not have had a valid 
experience"; "We did not accept the offer 
of the rich group to earn money because 
we wouldn't have gained anvthing by it." 

Scriptures from Matthew 25:14-30 
(parable of the talents); Luke 18:22-25 (rich 
young ruler); and Matthew 21:43-44 (from 
parable of tenants in vineyard) had set the 
biblical perspective. Many identified with 
the "one-talent" man but few with the 
"five-talent" man. Some felt that Jesus' 
dealing with the "rich young ruler" was 
necessary, but a bit hard. Others had 
something to say about America possessing 
only six percent of the world's population, 
but consuming at least one-half of the 
world resources. So the scene was set for 
the second day's involvement. 


. ssignments on Wednesday revealed re- 
versed roles, but varied responsibilities. 
Groups one and five were to be "poor" and 
groups two and three "rich" for the day. 
Group one was assigned the task of serv- 
ing group two and group five serving group 
three. Food was provided for the breakfast 
and noon meals in two lots. The rich 
groups were on the spot in terms of saving 
enough for their "poor" brothers and 
sisters. Conversations were somewhat 
strained and encounters minimal as the 
"roles" were played out. One poor group 
did not accept the offer of a rich group to 
eat with it, due to its insistence of 

acting out the servant status to a full ex- 

Some persons ate their fill and more, 
while other rich members of the group 
were very conscious of the poor persons 
who had to wait for some minutes before 
they could eat or whether or not there 
would be enough for all. 

The task of relating scripture to their 
present life situations was somewhat dif- 
ficult, but such verses as "Blessed are you 
poor, for yours is the kingdom of God" 
(Luke 6:20), and "He has filled the hungry 
with good things, and the rich he has sent 
empty away" (Luke I;53) took on a new 
and somewhat stark meaning. Identi- 
fication with the rich caused some 
problems, and the second debriefing ses- 
ion of the simulation indicated and 
confirmed that the service concept was 
more in keeping with Brethren life-style. 
Nevertheless, it was revealed that 
the experiences were only partially valid, 
as all were aware of the very "temporary 

nature" of the simulation. 

What were the values of the two-and-a- 
half-day experience? (It was planned for by 
a special committee and recommended by 
the district youth cabinet.) Writing from 
the point of view of one person who was a 
counselor, I gleaned the following: 

— Americans are basically rich in terms 
of life-style, but the poor are always with 
us, and we must somehow learn how to 
relate to them. 

— The Third World, though far away in 
geographical location, is close enough to 
make us sensitive to the needs of persons 
living at the $200-a-year income level. The 
information gap as well as income gap was 
evident as youth were tested at the begin- 
ning of the week. 

— The experience of being poor seemed 
to have more promise than being rich in 
terms of the "Kingdom of God" eventually 
realized, and being rich had only tem- 
porary satisfactions. 

— The teachings of Jesus and Paul can 

be taken seriously if we are willing to pay 
the price and count the cost in our attempt 
to start a movement in our time. 

— The impact of the simulation will 
only have meaning if we attempt to relate 
it in some fashion to our beliefs and 
actions in our home and church communi- 

Youth Camp at Woodland Altars, then, 
will be stored in the memory banks of the 
youth and adults involved in varying 
manner. It will depend on the depth of the 
involvement, the sorting out of those 
values and happenings which touched base 
with feelings and ethical and moral prin- 
ciples. In the final analysis, the simulation 
can only be of value if the concepts 
shared, and the feelings identified will be 
extended to moments in real life when our 
Christian style of life will in some form or 
shape express those of the Master Teach- 
er, whose way of life was "servanthood" 
and who "became poor that we might 
become rich." [J 

Suffering from dehydration, this 
starving child of the Sahel is 
too weak to lift head or hand 
to receive a food handout. 
With a simulated "famine" the 
Southern Ohio youth probed 
conditions that victimize the 
hungry of the earth. 

— , ./,.-.^. 


Hunger has a political dimension 

The development of CROP over the past 30 years 
is an epochal event for Brethren and other sup- 
porting churches. Articles by staff colleagues in 
this issue recount the needs and vision that 
prompted the hunger appeal program's begin- 
nings in the wake of World War II, and the 
needs and vision that propel it into a fourth dec- 
ade today. 

As the interview with the agency's leadership 
makes clear, CROP'S work in communities is as 
much educational as it is fund raising. Volunteers 
who walk or fast for CROP identify viscerally, 
even if but for awhile, with the masses whose 
walking and fasting may be for a lifetime. 

A pivotal long-range question posed by CROP 
national director Ronald E. Stenning is whether 
there is within the international community the 
will to make the hard choices needed to overcome 
hunger. To be specific, how much effort are we in 
the church willing to exert in urging our own na- 
tion to build global food reserves, for use in the 
event of crop failure or natural disasters? 

At the World Food Conference in Rome in 
1974, all nations agreed that a world food reserve 
is essential. According to the Christian anti- 
hunger campaign. Bread for the World, the matter 
is at a standstill for lack of a positive US 
response. That response is key, for half or more of 
the grain traded internationally is controlled by 
the United States. 

Church of the Brethren Moderator Charles M. 
Bieber has joined with other religious leaders in 
urging church members to press for a national 
food reserve, building on the "right to food" 
resolution passed by Congress last year. He has 
commended the Bread for the World idea of con- 
gregations receiving "offerings of letters" in Sun- 
day collection plates, addressed to President 
Carter and to senators and representatives. Bread 
for the World's own proposal is for a food reserve 

held nationally, much of it privately, but coor- 
dinated internationally. 

On a global basis, the World Food Council 
has launched an international fund of $1 billion 
for agricultural development in countries worst hit 
by malnutrition or a slow rate of growth in food 
production. "Food is not a technical problem nor 
a resource problem," the council's Harry E. 
Walters maintains. "It's a political problem. If the 
governments of the world wanted solutions, they 
could achieve them through the various UN in- 
stitutions, primarily the Food and Agricultural 

Similarly in a conference on food and nutrition 
in New York late last year the chief factors in mal- 
nutrition and famine were deemed not to be farm- 
ing know-how but political and economic con- 
straints. Specialists therefrom 16 countries warned 
that the world food situation, in spite of favorable 
yields currently, is precarious for the near future 
and potentially disastrous over the long term. 

Jj/stablishment of a food reserve for the lean 
years of production dates back at least to the time 
of Joseph and Pharaoh. The moral roots are even 
older, observes Eugene Carson Blake, president of 
Bread for the World. "In the biblical view of crea- 
tion, the earth and its produce belong to the Lord. 
We are responsible to him and to one another for 
sustaining human life, and we must do so by the 
standard of justice. We have a long way to go." 

If we are moved by Jesus' words, "I was 
hungry and you fed me . . . ," walking, fasting, 
contributing money and grain, and educating on 
hunger are meaningful responses. But if an un- 
precedented hunger catastrophe is to be averted, 
the time is at hand to augment these steps with 
something more: Efforts to shape the political 

will. — H.E.R. 

40 Mi.ssiNOi-.R hcbruarv 1977 


^^^^ ^■■■■^■B ^^tflp Coliseum to w 

^^^1^^^ ^0 ^-i^^^HB^ plan, under the Cc 


June 21-26, Richmond, Virginia 

This year the Brethren will journey to "the heart of 

Virginia" for our 191st Annual Conference. Richmond, 

the former seat of the Confederate States of America, is 

centrally located in the birthgrounds of our nation. 

Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Chief Justice John 

Marshall, Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, and Edgar 

Allen Poe all have contributed to make Richmond 

unique in American history. 

In this historic setting we 
will gather in Richmond's 
modern, 12,000 seat 
Coliseum to worship, work, study, pray and 
plan, under the Conference Theme, "To Serve In 
a Changing World." 

You can become a part of the working team preparing for 
this conference by volunteering to help during conference 
week. Return the appropriate forms below. 


I am volunteering my help with confer- 
ence tasks I have marked below. I have 
numbered them in order of preference. I 
plan to arrive at Conference on June 

. Registration (tvpe badges, collect fees, 
sort cards) 

. Ushers (business and general sessions) 

- Child care services 

. Children's activities (age 6-1 1) 

- Messengers (Standing Committee and 
conference business sessions) 

_ Tellers (Standing Committee and con- 
ference business sessions) 

_ Information desk 

_ Ticket sales 

_ Mail distribution 

Please circle 
approximate age: 





City State 

Additional volunteers may indicate on a 
separate sheet their interest in serving. 


For school age children, 6-1 1 years 
Please enroll my child (children) for the 
followmg days at Annual Conference: 

_ Thursday 


Parent: _ 
St /RFD 




Fee: S3 per day per child Forenoon and after- 
noon sessions Total fee to be paid when child 
attends first session Only children prereg- 
istered will be accepted Six-year-olds must 
have completed first grade Preregistration 
deadline: June 1 . 


Please send copies at $2.75 each 

of the 1977 Annual Conference Booklet. 
(Available early in May ) 


St /RFD 


Amount remitted $ 

(Delegates sending the delegate authorization 
form and registration fee will automatically 
receive one program booklet without further 

For lodging information contact your 
pastor or write: 

Annual Conference Manager 
1451 Dundee Avenue 
Elgin, Illinois 60120 

li^XXxjL JTV-I— i is the church's response 
to human needs among the low-income, disad- 
vantaged groups in our own country. It arises 
from Jesus' own mandate for ministry: "The 
Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has 
anointed me. ..." SHARE utihzes hmited 
financial grants in assisting locally run projects 
among Afro-Americans, Anglo-Americans, 
Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, and 

SHARE grants cover such areas as housing, 
health care, education/communication, and 
economic development. In order to receive fund- 
ing, projects must comply with careful guide- 

Grants are made possible by persons like you 
who accept their own anointing as Christian 
ministers. Persons who support Brotherhood ef- 

forts to be faithful to the Gospel. Your contribu- 
tion today will give added strength to our 
witness. Make out your check to Church of the 
Brethren General Board. 

Here is my gift for 
SHARE ministries: 









Fruit of the Spirit, 
fruit of the earth 



1 O ^^^ 'Prisoners of Conscience,' a Candle of Hope. 

Concerned for the increasing number of persons, worldwide, im- 
prisoned and even tortured for their political beliefs, religious convic- 
tions, or ethnic origins? Amnesty International is one organization that 
does something about the problem, reports Religious News Service. 

^ O A New Way for Northern Ireland. Seven Brethren women 

joined last December's 'March of the Boyne' in Northern Ireland. Each 
shares reflections on what it meant to engage in this journey of 

1 7 Contrasting Styles of Witness. Wendell Flory finds the lives 
and faith of all involved are widened and enriched when the Lay 
Witness Mission and the Church of the Brethren experience each 

God's Plan Is Good. Fran Clemens Nyce, in a Bible study of 
Romans 12:1-2, stresses the clear and firm assurance of God's complete 

Fruit of the Spirit, Fruit of the Earth. New Fairview is a 

unique congregation, a blend of Brethren ways old and new, says Fred 
W. Swartz. The impetus behind its witness is provided by Elder 
Murray Lehman, a "giant of a leader . . . quietly and humbly planting 
and cultivating fruit — both of the earth and of the Spirit." 

In Touch profiles Margaret Nowak of Detroit, Mich.; Steve Kinzie of 
Tonasket, Wash,; and Eric Bachman of Grosse-Heere, West Germany (2) . . , 
Outlook reports on Lafiya; Georgi Vins; Byron and Ruth Royer; district quilt; 
disaster response 1976; Big Thompson flood; TAT workshops; Evangelism 
Congress; World Peace Tax Fund; Andy Young (start on 4) . . . Underlines (7) 
. . . Update (8) . . . Column, "Restoring Confidence," by Sam Caiian (19) . . . 
Column, "The Challenge of China," by Wendell Flory (27) . . . People and 
Parish, "Ministry at the Campground," by Floyd H. Mitchell (28) . . . Turning 
Points (29) . . . Word from Washington, "On the Way to Helping the Poor," 
by Tim Speicher (30) . . . Here I Stand, statements by Dick and Pat 
Shreckhise, Don Snyder, Edward K. Ziegler, Robert E. Houff, Joe Van Dyke 
(start on 32) . . , Book Review, "Pacifism: Politically or Ethically Based?" by 
Ken Smith-Shuman (36) . . . Media "Big Media — Accountable only to In- 
vestors?" by Stewart M. Hoover (38) . . . Editorial (40) 


Howard E Royer 
Kermon Thomason 
Kenneth I Morse 
Clyde E Weaver 
Gwendolyn F Bobb 
Galen B Ogden 

VOL 126. NO 3 

MARCH 1977 

CREDITS: Cover. 22-26 Fred W. Swartz. 1. 2 
right, 3 Edward J. Buzinski. 4 above Owen 
Shankster. 4 lower John Horning. 5 Kermon 
Thomason. 10. [2 RNS. 13-16 Marcia K. 
Ricketts. 16 left Nguyen-Van-Gia. 17 above 
Wallowilch. 17 lower D. Kurtz. CWS. 19 Juniata 
College. 38 United Artists Corporation. 

Messenger is the official publication of the 
Church of the Brethren. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20. 1918, under Act of Congress of 
Oct. 17, 1917. Filing date. Oct. 1, 1976. Messenger 
is a member of the Associated Church Press and 
a subscriber to Religious News Service and Ecu- 
menical Press Service. Biblical quotations, unless 
otherwise indicated, are from the Revised Standard 

Subscription rates: $6.00 per year for indi- 
vidual subscriptions; $4.80 per year for Church 
Group Plan; $4.80 per year for gift subscriptions; 
$3-15 for school rate (9 months); life subscription. 
).00- If you move clip old address from 
Messenger and send with new address. 
Allow at least five weeks for address 
change. Messenger is owned and 
published monthly by the General 
Services Commission, Church of the 
Brethren General Board, 1451 Dundee 
Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second-class 
postage paid at Elgin, III.. Mar. 1977, Copyright 
1977, Church of the Brethren General Board. 



As one who is deeply concerned about the use 
made of my federal tax dollars, over fifty per- 
cent being used for military programs, I am very 
much interested in seeing the World Peace Tax 
Fund bill (H.R. 4897) enacted because it would 
enable me, and others who feel as I do, to have 
the war part of my taxes used for peace projects. 

The National Council for a World Peace Tax 
Fund of which I am a member is launching a 
campaign to encourage taxpayers to express 
their views on payment of war taxes. We suggest 
writing to the President, members of Congress 
and the Internal Revenue Service. 

I urge members of the Church of the Brethren, 
in filing their 1976 tax returns, to inform IRS 
and elected officials of their desire for a legal 
alternative to paying taxes for military purposes. 

Wilbur J. Stump 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 


Your December Messenger cover was es- 
pecially beautiful. Other covers also are chosen 
to give beauty and meaning to the issues. 

I have a question: Could the mailing label be 
placed on the back cover rather than on the 
front when you mail the magazines? I love the 
covers and feel artistically hurt to see them dis- 
figured. I place my Messenger in full view on 
the living room table and feel sorry to have the 
beautiful cover stuck with a label . . . even with 
the name 1 own! 

Retha L. Ebv 
Danville, Ohio 


The December Messenger was tremendous! It 
should have 30,000+ readers! 

The church review, 1851-1976, is a great idea. 
The pictures bring back many interesting 
memories. It's amazing to see how much history 
was relayed in so small a space. 

"Sleep in Heavenly Peace" touched me deeply, 
as I think of those who have expressed their lov- 
ing and caring to us since the death of my sister. 
Lavinia Roop Wenger. Thank you for publish- 
ing the kind tribute to her by Ruth Royer Dou- 
ple (Letters). 

As to Patricia Helman's "Treasures of 
Darkness," 1 was one of those Sunday School 
teachers who was helped by Ira Frantz's column. 

Ruth Roop Roth 
Loysville, Pa. 


During the Christmas season Noah S. Mar- 
tin's article on Joseph (December) came as a 
vital stimulus and challenge. I want to thank 
Noah for the timely, provocative, inspirational 
and biblical encounter through distinct per- 

All of us need a bold journey with biblical 
personalities to help us through some of life's 
probing topics. 

P.\UL D. Steiner 
Union Bridge, Md. 

paigjS ©DIKE 


A Sunday morning study group at the Mount 
Morris Church of the Brethren spends an hour 
each month with Messenger. The beautiful 
December 1976 issue required our attention for 
two consecutive Sundays to do it justice. One 
session was spent solving the puzzle of uniden- 
tified pictures, pages 17-28. 

Congratulations to all who participated in the 
anniversary display and te.xt. Some of us 
thought the text on page 28, "The Hope for Vi- 
sion," was too pessimistic regarding unity among 
Brethren. They thought lack of unity now is not 
much greater than in olden days and perhaps 
not as great as in some other groups today. 

Perhaps we can rally around a new vision — 
On Earth Peace — and espouse anew, at home 
and abroad, our historical nonviolence position 
and prove again, as I have suggested elsewhere, 
that war is the worst way to wage peace. 

Harvey L. Long 
Mount Morris, HI. 


We appreciate greatly the 1851-1976 history 
section in the December Messenger and want to 
use it for Sunday school class discussions. Glad 
it ends on the need for a renewed vision. 

Ruth Griggs 
Tippecanoe. Ind. 

(As announced in ihe December issue, extras 
of ihe 12-page historical overview are available 
as a Heritage Learning resource. 25 cents each. 
$2.50 per dozen from The Brethren Press. 1451 
Dundee Ave.. Elgin. IL 60120— Ed.) 


Regarding your offensive December cover art, 
please see Luke 2:11-12: 

"For to you is born this day in the city of 
David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. And 
this will be a sign for you: you will find a babe 
wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a 

1 am ashamed!!! 

Mrs J. Melvin Koser 
Narvon, Pa. 


1 read the interesting article in the January 
Outlook section about Dat Moi. the Vietnamese 
newspaper from Seattle, Wash., and then re-read 
it, assuming I had missed the address to respond 
to. Since they need "an adequate circulation 
base" to be established, and "the staff is in- 
terested in reaching Vietnamese everywhere in 
the country," I wish you had included an address 
to write to for information and the cost of a 

1 am only recently a member of the Church of 
the Brethren but I do enjoy this magazine. It 
gives insight as to where my church stands on 
many issues. Thanks much. 

Ji^D'i Weaver 
Akron, Pa. 

(Write: 2I0J S. Atlantic St.. Seattle. WA 
98 1 33.^ Ed) 


I am responding to Murray Wagner's article 
on what he calls "rinky-dink religion." 

First of all, Mr. Wagner, you sound like Judas 
criticizing the woman for anointing the feet of 

I am a regular viewer of the UHF late-night 
program that you are referring to and I just 
don't see the same things that you see. I really 
don't notice the double-knits, plastic shoes, and 
hair spray, I guess because I wear these things 

What I do see is people talking about the love 
and salvation to be found in Jesus Christ, and, 
like the apostle Paul, praising God for their 
transformed lives. I pray and worship with these 
people and somehow I feel sure that God is not 

1 don't wish to comment on your unjust 
criticism, just to suggest to you that the woman 
at the well may have had "eyebrows in the shape 
of McDonald's arches." Please bear in mind 
that Jesus was never very concerned with the ex- 

1 have just one question — Who are you. Mr. 
Wagner, to judge the servant of another? 

JiDV Adams 
Brownstown, Pa. 


Murray L. Wagner concluded his January 
Messenger article, "Rinky-Dink Religion Goes 
Big-time," with the observation. "There, I think 
1 feel some better already." Having read his arti- 
cle with crescendoing appreciation. 1 felt jubilant 
by article's end. 

John D. Keiper 
Bedford. Pa. 


The Executive Committee of the Irish Council 
of Churches was informed at its December meet- 
ing that BVSer Ruby Stickel would be return- 
ing home. The Rev. Dr. R. D. E. Gallagher 
proposed the following motion, which was 
unanimously adopted: 

"That the Executive Committee has learned 
with deep regret of the imminent departure of 
Miss Ruby Stickel, on- the completion of her 
period of voluntary service in the interests of the 
Council. Since her joining the staff in 1974, she 
has given outstanding service. Her willing 
cooperation and pleasing personality have made 
her all the more value as a colleague. The Ex- 
ecutive is deeply grateful to her and wishes her 
well on her return to the United States." 

I am deeply grateful to Ruby for all she 
has done for us in the ICC, and also to BVS 
for making available to us such a competent 
and committed worker. Please convey our 
very sincere thanks and appreciation to all con- 

With Christian greetings for the New Year, 

Rev. W. J. Arlow 


The Irish Coincil of Churches 

Belfast, Northern Ireland 

One of the most pleasant aspects of our 
editorial role is relating to several Breth- 
ren pastors who handle their pens as 
facilely as their pulpits. Fred Swartz, 
pastor of Harrisburg (Pa.) First Church, 
has become almost a Messenger regular 
in recent years with his "come alive" per- 
sonality features, insightful coverage of 
Annual Conference business, and occa- 
sional thought pieces. You will enjoy our 
March cover story by Fred, on Murray 
Lehman and the 
New Fairview 

Fred's jour- 
nalistic bent goes 
back at least to 
high school and 
college days. 
Currently he is 
president of the 
Brethren Jour- 
nal Association, 
which publishes 
(with Bethany Seminary) Brethren Life 
and Thought. His first book. Brethren 
and the Quest for Christian Unity, will 
come off The Brethren Press in June. 

Other writers for March include the 
seven Brethren women who marched in 
Ireland: Beth Glick-Rieman, Parish 
Ministries' person awareness coordinator; 
Louise Denham Bowman, Washington 
Office manager/ administrative secretary; 
Geraldine Zigler Click. Broadway. Va.; 
Mary Blocher Smeltzer, Claremont, 
Calif.; Joan George Deeter, North Man- 
chester, Ind.; Lois Teach Paul of the 
communications team; and Andrea 
Warnke, BVSer serving in Dayton, Ohio. 
Fran Clemens Nyce of Westminster, 
Md., is Maryland director of UNICEF 
and works also with the SERRV 
program. Sam Calian teaches at Juniata 
College. Wendell Flory is pastor of Mary- 
land's Flower Hill congregation. Floyd 
H. Mitchell is pastor of the Chambers- 
burg (Pa.) congregation. 

BVSer Tim Speicher serves in the 
Washington office. Ken Smith-Shuman is 
a Brethren Service worker in the Middle 
East. Stewart M. Hoover is media ad- 
vocacy education consultant for the com- 
munications team. Terrie Miller lives and 
works in Ithaca, N.Y. 

Here I Stand statements: by Dick and 
Pat Shreckhise of Carlisle, Pa.; Don 
Snyder, Waynesboro, Va.; Edward K. 
Ziegler, Woodsboro, Md.; Robert E. 
Houff, Roanoke. Va.; and Joe Van Dyke, 
Alma, Mich. — The Editors 

March 1977 messenger 1 

Margaret Nowak: Taking on new fields 

At an age when many people feel that 
life is closing in around them 
Margaret Nowak reveals that she sees 
boundless possibilities for activities 
and achievements in the years 
ahead — in human relations, in 
writing, in speaking out on social and 
political injustices. 

A member of Trinity church in 
Detroit, where she is active on its 
social action commission, Margaret 
confesses that, now in her sixties, she 
is still taking on new fields. "A few 
years ago I began reading about great 
women in American history to do 
sketches of a biographical nature for 
the English section of the Polish 
paper my husband works for ... I 
show slides of these women and tell 
their stories for women's conferences, 
churches and clubs." 

Margaret's creative work was 
drastically interrupted last April 
when in an auto accident she sus- 
tained a broken neck, a broken collar 
bone, and cracked ribs. "After the 
head and body casts and later the 
brace, the orthopedic specialist put 
me into the kind of neck collar usual- 
ly given whip-lash injury victims. But 
now 1 am free . . . my recovery has 
amazed many people, but I have 
much to "live for and many resources 
for strength and determination." 

That determination has often been 
called for in Margaret's experience. It 
is revealed graphically in a biography 
that she has written of her husband 
Stanley Nowak, a Polish immigrant 
who was active in early labor strug- 
gles, later in the United Auto Work- 
ers, and as a state senator. Because of 
his foreign origin and what some 
regarded as radical activities in union 
organization. Stanley suffered much 
during the McCarthy period in the 
50s. Margaret wrote his story as a 
way of defending her husband during 
efforts then to denaturalize him. 
Though the manuscript is an ex- 
cellent record of social history as well 
as a fascinating personal story, it is 
still looking for a publisher. 

Margaret says, "I am thoroughly 
involved with my church — which I 
left rebelliously and with a flourish 
when I discovered the labor move- 
ment long ago — and then became in- 
volved again as the church began to 
reach out and use its influence in 
positive ways." 

Despite controversies and dis- 
couragements, Margaret affirms that 
for the individual with an inquiring 
mind and a will to work for needed 
social change, "life is beautiful and 
full and rich." — K.M. 


Steve Kinzie: Music is the 

Some people have a quietness and 
gentleness about them that signals an 
inner peace. In Steve Kinzie that 
peace glows from his soft, friendly 

A musician from Tonasket, Wash- 
ington, Steve makes most of his liv- 
ing from a seven-acre apple orchard. 
But music — folk, jazz, sacred, and 
secular — is the ingredient that makes 
life meaningful to him. 

Steve has been writing and sing- 
ing his own music since 1960, accom- 
panying himself on the guitar and 
banjo. Now he is looking forward to 
recording and publishing some of his 
own music, and is making plans with 
friends to do several concerts. 

Fifteen years seems like a long time 
to wait to share his creations with a 
wider audience, but Steve has his 
reasons. "In the music business," he 
explains, "people advance, if that's 
what you want, by pushing. I 
definitely felt I couldn't do it. I really 
wanted to develop as a musician as 
much as I could before pushing out." 

Although Steve is not an active 
member of any Brethren congrega- 
tion, he perceives the Brethren as 
being very important in his growth as 
a musician. "The church music and 
hymn tradition have been very im- 
portant." he says. "I've stolen hymn 
tunes for secular music and frequent- 
ly for sacred music!" 

Steve may be in the company of 
many Brethren young adults when he 
describes the social aspects of the 
church as "excruciating." 

"We have a sense that we don't 

2 ME.ssENGER March 1977 


measure up to Brethren figures that 
loom so large. There is a sense of 
guilt and inadequacy. ... All of us 
indeed inevitably are short of perfec- 
tion; striving for that ascetic denial 
has created a fantastic amount of 
guiU and has made things difficult for 
a number of people." 

These perceptions of the Brethren, 
however, did not stop Steve from 
performing for the youth at the 
Wichita Annual Conference last 
summer or from recognizing the 
worth of his Brethren background. 
'it has been enriching," he says, "and 
as I think about it, what I want is a 
sense of tolerance and love of all of 
us toward one another." 

Steve Kinzie is the kind of musi- 
cian who composes out of his own 
experience, but occasionally he 
struggles with the lyrics. William 
Blake, his favorite poet, often comes 
to his rescue. Says Steve, "1 identify 
with his iconoclastic spirit and the 
energy of his poetry." 

In his musing about the Brethren 
influence in his life and the love that 
he hopes will grow in the world, he 
quotes Blake. 

"Throughout all eternity, I forgive 
you and you forgive me. As our dear 
Redeemer said, this the wine and this 
the bread." — Terrie Miller 

Eric Bachmam Working for a better world 

Eric Bachman accepted a BVS 
assignment in Europe several years 
ago, even though at the time he 
would have preferred to serve where 
he knew the language. But he was 
certain about one thing. Wherever he 
lived, he wanted to work for a better 

Eric is still in Europe where he will 
be serving until September as a part- 
time staff person with the Inter- 
national Fellowship of Reconcilia- 
tion, carrying responsibility for train- 
ing in nonviolent action. 

Meeting Eric today and listening to 
his soft-spoken accounts of his peace 
activities you may find it a little hard 
to reconcile his mild manner with in- 
volvements and actions that many 
would regard as radical. But even 
more impressive is your amazement 
at what one person, operating often 
as a free-lancer but cooperating with 
existing agencies, can do on behalf of 
a better world. 

Let Eric tell you about some of his 
activities as a resource person for 
peace action. "The past year I 
worked with groups preparing a dis- 
armament campaign, a support 
group for the United Farmworkers' 
nonviolent struggle, groups develop- 
ing an international march of an- 
timilitarists in France, and a non- 
violent action group in Switzerland 
protesting against an atomic power 
plant." He has also worked closely 
with church leaders in England and 
Germany in developing seminars on 

Many of Eric's current programs 

are closely related to the European 
Workgroup, associated with the 
IFOR, which began in 1971 with five 
persons from five countries and now 
includes 22 co-workers from ten 
countries. Members meet together for 
long weekends every few months to 
study problems, develop strategies, 
and plan campaigns for action, such 
as a seven-week caravan in 1973 
which visited eleven countries in sup- 
port of the liberation struggle of 
Namibia. They have supported draft 
resisters in several West European 
countries. Another project is the 
sponsoring of "world shops," centers 
for the sale of food and products 
from Third World countries, also 
providing a place for peace-minded 
groups to meet. 

The European Workgroup is head- 
quartered in Grosse-Heere, a small 
village near Hannover, in West Ger- 
many. This is also the home base for 
Eric's many activities. 

Eric says, "We have been taught to 
be violent. We need to learn how to 
react nonviolently." No doubt most 
readers of Messenger could profit by 
training in nonviolence. Certainly our 
world would be a better world if all 
of us, in our home communities as 
well as in assignments overseas, had a 
commitment to peace as intensive as 
Eric's and were as willing to resist 
militarism, work for justice, and 
promote peace. — K.M. 

March 1977 MESSENGER 3 

Lafiya: once a dream; 
now a success story 

A program that was just a dream eight 
years ago is being realized in Nigeria, 
reports Kenneth McDowell after a visit 
there with WMC Africa representative 
Roger Ingold to review the Lafiya project. 

Most of the construction of buildings — 
the most visible part of the program— is 
complete and has proven to have been well 
planned. However, difficulties have arisen 
at Lassa Hospital where the patient volume 
has increased 500 percent since that 
hospital was turned over to the Borno 
State government. At the time of planning 
no one could have projected this effect of 
free government health service. 

The Rural Health Program, less visible 
than the new hospital facilities, will likely 
have more far-reaching effect. This 
program is now administered by M. 
Yawutama Tarfa and a Nigerian staff. Dr. 
David Hilton of the Church of the 
Brethren Mission serves the program as 
medical consultant. Over 40 villages are 
directly involved in the program, which 
seeks to spread basic health care 
knowledge. So far no village has dropped 
the program; all are staying by their 
original commitment to be involved. 

McDowell reports that in areas where 
the Rural Health Program has been in- 
stituted fewer deaths at births occur, more 
wells are contamination free, malaria is 
better controlled, and there is visible 

Above: A lab worker in the new Gar- 
kida Hospital facilities. Right: Yawutama 
Tarfa heads the Rural Health Program. 
Lafiya that reaches to the grass roots. 

evidence of better nutrition. "As this 
program spreads, the patient load at 
hospitals should decrease to more man- 
ageable proportions," observes McDowell. 

The community development consultant 
for the World Ministries Commission calls 
the successful Lafiya program "a real 
tribute to the dedication and skill of Roger 
Schrock," who served the mission as 
medical coordinator from 1971 until last 
summer "and to Dr. John Horning, who 
served as medical consultant and drafted 
most of the procedures and curriculum." 

An interesting endorsement of Lafiya 
has come from the German Evangelical 
Churches' Central Agency for Develop- 
ment Aid (EZE), a West German agency 
which contributed appro.ximately 

$1,300,000 toward Lafiya. McDowell and 
Ingold were told in a meeting with EZE of- 
ficials in Bonn last November that they 
were so impressed with the success of 
Lafiya that EZE would like to continue in- 
volvement with the Brethren if future pro- 
jects that challenge its interest can be 

National youth service 
legislation anticipated 

Some form of legislation for universal serv- 
ice of the nation's youth is expected to be 
introduced in Congress this year. Pilot 
projects already have been initiated to test 
various models. 

A great deal of the debate may center on 
whether such service is to be compulsory or 
voluntary. The eventual tie-in of such a 
program to military conscription is another 
concern of many. 

A central argument for a national youth 
service program is the high level of youth 
unemployment. Some high government of- 
ficials have forecast that even with "full 
employment" there will be unemployment 
rates of 20 percent among white youth and 
40 percent among black youth. 

Besides attacking chronic unemploy- 

Besides attacking chronic unemploy- 
ment, national youth service is seen as en- 
listing youth in service to society and 
countering the alienation of many young 
persons today. 

Among congressional proponents of 
such programs has been Hubert H. 
Humphrey who introduced a measure into 
the Senate last September focusing on 
"youth community service" and "youth 
counseling and employment service." 

The model frequently offered by national 
service proponents is one developed by 
Donald J. Eberly of ACTION, the um- 
brella agency for federal voluntary 
programs. In this plan a Foundation for 
Universal Youth Service would grant funds 
to state, regional, and local units of 
government, on the basis of the merit of 
their applications and funds available. 
Youth 18 to 24 would be employed in two 
areas of work — community service and 

environmental service. 

Critics of such programs cite as basic 
concerns I) fears of ideological indoctrina- 
tion, 2) involuntary servitude in a free 
society, 3) encroachment of the military, 4) 
bureaucratic administration, and 5) diver- 
sion from the real causes of economic and 
social injustice. 

Some observers feel a compulsory 
program at present is unlikely, given the 
public attitude stemming from the Viet- 
nam War. Therefore the legislative pro- 
posals may be for a voluntary program 

Depth study of national service has been 
given through the years by the National In- 
terreligious Service Board for Conscien- 
tious Objectors, of which Church of the 
Brethren minister Warren W. Hoover is the 
executive director. A major review of 
current legislative efforts for national serv- 
ice was scheduled by NISBCO at its 

4 MESSENGER •March 1977 

mid-February board sessions. 

An extensive study, "The National Serv- 
ice Debate," by Luann Habegger Martin, is 
available for $1 from NISBCO, 550 
Washington Building, 15th and New York 
Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005. A four- 
page summary is available for 15 cents. 

Bridgewater to host 
first area congress 

First in a series of five Church of the 
Brethren regional Congresses on 
Evangelism will convene March 18-20 at 
Bridgewater College in Virginia. The 
celebrational and training experiences are 
an extension of the 1974 national Congress 
on Evangelism. 

Church of the Brethren leaders Rick 
Gardner, Anna Mow, and Matthew Meyer 
will be among the key speakers for the 
Friday-through-Sunday event at Bridge- 
water. Mennonites Myron Augsburger and 
George Brunk will also speak. A dozen 
workshops on various expressions of 
evangelism will be conducted. 

Chairing the planning for the south east 
event is Allen D. Pugh of Roanoke, Va., 
assisted by Robert Alley, Walter Blough, 
Ova Edwards, Gene Knicely, Wilbur Mar- 
tin, and Fred Mumert. 

The second regional congress will con- 
vene May 19-22 at the Fresno, Calif., 
Church of the Brethren, for the west coast 
area. James S. Flora, Long Beach, Calif, is 
chairing the planning. 

Two other congresses in 1977 will be at 
Manchester College, July 28-31, for the 
north central area, with Alan Whitacre, 
Dayton, Ohio, chairing the planning, and 
Oct. 27-29 at Wichita, Kansas, for the 
Plains area, with Margaret Thompson, In- 
dependence. Mo., chairing the planning. 

The northeast area congress will be May 
18-20, 1978, at Elizabethtown College, 
planned by a committee headed by William 
Gould, Mechanicsburg, Pa. 

According to Matthew Meyer, General 
Board consultant on evangelism, the con- 
gresses are aimed at providing inspirational 
experiences through biblical expositions 
and faith sharing presentations; offering 
workshop training on specific local 
programs; and assisting both lay and clergy 
members in declaring the good news of 
God's love and in inviting people to com- 
mit their lives to Christ. 

Also participating in the planning for the 
congresses are area evangelism counselors 
and district executives. 

Young on UN role: 
'A listening post' 

Andrew Young, Jimmy Carter's chief US 
delegate to the United Nations, indicated 
that the appointment was not one that 
enthused many of his friends nor his co- 
workers in the black community. They 
would have preferred that he take a key of- 
fice in domestic policy-making over a 
diplomatic post. 

"I've never had so many people cussing 
me out and crying and sending me 
messages not to take this job, because of 
the past history of the job, and the fact that 
it is a very difficult job," Young said. 

The Georgia Democrat contended that 
"we can't have a full employment economy 
and jobs for the poor unless we have a 
stable and aggressive and moral foreign 
policy. 1 think the United Nations is a lis- 
tening post from which we can contribute 
that kind of policy. 

"That's the reason I thank my friends for 
their concern, but my life is one where I've 
prospered most when I've been willing to 
take tremendous risks." 

An ordained minister in the United 
Church of Christ and one-time associate 
youth director of the National Council of 
Churches, Young has a reputation as a 
fighter for social justice whose effectiveness 
is due to his behind-the-scenes diplomatic 
style. As top aide to Martin Luther King 
Jr., in the Southern Christian Leadership 
Conference, Young took part in some civil 
rights marches but was more often out of 
the public eye, negotiating with the white 
business community. 

The new ambassador, who in 1972 
became Georgia's first black Congressman 
since 1870, has been commonly cited as the 
most powerful black politician in last year's 

election campaign. Besides his early sup- 
port of the Carter candidacy, he is credited 
with getting out the black vote that enabled 
the narrow victory of Jimmy Carter over 
President Ford. 

In 1975 at the Dayton Annual Con- 
ference, Young addressed the World 
Ministries luncheon, where he credited the 
church with having provided a religious 
perspective for change and uplift of the 
human spirit in the South, throughout the 
nation, and in many of the developing 
countries abroad. Long a champion of the 
church's role in the drive for social justice. 
Young frequently has maintained, "Chris- 
tian missionaries have been telling people 
everywhere that they are children of God, 
and no more revolutionary statement than 
that can be made." 

Born in New Orleans, Young at one 
point had worked in congregational proj- 
ects in several states and later was a pastor 
in Georgia. It was while he was with the 
First Congregational Church, Marion, 
Ala., that he met Jean Childs, a Bible 
teacher who later became his wife. She is a 
1954 Manchester College graduate and 
serves on the college's Board of Trustees. 
The couple has four children. 

Both Andy and Jean were Brethren 
Service work campers in Austria in 1953. 
Last April he met in his office with the 
delegation of Eastern European church 
leaders whom the Church of the Brethren 
hosted at New Windsor, Md. 

UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 
expressed pleasure at the Young appoint- 
ment. "He's a good man," the Austrian 
diplomat said, "a man who is open minded 
and has a positive approach to the UN and 
our problems and to the Third World and 
its problems. I look forward to cooperating 
with him." 

"... Feeding the hungry and 
healing the sick is what our Lord was 
all about. And nowadays we can't do 
it just by laying on hands or just by 
missionary baskets at Thanksgiving 
time. Somehow the principalities and 
powers of this age which keeps some 
people hungry and some people too 
fat have got to be brought under the 
judgment of God, for the health of 
all. That is the challenge which 
Christ extends to us." — Andrew 
Yoi;ng, 1975 Annual Conference 
luncheon address 

March 1977 messenger 5 

$208,000 allocated 
for 1976 disasters 

A total of $208,000 was allocated by the 
Church of the Brethren in 1976 to help 
alleviate suffering from disasters that 
ranged from earthquakes in Guatemala 
and Turkey to a measles outbreak in the 
Comoro Islands. 

Overseas allocations have been chan- 
neled through Church World Service. In 
two instances Brethren personnel were in- 
volved in on-the-scene aid: Brethren work 
in Niger in an on-going commitment to 
drought relief and in Guatemala in earth- 
quake reconstruction. 

Listed here are the various allocations of 

—Turkey earthquake: $10,000 

— Vietnam food crisis: $25,000 

— Comoro Islands measles vaccine: 
$ 1 .000 

— Nicaragua drought: $5,000 

— Lebanon refugees: $10,000 (to Middle 
East Christian Council) 

— Nicaragua flood: $2,000 

— Guatemala earthquake: $125,000 

— Haiti drought: $3,500 

— Haitian refugees: $5,000 

— Latin American human rights: $5,000 
(to WCC program) 

— Canton. Miss., tornado: $10,000 

— Idaho dam disaster: $5,000 

— Big Thompson Canyon flood: $2,500 
In addition to these funds allocated in 

1976. other monies were expended which 
were allocated in 1975. Among these ex- 
penditures were $14,943 spent in Indochina 
refugee resettlement and $31,460 in Sahel 
drought relief. 

Symbol of repression 
retains joyful spirit 

The person who symbolizes to many 
Americans the denial of human rights by 
the Soviet Union is Baptist leader Georgi 
Vins. The 48-year-old clergyman has 
served more than half his five-year sen- 
tence at hard labor for religious activities, a 
sentence to be followed by five additional 
years of exile from his family. 

Secretary of the Council of Churches of 
Evangelical Christians and Baptists. Vins 
heads a group sometimes referred to as 
"unregistered" Baptists or Reform Baptists 
who broke away from an officially 
recognized organization of Baptists in 
1965. The membership of Vins' group 
totals about 100,000. 

V* ~0>„t!^ 

Big Thompson River Canyon scene: Homes destroyed by flood waters, mud, and debris. 

McPherson responds 
to Big Thompson 

On Julv 31. 1976 tremendous rainstorms 
dumped 14 inches of rain into the upper 
regions of the Big Thompson River Can- 
yon. Colorado, in less than four hours. For 
the inhabitants of the canyon, the result- 
ing 19-foot-high wall of water traveling at 
approximately 75 miles per hour was a 
fearful instrument of death and destruc- 

For 31 concerned McPherson College 
volunteers who traveled to Colorado to 
work with Brethren Disaster Relief it was 
an opportunity to put their "love of neigh- 
bor" beliefs into practice. 

The two groups who worked last No- 
vember cleared debris, hauled equipment 

and tools, and rebuilt and winterized 

Charlotte McCann. sophomore from 
Durant, Okla., and volunteer coordinator, 
reports that another group of students will 
probably return to the Big Thompson Can- 
yon this spring when the weather improves. 

Paul W. Hoffman, president of the 
college said. "McPherson College has a 
long and distinguished record of students, 
faculty, alumni, and constituents being 
service oriented. This year's campus com- 
munity is no exception. Not only are there 
students assisting persons in need, they are 
taking valuable time at the end of the 
semester. I am very proud of them." 

The McPherson story is representative of 
the response generally on Brethren cam- 
puses, and many congregations, when dis- 
asters struck in 1976. 

In concern for his plight and that of 
other Soviet citizens, the US Congress last 
October approved a resolution calling for a 
broader practice of religious liberty in the 
Soviet Union, and appealed for Vins' 
release. The resolution points out that such 
action would honor the Soviet Union's 
commitment for religious freedom and 
human rights contained in its constitution 
and in such international documents it has 
signed as the Helsinki Agreement and the 
United Nations Charter on Civil and 
Political Rights. 

Meanwhile, a Soviet weekly has asserted 
that Vins' imprisonment "did not have any- 
thing to do with his profession of faith." 
The action of the Kiev court, said the arti- 
cle, was based on "absolutely proven facts" 
that Vins "aimed to inflame blind fury 
among believers and push them into illegal 
steps and open opposition to law." 

A taped message recorded by the 
pastor's wife and mother revealed that he is 
in joyful spirits but poor health. The family 
annually is allowed to visit him for brief 

periods in his Siberian labor camp. 

Imprisonment is not new to Vins' family. 
His father, who had studied in US 
seminaries in the early 1920s, died in a 
Soviet labor camp in 1943. at age 45. His 
mother, now 70. served a three-year prison 
term, having been released in 1971. 

"Spiritually he feels very strong," Mrs. 
Vins said of her son, following the last 
visit. "He feels that it is God's will that he 
should be there. He is very grateful for all 
those who are praying for him." 

Legislation proposes 
alternative tax use 

Ought taxpayers have a voice in what their 
taxes are used for? Should conscientious 
objectors pay for wars they refuse to fight? 
For many persons such questions arise at 
least annually, when federal income tax 
time rolls around. This year there is a 
nationwide effort underway to encourage 
citizens upon filing their tax returns to 

6 MESSENGER IVterch 1977 

voice their preference for "people 
programs" over "Pentagon programs." 

The effort is being coordinated by the 
National Council for a World Peace Tax 
Fund in Washington, D.C. The council has 
available cards to be addressed to 
legislators and President Carter carrying 
the following message: 

"I oppose paying taxes for war. Give me 
a legal alternative. Support the World 
Peace Tax Fund bill. It would allow con- 
scientious objectors to have that portion of 
their taxes which would normally go for 
military purposes used instead for peace 

The World Peace Tax Fund bill, which 
was before both the 93rd and 94th Con- 
gresses but which was not acted upon, is 
being reintroduced in the 95th. At hear- 
ings in March 1976, written testimony by 
Dean M. Miller, 1973 Annual Conference 
moderator and pastor, Hagerstown, Md., 
summarized Brethren statements on taxa- 
tion for war and voiced General Board 
support for the World Peace Tax Fund 

"It is obvious that the payment of federal 
taxes inevitably involves us in war and 
preparation for war, since tax monies are 
not clearly differentiated into military and 
non-military categories," Miller wrote. 

"One avenue of escape for this dilemma 
is to refuse to pay taxes. However, money 
refused from tax payments is refused as 
much from the humane programs of 
government as from military programs. We 
are not always able to make clear that we 
are protesting war and not taxation itself. 
Furthermore, whatever taxes are withheld 
as an act of conscience, the government is 
able to collect by means of levies and con- 

Miller said he regarded the World Peace 
Tax Fund bill as the type of legislation the 
1973 Annual Conference called for — an 
alternative tax arrangement for persons 
conscientiously opposed to war. 

A year ago a three-day seminar in Wash- 
ington on the World Peace Tax Fund in- 
cluded 13 Brethren from 7 states. The par- 
ticipants examined ways in which a trust 
fund for peace projects would operate un- 
der the WPTF legislation and outlined 
steps needed to bring such legislation to a 

Information on the current legislative ef- 
forts is available from the National Council 
for the World Peace Tax Fund, 2111 
Florida Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008 
(202 483-3752). Packets of five income tax 
cards are available 25 cents per set, ten sets 
for $1, 100 for $9.50, and 1,000 for $85. 


NONWALK FOR CROP . • . Former China missionary Ernest M_. 
Wampler , 91, of Bridgev/ater, Va. , checked v?ith his doctor 
to see if he could join the area's 10-mile CROP walk for 
hunger. The doctor advised against it, then offered him 
a $5 donation not to walk. Wampler added other sponsors, 
at from 50 cents to $10 a mile, and netted CROP $125. 

In Pennsylvania 447 Elizabethtown College students, 
through a 15-mile CROP walk, a volleyball marathon, a soup 
day, and two benefit performances earned $2,000 for world 
hunger causes. . . . Among 3,000 Californians in the Pomona 
Valley Walk for Hunger were 120 persons from the La Verne 
church and 100 from the Pomona church. The walk raised 
$50,000 for CROP and other hunger ministries. 


That's the tally of 

congregations participating in the 1976 Annual Conference 
quilt making and auction. Looking to the Richmond, Va. , 
conference this June, the Association for the Arts again 
invites each congregation to siibmit one quilt block. For 
details see the February Agenda Anytime/Anything packet or 
write Mary Ann Hylton , Box 302, Cape Coral, FL 33904. 


Announced Jan. 22 as president- 

elect of Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania is Mark C. 
Ebersole , dean of the graduate school and vice president 
for academic affairs for Temple University, Philadelphia. 
He will succeed Morley J. Mays who is retiring June 30. 


for 1976 listed by Mennonite-related 

Provident bookstores included one Brethren Press title, 
Vernard Eller ' s "Cleaning Up the Christian Vocabulary." 
The work or authors of five of the Provident selections 
were represented in recent Messenger coverage. 


Charles W_. Lunkley , pastor, Hunting- 

ton, Ind. , and former Nigeria missionary, will become ex- 
ecutive secretary of the Southern Missouri-Arkansas, Mis- 
souri, and Northern Plains districts May 1. . . . Charles 
Boyer , coordinator of the On Earth Peace program of the 
General Board, chairs the board of directors of the National 
Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors. 


Clarence Bower , 

charter member of 

the Winter Park, Fla. , church and veteran district worker, 
died Dec. 7. . . . Levi A_. Bowman , 101, pioneer preacher 
in Franklin and Henry counties, Va. , died Jan. 7. An In 
Touch subject in the February 1975 Messenger, Bro. Bowman 
delivered 3,366 sermons in his lifetime. . . . Ralph Comp- 
ton , 62, treasurer of Mid-Atlantic district, died Dec. 18. 
. . . Clarence Heckman , 79, for 37 years a missionary in 
Nigeria, died Dec. 30 at La Verne, Calif. . . . Elizabeth 
D_. Schlosser , 88, whose husband Ralph W. is a former pres- 
ident of Elizabethtown College, died Dec. 2. 

Orie O. Miller , 84, Mennonite leader in peace, educa- 
tion, and missions, died Jan. 10 at Lancaster Pa. . . . 
Samuel McCrea Caver t , 88, first National Council of Churches 
general secretary, died Dec. 21 in New York. 

March 1977 messenger 7 


ALPHA AND OMEGA ... New fellowships: Jackson Township , a 
faith venture of the Northern Ohio district, bought 5 acres, 
called a pastor to contact and gather a fellowship in a de- 
veloping area. . . . Cape Coral , Fla. , fellowship has adopt- 
ed the name Christ the Servant Church. . . . Meeting points 
activated from mother churches in Virginia are Pine Grove 
from Melbeth Grove, Pine Ridge from Mount Carmel, and 
Trinity from Mount Zion, Luray. Reactivated meeting points: 
Mountain Grove Chapel , Va. , and Ragman , a meeting point of 
Brothersvalley, Pa. 

New congregational status: Enid , Okla. Bethel and Fair- 
view , Endless Caverns, Va. , formed out of the Unity congre- 
gation. Community Mission , meeting point of Woodstock, Va. 
Parkway , meeting point of Bush Fork, Va. 

Disorganized: Curlew , Iowa, and Ellison , N. Dak. Dis- 
continued: Kairos House , Ft. Wayne, Ind. 


Northern Colorado Church , Windsor, 

Ind . and 
Ankeny , Iowa, 

Hempfield , East Petersburg, Pa. , Mexi co , 
Live Oak , Calif., new church buildings, 
new church addition. . . . Midland , Va. , educational and 
fellowship wing. . . . St^. Paul , N. C. and Mechanics Grove , 
Pa., expanded facilities. . . 
Bassett , Va. , new parsonages. 


Hickory Grove , Ind. , and 

English Prairie , Brighton, Ind. , build- 
ing renovation. . . . F alfurrias , Texas, restoration of 
original meeting rooms and purchase of Spanish/English 
hymnals. . . . Whitestone , Wash., a memorial park. . . . 
Cedar Grove , Garrett, Ind., Madison Avenue , York, Pa., and 
Madison , Brightwood, Va. , new organs. . . . Beaver Creek , 
Bridgewater, Va., and Crab Orchard , W. 

Va. , new sanctuary 

appointments . 


Indiana churches Elkhart City 

and Salamonie ; Lake Breeze , Sheffield, Ohio; First Church , 
Pulaski, Va.; La Verne , Calif.; Walnut Grove , Johnstown, Pa. 
and Akron, Pa. 

Union City , Ind. 
. . . 100 years: 
Nov. 21. Bethel. 

ANNIVERSARIES . . . 125 years 
Upper Claar , M. Pa. , Sept. 19 
S. Pa. Three Springs , S. Pa. 
Sept. 11. . . .80 years: Wakeman ' s Grove , Va. 
. . . 75 years: Northview , Indianapolis, Ind., 
Antelope Valley , Okla., Nov. 14. . . .65 years 
111., Oct. 17. ... 50 years: Claysburg , Pa., 

, Sept. 25. 
Black Rock , 
Unity, Va. , 
Sept. 17. 

Nov. 21. 
Rock ford , 

Sept. 26. 

20 years: 
City , Ind. 

Decatur , 111., Oct. 
, Sept. 19. 


15 years: Columbia 


Mid-Atlantic District Life- 
Style Task Force sponsored a beef canning project Feb. 24 
at Greencastle, Pa. Cattle, money, and labor were furnished 
by district churches. Meat was processed for distribution to 
needy within the district and in disaster areas. More than 
30 beefs were scheduled for processing, at a cost for pur- 
chase and canning of $400 per animal. Paul Heisey, pastor 
of the Welty , Md. , church, chairs the Task Force. 

8 MESSENGER March 1977 

Brethren Service couple 
to be feted in Germany 

Byron Royer, professor of pastoral psy- 
chology at Bethany Theological Seminary, 
and his wife Ruth Hoover Royer will enjoy 
a two-week all-expense-paid trip to West 
Germany in September in recognition of 

Byron Rover a! Kaltenstein: Front authori- 
tarian control to personal responsibility. 

the youth counseling they did through 
Brethren Service work in Germany follow- 
ing World War 11. 

The trip is being provided by the Ger- 
man YMCA Youth Village organization 
Christlichen Jugenddorfwerkes 
Deutschlands. According to Arnold 
Dannenmann, president, the organization's 
staff has heard so much about the Royers' 
work in the early post-war years that it 
wants them to visit in person. 

A feature of the trip will be a tour of 
YMCA youth villages climaxed by a recep- 
tion at the Castle Kaltenstein youth village. 

The Royers were sent to West Germany 
by the Brethren Service Commission in 
1948 to help the German YMCA work out 
a Christian response to the problem of 
war-orphaned. Hitler-trained youth leading 
desperate lives in a food-short and unstable 
economy. Not only did Brethren Service ef- 
forts help feed, clothe, and shelter the 
youth, but it provided spiritual and 
vocational guidance through Royer and his 
German associates. Castle Kaltenstein near 
the town of Vaihingen on the Enz River 
became the pilot youth village. A few years 
before the castle had harbored a concentra- 
tion camp. 

The main thrusts of the work, as Rover 

recalls them, were helping the youth to 
grow individually in personal responsibility 
and corporately through self-government, a 
radical change for youth used to leading 
strictly programmed lives under 
authoritarian control. The youth elected 
their own village parliament, chose their 
own officers, and enforced their own rules. 
Material and financial assistance from the 
Church of the Brethren helped to get the 
first village established. 

The Royers spent a year at Stuttgart in 
planning the youth work before taking up 
residence at Kaltenstein. A third year was 
spent at Kassel in directing the overall 
Brethren Service work in Europe. 

Workshops to weigh 
tv impact on values 

A major resource dealing with the impact 
of television on values is being launched 
cooperatively this spring by church and 
media groups. Called Television Aware- 
ness Training, (T-A-T), it is a series of 
eight workshops providing tools and skills 
for dealing with the pervasive impact of 

"One of the greatest problems with 
television is that it tends to be a passive, 
one-way experience," explains Stewart 
Hoover, media consultant to the General 
Board. "T-A-T is designed to break 
through that passive exposure by building 
the critical awareness of viewers, and by 

moving that awareness into action to deal 
with the impact the medium has on their 

"The topics chosen for T-A-T workshop 
sessions represent the most common way 
television has been found to impact per- 
sonal and family values. We are con- 
vinced that it is the role of the church to 
move in this area where the most powerful 
and influential institutions of society, that 
is, the media, are making important moral, 
philosophical, and theological state- 

T-A-T topics include violence, children's 
television, human sexuality, stereotyping, 
advertising, news, and sessions which over- 
view and move participants into 
community-action alternatives. 

Modeled after other personal growth op- 
portunities where participants pay a fee for 
the service of trained leadership, T-A-T 
will provide, besides a workbook for home 
use, from four to eight of the two-hour 
sessions for a fee of $20. 

"The logic of the fee is that trained 
leaders can use T-A-T as a source of sec- 
ond income," explains Hoover. "The plus 
for them is compensation for their time 
and motivation to lead events. The plus for 
the church and for the media movement 
generally is that we can spread the work- 
shops further than if a few full-time staff 
persons led them." 

An important part of the process is the 
training and accrediting of T-A-T leaders. 
Hoover adds. "Anyone who is interested in 

television and has some leadership ex- 
perience could benefit from attending one 
of our workshops, even without becoming 
an accredited leader." 

Leadership training weekends (Friday 
noon to Sunday noon) already have been 
held in several cities and upcoming events 
will occur in Pittsburgh, Dallas, 
Minneapolis, Toronto, New Orleans, Los 
Angeles, and Richmond, Va. Events else- 
where will occur in the summer and fall. 

The leadership training weekend has a 
tuition of $100 plus room and board. For 
Brethren interested in attending leadership 
training workshops, scholarship money is 
available through the media education 

T-A-T is a major involvement of the 
Church of the Brethren General Board's 
media education and advocacy project. It is 
a cooperative venture with United 
Methodist Communications, the American 
Lutheran Church, and Media Action 
Research Center, Inc., a non-profit, 
church-supported research and program 
development agency. 

Stewart Hoover heads the T-A-T train- 
ing staff, and among the consultants to the 
project have been Carolyn Lindekugal of 
the American Lutheran Church, Nelson 
Price of the United Methodist Church, Ben 
Logan and Dr. Robert M. Liebert of the 
Media Action Research Center, Prof. 
George Conklin of Pacific School of 
Religion, and Dr. Aimee Leifer of 
Harvard University. 

In Southern Pennsylvania love is a district quilt 

When Southern Pennsylvania cast 
about last fall for an appropriate 
gesture of concern and love for Dis- 
trict Executive J. Stanley Earhart, 
who underwent heart surgery in 
August, it took a cue from the An- 
nual Conference quilting parties and 
created a district quilt. Squares of 
white cloth were sent to the 40 con- 
gregations and four institutions of 
the district and in a one-month 
period some 70 women stitched, 
quilted, and hemmed the master- 
piece, readying it for its presentation. 
By the time the surprised executive 
and his wife Laurie opened the gift 
on December 3 so many persons had 
been involved that there could be no 
question about the beauty, thought- 
fulness, dedication, cooperation, and 
love represented by the project. 

March 1977 messenger 9 

)PS©DS]D \r(Bp(n)\rt 

For 'prisoners of conscience/ 

Representative of the hundreds of thousands of "prisoners of conscience," this man 
languishes in a Filipino stockade. He does not know why he is jailed; there have been 
no charges brought: no interrogation. Thus the bold protest emblazoned on his shirt. 

There is a constantly growing 

group of people the world over 

who are vitally concerned for 

the plight of those who suffer 

because of their religious or 

political beliefs or the 

color of their skin. 

10 MESSENGER March 1977 

Is there anything one individual or one 
organization can do to aid the hundreds of 
thousands of citizens throughout the world 
imprisoned and even tortured because of 
their political beliefs, religious convictions, 
or ethnic origins? 

Amnesty International, the London- 
based human rights organization which 
began as an experiment in 1961 and has 
since grown to nearly 100,000 workers in 
72 countries, calls such persons "prisoners 
of conscience." And its answer to whether 
anything can be done for the victims of 
repression is a resounding "yes." 

In the past 15 years. Amnesty Inter- 
national, which by established principle 
"adopts" only political prisoners who 
neither advocate nor use violence, has 
helped to secure the release of over 8,500 of 
the more than 13,000 prisoners of con- 
science whose cases were investigated. 

The privately funded, independent 
organization that is not allied with any 
government, political ideology, or religion, 
has also undertaken a worldwide cam- 
paign to abolish torture of any prisoner or 

With its primary weapons of "moral 
pressure" on governments and its pains- 
taking research. Amnesty has already es- 
tablished itself as a highly respected 
authority on human rights violations. 

A measure of this regard is evidenced by 
its having been granted "consultative 
status" with the United Nations, the Coun- 
cil of Europe, the Organization of 
American States, and the Organization of 
African Unity. 

What is the extent of the problem of 
political prisoners facing Amnesty Inter- 

According to its latest annual report 
(1975-76), the numbers run well into the 
hundreds of thousands, ranging from a 
handful in the United States and some 
Western European countries to "perhaps as 
many as 100,000" in Indonesia. 

In Iran, the report said, "the total 
number of political prisoners has been 
reported at times throughout the year to be 
anything from 25,000 to 100,000." 

Amnesty said it had found it impossible 

to determine with any accuracy the number 

(Continued on page 12) 

a candle of hope 

A burden shared 

I am writing about this experience on the 
very day after it happened because I want 
to remember it — every detail, every feeling, 
every word. Yet, some of the details I can- 
not place on paper, because my contact 
must be protected and others there like 
him. For his safety, even my own identity 
dare not be revealed. I must share, 
however, the burden of what he shared 
with me. 

We were seated face-to-face in a small 
room in a country that I consider to be one 
of the most entrenched and brutal police 
dictatorships in Latin America. Neither of 
us had expected to meet that day. But, I 
am glad we did. 

It was the prisoner's first full day of 
freedom after months "inside" as a political 
prisoner. He had been seized and detained 
on vague charges of "subversion" and 
"stirring up the people." His activities 
before arrest: leadership in farmers 
marketing cooperatives and work to im- 
prove agricultural practices among the 
poor; farmer associations with Christian 
youth and peasant organizations. 

He was a fine-featured person. His deep- 
set eyes reflected a quiet perceptiveness and 
strength that I have seen in many 
campesinos during some years as a rural 
development worker. Our conversation 
was in low tones. He began by speaking of 
his unknown future. "I have been thinking 
much," he said, "about what I am going to 
do now. It is difficult to know. Inside, I 
had made plans based on the belief that I 
would be there for at least six years. 

"Freedom has come to me unexpectedly. 
Now I must make new plans. I have to 

Some released political prisoners have 
found their jobs gone. No one will hire 
them. Others whom organizations or 
employers take back find that the 
people with whom they work and have 
dealings, especially the poor and civil serv- 
ants, are now afraid to be associated with 
them because of the threat of guilt by 

He spoke again: "So many things are go- 
ing through my mind just now. Do I stay 
here? It is my country. Or do I seek asylum 
elsewhere? I believe my family may still 
have relatives in Europe. What could I do 
there — become a full-time political 
protester, a propagandist?" Here a smile 
came to his face at the almost incredible 
thought of that as a life-time profession. 
He sat now with head in hands. 

"Yes," 1 shared the question, "what does 
a first-rate rural extension worker from 
Latin America do in Europe?" This 
brought an open laugh. But the mood was 
still serious as we faced the fact that it 
takes time to redo a life when prison is still 
too close to leave the mind clear enough 
for important decisions. 

We sat in silence for a time. I do not 
know what he was thinking. I was ponder- 
ing whether or not to ask him what it was 
like to be "inside." 1 asked because I felt 
the need to know, to understand. I assured 
him that he was under no obligation to 

After a moment, the answer came. "If it 
were ever known to the authorities that I 
had told what I am going to tell you, then 
there would be no question about my 
future. I have seen barbarities committed 
by my own countrymen of kinds that I 
could not have believed. At times, during 
these months inside, I have felt ashamed to 
belong' to this country, though it is my own 
country, my people. 

"Once you are inside it is first made clear 
that you have no rights. The police repeat 
it over and over. They say, 'The only con- 
stitution that we know, and our only law, 
is the whip.' Some of the police guards 
seem motivated from within to punish the 
prisoners. One said, 'I am going to punish 
you until you will be sorry that you were 
ever born.' He tried. Other guards, I 
believe, only punish because it is their 
job. These are more humane in carry- 
ing out their orders when no one is 
looking on." 

There was another silence. This man, so 

recently "freed" from the bondage of 
prison, now lifted from the table a copy of 
his country's current constitution. 

"I was reading this again," he said, "dur- 
ing last night. I have taught it many times 
to village classes, the parts about liberty 
and law. But, I now see that the worst that 
is happening in our country now is also 
legalized by the present constitution. It 
gives unlimited powers to the president 
and, through him, to the police. This I 
must denounce. But how? That is a burden 
which I feel, a duty that I do not know 
how to carry out under my present cir- 
cumstances. I want to stay alive. I have a 
family. I do not want to be put back inside. 
Yet, the wrong must be denounced. What 
can I do?" 

Another silence, then I spoke: "Perhaps, 
in a limited way, I can help to carry that 
burden. I do not live under the same con- 
ditions that you do, at least not yet. I have 
not seen what you have seen nor felt what 
you have felt. But, now that you have told 
me, it is my burden too. I will try to help 
you carry it." 

Here my friend rose from his chair. He 
came around the table and put his arms 
about me in an embrace that I can not 
forget. "My brother," he cried, "I can't tell 
you in words what a weight you have just 
taken from my life!" 

We sat again, now looking at each other. 
His voice was low but resounded with an 
urgency that still echoes in my mind. "One 
more thing. You have taken an interest in 
my case and in other close associates in re- 
cent days. I believe that it is not because of 
who I am, since we had never met before. 
Many others are still inside. Please promise 
me that you will have no less care for 

I promised. Now I do not know exactly 
what to do with this burden that he 
shared with me. I know that is why I am 
writing this down almost immediately after 
I have lived the experience of our conversa- 
tion. It is the first step in fulfilling that 
promise. — Name withheld 

March 1977 messenger 11 

The Filipino prisoner (p. 10). a young Catholic, protests his detainment without charges 

(Continued from page 10) 
of prisoners of conscience in the Soviet 
Union, Cuba, and several other totahtarian 

The poUtical and geographical sweep of 
Amnesty International is shown by its 
bank of files at its headquarters in London. 
The files detail the cases of the 3,859 
political prisoners in 107 nations whose 
cause is currently being championed. 

The papers provide documented ex- 
aminations of the prison systems and the 
torture techniques used to extract informa- 
tion in Chile, the USSR, Uganda, and 
scores of other countries where. Amnesty 
International says, people are routinely 
jailed and brutalized for dissident views. 

The files also describe contacts who can 
document abuses in South Korea, South 
Africa. Bulgaria, and Algeria. 

In its "war of conscience," Amnesty In- 
ternational follows a carefully worked out 
"plan of action." From families, pro- 
fessional associations, religious groups, and 
observers throughout the world, the 
organization learns the identity of alleged 
political prisoners. 

Its research department in London in- 
vestigates each case, finding out as many 
facts as possible about the prisoner's 
background, the details of the arrest, the 
trial (if any), and imprisonment. 

Once the report is complete, the head- 
quarters staff decides whether or not the 
prisoner qualifies for AI help. A prisoner 
who has used or advocated violence will 
not qualify. But if the prisoner has been 
tortured, no n\atter what the person may 
have been jailed for, AI will work to have 
the torture stopped. 

Qualified political prisoners are then as- 
signed to one of Amnesty International's 
1,650 "Adoption Groups," which consist of 
about 8 to 20 or more people. To insure 
neutrality, the prisoners assigned are from 

countries other than those of the "adopt- 
ing" group. 

For example, the small AI Soviet 
chapter, which was founded in Moscow in 
1974, "adopted" a leftist playwright in 
Spain, a Yugoslav woman, and a man in 
Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). 

Members of the Adoption Groups, in- 
cluding the 80 in the United States, then 
launch a barrage of informed, insistent, 
and continuous appeals urging reconsidera- 
tion of the cases and release of the 

Letters are dispatched to government 
ministers, prison officials, embassies, lead- 
ing newspapers, international organizations, 
and to the prisoner's family and friends. 


.t the same time individual group ac- 
tion is being taken. Amnesty Inter- 
national's Secretariat protests through 
diplomatic channels at the highest possible 
levels. In especially critical situations, dis- 
tinguished jurists or diplomats may be sent 
to attend controversial trials of political 
prisoners or to plead for the life of a 
sentenced victim. 

Amnesty International also sends three- 
member investigating teams into various 
countries, when it can persuade the govern- 
ment in question to agree to an inquiry 
into alleged violations of human rights. 
Here again, to insure neutrality, no 
nationals of the country being investigated 
are included on the team. 

The Amnesty team which recently com- 
pleted a 10-day inquiry in Argentina, for 
example, was made up of US Congressman 
Robert F. Drinan, a Jesuit priest and 
lawyer. Lord Avesbury, a member of the 
British House of Lords, and Patricia 
Feeney, a member of AI's London head- 
quarters' staff. 

In addition to its regular efforts on 

behalf of prisoners of conscience. Amnesty 
International has devoted special attention 
to the problem of torture. Its report on tor- 
ture, a country-by-country catalogue of 
barbarism, received world attention when 
it was published in 1975. 

The organization's anti-torture cam- 
paign, launched two years before, helped 
persuade the United Nations to adopt a 
General Assembly resolution calling for 
"sustained efforts ... to protest under all 
circumstances the basic human rights to be 
free from torture. ..." 

Amnesty International, started on a 
shoestring in 1961 by a London lawyer, 
Peter Benenson, has shown a steady 
growth. In 1971. its annual budget was 
$130,000; in 1976 it expected to raise about 
$750,000, plus $200,000 for prisoners' 

The money comes largely from outside 
Britain, from the richer northern European 
nations of West Germany and Scandinavia. 
The bulk of the funds comes from the local 
chapters or Adoption Groups. Nearly 517 
of the 1,650 groups are in West Germany. 

Much of the money is spent on staff and 
especially research. The London head- 
quarters (53 Theobald's Road, London, 
WC IX. 8SP) houses 66 paid, full-time 
workers, including a research staff of 14. 

Amnesty International prides itself on its 
careful research. Says the organization's 
secretary general, Martin Ennals: "We real- 
ly are very careful. The proof is how rarely 
we have been proven wrong. We were 
bitterly condemned as 'Communists' for 
describing torture under the Greek 

"Now the trials conducted by the conser- 
vative (President Constantine) Karamanlis 
regime show that our mistake was in un- 
derestimating, not overestimating." 

In the face of the discouragingly large 
numbers of prisoners of conscience still 
languishing in the world's jails the results 
of Amnesty International's efforts may 
seem miniscule. According to the 
organization's report for the year ending 
May 31, 1976, it helped to secure the 
release of 1,599 such prisoners, while 
"adopting" 1,880 more. 

Nonetheless, Amnesty International has, 
to many, demonstrated convincingly that 
there is a constantly growing group of peo- 
ple the world over who are vitally con- 
cerned for the plight of those who suffer 
because of their religious or political beliefs 
or the color of their skin. 

Amnesty's 100,000 members refuse to sit 
and curse the darkness. For political 
prisoners everywhere, they have lit a candle 
of hope.— Religious News Service 

12 MESSENGER March 1977 

A new way in 
Northern Ireland 

When, two anguished Irish women l 
country, Catholic and Protestant 
them. Seven sisters here offer reflectic 

The troubles date back 300 years, to the 
tribal war between the descendants of the 
Irish converted by St. Patrick to 
CathoHcism and the Scottish and English 
Elizabethean Protestants, imported to sub- 
due the fiercely independent tribes on the 
land. Political maneuvering, imprisonment, 
banishment, and execution failed. 
Attempts were made at genocide but the 
Irish are a hardy and stubborn people. 

In spite of a seeming calm, hates 
smoldered. In 1969 they burst into flame. 

Efforts by the present generation of 
Protestant and Catholic churchmen and 
churchwomen to lessen the polarization 
and increase communication have been 
steadily maintained, often at great personal 
risk. Momentum to their efforts came last 
August when two anguished women called 
for an end to violence, for a new way for 
Ireland to meet "The Trouble." Catholic 
and Protestant women rose up and 
marched, their numbers growing weekly. 

For the final 1976 March of the Boyne 
on Dec. 5, the Peace People of Ireland 
were joined by persons from other nations, 
including a delegation from the United 
States and Canada. Seven Church of the 
Brethren women were among them, Louise 
Denham Bowman of Fairfax, Va.; Joan 
George Deeter, North Manchester, Ind.; 
Gerry Zigler Glick, Broadway, Va.; Lois 
Teach Paul, Elgin, III.; Beth Glick-Rieman, 
Dayton, Ohio; Mary Blocher Smeltzer, 
Claremont, Calif., and BVSer Andrea 
Warnke of Dayton, Ohio. 

The response of the Irish people to their 
presence was heartfelt. "In past years some 
American money has gone to support 
violence," the visitors were told. "Your 
presence with us is a greater value by far 
than monetary support, for we know how 
much harder it is to give of one's self." 

"Nothing was more persuasive in my 
decision to respond to the Peace People's 
invitation to join in their witness than the 
awareness of how often we Americans are 
a part of the violence in the world. Why 
not respond to those launching an initiative 
for peace?" commented Joan Deeter. "Our 

presence said, 'We care about your 
problem. We want to understand more 
than we do and be supportive, one person 
to another, if we can.'" 

Believing this, the seven sisters here 
reflect on what it meant to engage in a 
Journey of Reconciliation. 

Father Dave and the 106 

by Beth Glick-Rieman 

Informed, alert, aware, sensitive, patient. 
These are fitting words to describe the 
Jesuit priest. Father David Bowman, who 
led the Journey of Reconciliation. He is 
Director of the Ireland Program of the 
National Council of Churches. 

At the suggestion of Jim Christison of 
the American Baptist Churches, it was 
"Father Dave" who issued invitations to 
the various denominations and groups to 
send persons to Ireland on the Journey of 
Reconciliation. The 107 of us, Americans 
and Canadians, were to join the Peace Peo- 
ple in their December 5 rally at Drogheda 
on the River Boyne. It was Father Dave 
who worked with individuals and groups in 
Ireland to make arrangements for the 
journey. Together they planned for security 
and safety, living accommodations, ground 
travel, education, exposure to peace in- 
dividuals and organizations, and for par- 
ticipation at the Boyne rally. It was he who 
counted us as we boarded the train to leave 
Belfast, that city of terrorism and courage, 
and who heaved a sigh of relief when all 
were accounted for. 

We were a motley bunch. We 
represented eleven major denominations 
and faiths including Roman Catholic, 
Jewish, American Baptist, United 
Methodist, United Presbyterian, 

Presbyterian Church USA, Brethren, 
Episcopalian, Unitarian Universalist, Men- 
nonite, and Friends. Among us were 
representatives of the Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation, The Resource Center for Non- 
violence, Women's International League 
for Peace and Freedom, Clergy and Laity 
Concerned, American Friends Service 

Beth Glick-Rieman 

Committee, Pax Christi, the Ad Hoc Com- 
mittee for Peace in Ireland, the Peace Peo- 
ple of Canada, and Church Women 

We had among us seasoned travelers and 
persons for whom this ocean crossing was 
a first. We traveled together on land and 
in the air, slept in the same hotels, and 
listened to the same briefings. Together we 

March 1977 messenger 13 

journeyed to Glencree, a Center for Recon- 
ciliation in Eire's County Wicklow, and to 
Derry/ Londonderry of war-torn Orange 

We experienced together bomb scares, 
the ever-presence of guns, and the thrill of 
personal testimonies of courage 

and hope from many people. 

Many among us were bonded to the 
Irish people by ancestry. All of us were 
bonded to them by devotion to the cause of 
doing away forever with bombs and bullets 
and every form of violence, legal and il- 

Bridgepoint: From this day forward 

by Mary Blocher Smeltzer 

For most of us the climax of the eight-day 
Journey of Reconciliation was the Peace 
Walk and Rally at the Boyne River in 
Drogheda, Eire. 

We, from the United States and Canada, 
joined the people from Dublin and other 
parts of the Republic of Ireland who came 
from the south. The Boyne River is closer 
to Dublin than Belfast and was chosen to 
encourage the people of Eire to take part. 
The Boyne River also is an historic site, 
where the Orangemen were victors over the 
Irish Catholics in 1690. 

While we assembled and waited for the 
trains from the north to arrive, we sang 
peace songs and hymns. "Abide With Me" 
is a favorite of the Peace People marchers. 
Banners indicating special groups, com- 
munities, states and nations — Germany 
and Sweden among them — were carried by 
the marchers as we walked eight and ten 
abreast down Dublin Road toward the 
Peace Bridge about a mile away. We 
Brethren women had prepared and carried 
four banners identifying ourselves and 
bearing peace messages. 

This walk and rally were symbolic of the 
north and south uniting in love and sup- 
port of each other. When the two groups 
came together at the end of the bridge, 
barriers were removed so that all mingled. 
Many embraced and shed tears of joy. 
Some saw relatives whom they had not 
seen in years. Strangers were greeted as 
friends. Some of the people whom we had 

learned to know in Derry and Belfast 
found and greeted us warmly at the Boyne. 
Joan Baez sang and led the whole rally of 
more than 15,000 persons in "We Shall 

The leaders who spoke, including the 
organizers of the Peace People and 
representatives of the churches, urged that 
the Boyne become something new, that it 
make us look no longer back to division 
and hate, but from this day forward to the 
future in hope and determined peace. "We 
can and must work and live together." 

The march was a great moment and we 
felt part of a great movement. As we 
reached a rise in the road and scanned the 
horizons before us and behind us, the road 

Mary Blocher Smeltzer 

was full of people as far as we could see. 

May the people in Ireland soon find 
peace and solidarity as we did that day at 
the Boyne. 

Ongoing tasks of reconciliation 

by Joan George Deeter 

One of the startling discoveries of our 
journey to Ireland was how much creative, 
constructive work for peace has ensued 
through the seven years of violence there. 
We were reminded once again that while 
people of violence grab the headlines there 
always are those who work in their own 
ways to heal brokenness, right wrongs, and 
build the basis of a better life for the whole 
community. Efforts in reconcihation are 
not new to Ireland. 

Two centers for peace and reconciliation 
are Glencree in the south and Corrymeela 
in the north. Both bring people together to 
work on common problems; both are in- 
volved in peace research and education. 
Peace Point is a program actively working 
in communities to tackle the problems that 
feed the continuing violence. 

Women Together has united women in 
south and north, from Protestant and 
Catholic communions, to pray together. 

support each other, and reach out to serve 
their communities. One project has been 
the purchase of a double decker bus that 
serves as a mobile child care center, picking 
up children from their homes in troubled 
areas and providing a place where they can 
play in safety. At the same time it relieves 
their mothers from having to keep children 
inside in small cramped housing away from 
possible danger. Community centers in 
Belfast and Londonderry (most Irish prefer 
"Derry"), two key trouble areas, provide 
needed recreation and tackle major 
problems like housing and unemployment. 
Churches have re-examined their role in 
the "troubles." An excellent report. 
Violence in Ireland, represents the findings 
of a committee of Protestants and 
Catholics. It points up past mistakes and 
concludes with specific recommendations 
for action. On November 28, the clergy of 
all faiths joined in a peace march in Derry. 
Church leaders reminded us that the 
church is actively involved through all the 
men and women who are expressing their 
faithfulness in their individual work for 
peace, justice and reconciliation. 

'We can't be cfrcdd 

by Geraldine Zigler Glick 

As a member of a delegation of seven 
women representing the Church of the 
Brethren in the larger group of persons 
who participated in the Journey of Recon- 
ciliation to Ireland and Northern Ireland in 
support of the Peace People there, I say 
thank you to my denomination for giving 

Geraldine Zigler Glick 

me the opportunity to witness in this way. 

Many persons in Ireland have been 
working for peace during the past seven 
years, but the incident that brought the 
Peace People together working for a just 
and peaceful society was the death of three 
children in Belfast caused by a run-away 
car with a dead Irish Republic Army 
member at the wheel. Betty Williams saw 
the accident and said, "It was like a dam 

14 MESSENGER March 1977 

We Brethren, have been part of the 
positive work there in our support for the 
Ireland program of the National Council of 
Churches. It has provided funds for com- 
munity workers, initiated a needed housing 
project in Belfast, bought a minibus for a 
youth program, and maintained first-hand 
contacts to know where help will best 

Times of trouble and of hope 

Joan George Deeter 

serve the goal of Christian ministry. 

Our Brethren volunteers embody our 
witness in a more personal way. In them 
we continue to be there, sharing life, car- 
ing, and serving. 


burst within me." She immediately began 
to gather signatures for peace and called 
for a rally the following weekend. From 
then on the community support base has 
grown and more people have joined until 
300,000 persons are estimated to be in- 
volved in the Peace People's Movement. 

In emotionally charged gatherings we 
heard women telling of their decisions to 
begin to talk with families and neighbors to 
whom they had not spoken for many years. 
Others told us of intimidation, harassment 
and physical danger to themselves and 
their families because of their activities in 
the peace movement. Even though, over 
the years, more people have been killed, 
youth have become violent and there is a 
problem of severe unemployment the Peace 
People feel that this is the psychological 
moment for renewed and spreading interest 
in stopping the violence. They say, "We 
can't be afraid anymore." 

There are many women, known and un- 
known, getting together to talk about their 
"troubles." Ever since the first rally in the 
late summer of 1976 when 30,000 women 
gathered to say "no" to violence, the move- 
ment has mushroomed. They insist, loud 
and clear, that another generation must not 
grow up in communities full of fear and 

by Andrea Warnke 

The Northern Irish "troubles" are terrifical- 
ly complex and deeply rooted. They're not 
just religious, economic, or political. 
Rather, they are a part of each facet of 
Northern Irish life. This brief delineation is 
extremely oversimplified, and intended to 
serve only as a handle for understanding 
our experiences. 

The island of Ireland contains two dis- 
tinct nations. The six counties in the 
Northeast corner comprise Northern 
Ireland, which is a part of the United 
Kingdom. Its majority is Protestant, but 
the Catholic minority is significantly large. 

Andrea Warnke 

The remainder of the island is the Republic 
of Ireland, an independent nation. It is 
Catholic except for a five percent Protes- 
tant minority. 

The two countries became separate in 
1920 and that division figures largely in the 
present conflict. Those in Northern Ireland 
who wish to unite them again are the 

Republicans — primarily Catholic; those 
who wish to maintain them as separate are 
the Unionists — primarily Protestant. Each 
group has several paramilitary forces to ad- 
vance its cause; most noted among them 
for the Republicans is the Provisional IRA 
(the extremist branch of the Irish 
Republican Army), and for the Unionists 
the UDA (Ulster Defense Association). 
The British army was called in to help 
"control the violence," and they too are a 
definite military presence. 

Dublin, in the Republic, was symbolic of 
my life, sheltered from any war situation. 
The contrast between untouched Dublin 
and Belfast first surfaced in my own 
feelings of fear as we traveled on the train 
to Belfast. The fear lessened, the 
differences increased. The sights were in- 
credible. British soldiers, patrolling with 
guns at ready, faces grim. Children, picking 
theii way through debris from a recent 
bombing, children who've never known 
peace. Barbed wire. Newspapers: Crossing 
Guard Shot; City Centre Bombed; Woman 
Killed at Door. And on, and on. 

But that's not all we saw. In the midst of 
all this were the Peace People. The horrors 
were tempered by their conviction that 
violence isn't the answer, and that peace is 
the hope. Against guns aimed at their 
hearts they will say no to the violence. And 
I'm not speaking figuratively. It is a very 
real courage which meets the very real 
dangers. Through all, their vision sustains 
them — peace. 

Why is peace a bad word? 

by Louise Denham Bowman 

"Peace Is People Becoming Different." So 
reads the poster in the Peace People's of- 
fice in Belfast, hung among thousands of 
letters and telegrams pledging support to 
the then 20-week old movement. This 
groundswell movement for peace in 
Northern Ireland is unique — it's been in- 
itiated, organized, strategized and con- 
trolled primarily by women. But it's not 
been exclusive; men and youth have joined 
in support. These courageous women have 
said, "No longer can I live with fear. By my 
silence I have supported violence. It's time 
my life went for peace." 

Speaking out for peace means more 
rounds of tension for those in the Peace 
People's movement. It means wondering if 
your son will return home from school, if 
your car has been connected to a bomb, or 

having your child ask, "Mommy, why is 
peace a bad word?" 

The Peace People's Movement began 
one sad day last August in Belfast when 
three innocent children were killed in a 
bizarre automobile accident. No longer 
able to stand silently by, Mairead Cor- 
rigan, aunt of the three children, and Betty 
Williams, who witnessed the accident, 
issued the call that was the spark that lit 
the great fire of hope. 

The women suddenly found themselves 
working to end the violence in all Northern 
Ireland. Joining them was Cairan 
McKeown, former newsman and univer- 
sity teacher, who has lifted up the 
philosophical possibility of peace in this 

The day after the funeral of the children. 

March 1977 messenger 15 

the first peace rally was held with 
courageous Protestant and Catholic com- 
munities marching together. Since then, 
rallies have been held weekly, with 50,000 
marching on the violent Shankill Road in 
late August. Women, long separated and 
considered enemies, embraced each other, 
shed tears, kissed and linked arms in 
mutual support to the end of violence. 
The movement was climaxed by the 
River Boyne Rally on Dec. 5 when 107 
Americans who had accepted the invitation 

Loutst Denham Bowman 

of Corrigan and Williams, joined in the 
final rally. More than 15,000 people from 
Northern Ireland and the Republic of 
Ireland met in an infamous spot, sym- 
bolizing their joint efforts for peace for all 
of Ireland. 

What's the future of this spontaneous 
movement? Some say it's been like a 
shooting star, brilliant and beautiful for a 
moment, but quickly lost in the darkness of 
infinity. If real peace is to come, they say, 
there must be more than rallies and talk of 
peace. Others, especially those women and 
men who are working in the movement, 
say it is providing a bridge of hope for the 
Irish, a way for people to learn to know 
one another, and to dispel fears based on 
false legends. In their view it is only the 

The Peace People called for a coalition- 
type meeting in early January when they 
and the long-term community organiza- 
tions, some in existence as long as seven 
years, came together for strategizing their 
mutual efforts. People and funds are need- 
ed for community action centers. Will they 
be able to help each other? There will be no 
shortcuts, but with the cooperation of all 
the groups, there is hope. 

Indeed, such hope and courage has 
caught the imagination of the world. One 
million people in tiny Northern Ireland 
working toward non-violent economic, 
political, social, and religious justice is a 
phenomenon to watch! 

In the booklet, "The Price of Peace" 
(September 1976), Cairan McKeown de- 

clared that the day-to-day price of peace is 
dear. Peace is achieved through the efforts 
of individuals moving upward from the 
grassroots through the social, economic, 
and political structures. Even if the dream 
is not realized in this lifetime, the move- 
ment for real peace must never cease. 

McKeown ends his statement with this 

"It is entirely up to me. 
ft is entirely up to you. 
Am I, are you, 
prepared to pay the 
price of Peace?" 

The strength of Gods foolishness 

by Lois Teach Paul 

To be a part of the Brethren contingent of 
the Journey of Reconciliation was to hear 
women in violence wracked towns weep as 
they told of the suffering of their families 
and listen to leaders of church and 

Lois Teach Paul 

politically oriented groups describe efforts 
for conciliation that have been carried on 
for years. It was also to observe how fear 
and mistrust can hold business and con- 
structive social change in limbo. 

The Peace People's movement that 
surged in a great swell and washed over the 
country last August and September caught 
up mainly women. Out of lives of quiet 
desperation they were swept along in a 
movement whose size and power and inter- 
national response caught politicians and 
paramilitarists by surprise. 

What we experienced foremost in 
Ireland was a heart/ head debate. We found 
ourselves caught up emotionally with the 
charismatic power of the Peace People. Yet 
some facts did not orchestrate, some voices 
did not harmonize. Some of our American 
delegation became cautious and cynical. I 
agree that swells of emotion don't answer 
tough questions of political reality. It's 
foolish to believe that the response the 
women have generated will produce more 
than just that — an emotional response. 

Is dovelike gentleness foolish in the face 
of caution that seems so wise? Didn't Jesus 
tell the seventy when they went out in the 
countryside to testify to be as gentle as 
doves, but wise too, like serpents? What is 
foolish and what is wise? St. Paul said: 
"God chose what is foolish in the world to 

shame the wise, God chose what is weak in 
the world to shame the strong" ( I Cor. 

Has anyone in remembered history really 
put this foolish strength to the test? Is this 
just such a time, when women, perceptive 
and by some called naive and weak, have 
glimpsed the potential and been willing to 
lay themselves literally on the line of fire 
and death to test the strength of God's 
foolishness: nonviolence in the face of 

I have trouble with that. I am a pacifist, 
yet I've never been foolhardy about it. 
Practice nonviolence up to a point, but let's 
not be ridiculous! Then here I was con- 
fronted with the very message that the 
Church of the Brethren, and I as a member 
attempting to live a sincere Christian life, 
have been proclaiming "There may be trou- 
ble. At the last march the women were 
pelted with rocks and obscenities. There 
may be shots this time," warned our 

Now what was foolishness and what was 
wisdom? Somehow the power that swept 
down the column of 15,000 marchers along 
the Boyne that day was not of this world's 
experience. I sensed that here was a 
turning-point opportunity for Christians in 
this arms-race world. For the first time in 
my life, I glimpsed the foolishness of God 
in action, the real force field that love can 
create. God has spoken to two women in 
Northern Ireland, a land of proud, in- 
dependent, exploited, confrontive yet 
religious people and given them a 
challenge to turn around, to be instruments 
of His peace for all the world to see. 

I'm glad I was there. I hope that my 
church will watch closely, and support with 
concern, prayers and money, this religious 
revolution in the making. 

Do we dare risk appearing naive and 
foolish? The world watches, cynical, yet 
wanting to believe. Is this the time to 
testify that evil can be overcome by good? I 
want it to be so. I watch and pray, ready 
again to risk myself for further test and 
confrontation, awaiting a sign. Will you 
join me? Q 

16 MESSENGER IVIarch 1977 

by Wendell Rory 

As the Church of the Brethren in recent 
years has experienced renewed interest in 
evangehsm, one of the forms practiced in 
scores of congregations has been the Lay 
Witness Mission. This ecumenical venture 
continues to thrive at points throughout 
the Brotherhood. 

Under this program, a lay coordinator 
and sizable group of lay persons from out- 
side come to share their faith and to 
fellowship with the congregation. Four ma- 
jor sessions on Friday, Saturday, and Sun- 
day provide the setting for personal 
witness, prayer, small group sharing and 

For many of the visitors, these missions 
have presented the first real opportunity to 
testify publicly to the changing and healing 
power of the Holy Spirit in their lives. For 
many of the host Brethren, the Lay 
Witness Mission has prompted a new ex- 
perience in relating verbally to others what 
their faith means to them. 

Differences in theology and in methods 
of witness are to be discerned in the more 
evangelical approach of the Lay Witness 
Mission and the service heritage of the 
Church of the Brethren. The sponsor of the 
Lay Witness Mission, the Institute of 
Church Renewal in Atlanta, was spawned 
by the United Methodist Church but bears 
a broad ecumenical character. The com- 
mon conviction of Brethren is that the 
Christian's primary witness is to serve 
others in love, a service that makes un- 
necessary or at least secondary the verbal 
telling of beliefs. 

There are other comparisons that may be 
observed in looking at the witness of the 
Institute of Church Renewal and that of 
the Church of the Brethren. Recognizing 
the limitations of generalizations, and the 
prevalence of variations in each group, let 
us identify the two groups' respective inter- 
pretations of the theology of witness. We 
proceed not with the intent of establishing 
who is right or wrong but with the aim of 
stimulating a more forthright witness for 
Christ and widening the theological roots 
of all who share their faith. 

The focus of the witness 

For the Lay Witness Missioner the 
witness focuses on a testimony of words. 
Behind the word witness is always a 
changed life. God has entered the life and 
caused the change. The central theme of 

March 1977 messenger 17 

the story is always: what God has done for 
the person making the witness. 

The traditional witness of the member of 
the Church of the Brethren will focus on 
words and acts. The service emphasis of 
the church will likely turn the central 
theme of the witness to: What the witnesser 
has done for Christ. From this stance God 
is praised to have used a humble partner in 
the work of the Kingdom. There is usually 
no element of boasting intended in this 
witness. It is rather a simple story of the 
joy and blessing that has come from the 
opportunity to serve in the name of Christ. 
It is the story of a redeemed sinner entering 
into a ministry of Jesus Christ. 

The authority of the witness 

The Bible is the authority of the 
evangelical approach to witness. "The 
Bible says" is a common preface to com- 
mandments of faith and obedience among 
evangelicals. The Old Testament is as valid 
an authority as the New Testament. Help- 
ful moral lessons for today's conduct are as 
frequently drawn from the ancient 
patriarchs as from the first century 
apostles. More literal use of memory verses 
and proof texts strengthen and give 
authority to the witness. 

Jesus Christ is the final authority of the 
Brethren. It is common to hear a Brethren 
say: We have no creed but the New Testa- 
ment. A church membership vow requires 
a member to live according to the example 
of Jesus Christ. Living like Jesus becomes 
the power of the witness and the test for 

The experience leading to the witness 

A major formative experience leading to 
conversion empowers the testimony of the 
evangelical. A radical change of life from 
sin to grace is the theme of the witnesser. 
The story is shared over and over of how 
the Holy Spirit broke into a life of sin to 
reclaim a child of God for God's eternal 
purposes. The great love of God in Christ 
is illustrated by the terribleness of the sin. 
Faith is deepened with each telling of the 
tremendous experience when God called. 
God is praised for this precious action of 
grace and love. Hallelujah! The Lord be 

A gradual spiritual growth, usually 
centering in a Christian home, is the 
Brethren conversion experience. It is 
anchored in a lifetime commitment to 
Christ as Lord and Savior. Perhaps no one 
moment in life can be lifted up as the 
radical time of change. There is no need of 

such a moment of radical change for there 
is no life of terrible sin. With no such 
background there can be no major conver- 
sion experience. The Brethren witness is to 
a growing awareness of the loving presence 
of God in life. 

The person who makes the witness 

The worth of the persons who are 
witnessing to their faith differs between the 
Institute and the Brethren. The evangelical 
approach emphasizes that all persons are 
unworthy sinners in total rebellion against 
God. They are no longer children of God. 
The image of God in them is tarnished 
beyond recognition. Salvation can come 
only by the grace and mercy of God. The 
loving, spontaneous action of God in 
Christ gives them rebirth. They await 
God's call to the new life in Christ. The 
words, "the Lord willing," preface their 
marching orders to witness and service in 


he Brethren witness recognizes that all 
persons are sinners, but the son/daughter 
relationship to God the Father is not 
broken, only alienated. Reconciliation is 
empowered by God's action on the Cross 
as forgiven sinners are transformed again 
into God's partners in the Kingdom. Such 
children of God now can and do live 
according to the example and teachings of 
Jesus in the power of the Holy Spirit. The 
witness for Christ is made fom a vantage 
point of a restored relationship of love and 
belonging in the family of God. 

The confessions of the witness 

Past sin is confessed in an open, honest 
period of self-examination in the Lay 
Witness Mission style. The former un- 
worthy sinner shares all sins, failures, 
temptations and doubts freely. There is no 
embarrassment. The story of the coming of 
grace and the conquering of the sin 
becomes another reason to witness in 
praise to the redeeming power of God. This 
freedom to admit sin openly and in detail 
becomes a therapeutic step toward the 
removal of guilt. It is another occasion to 
praise God for unmeasurable love and 
grace. Everything is possible to the Lord. 
Sin is terrible. God's love is greater than 
the sin. The Lord be praised! 

Quiet, private self-examination 
characterizes Brethren confession of sin. 
Honest sharing of sin and asking for God's 
mercy and forgiveness is a matter for 
private prayer, or, to be shared at most 

with one or two others. The witness is to a 
story of the power of God without the em- 
barrassment of listing the gory details of 
sin in public. Respect and love for each 
other can be deeper and richer when the 
privacy of one another is honored. It is 
enough that God knows the innermost sins 
of the heart. God has forgiven as true con- 
fession is made. The confession we make to 
each other is not to the terribleness of the 
sin but to the loving grace of God. To God 
be the glory! 

Some concluding observations 

The Institute of Church Renewal and the 
Church of the Brethren are each con- 
tributing to the other's theology and 
enriching the lives of persons serving in the 
other's work. 

A basic contribution of the Institute to 
the Brethren is in rethinking the theology 
of sin. Questions arise for Brethren. Is the 
unworthy sinner any longer a child of God? 
Is there any hope for such a sinner except 
in a born again experience in Christ Jesus? 
Is not this spiritual rebirth a major for- 
mative experience of conversion? Can one 
truly repent of the terribleness of sin 
without open confession? Can one honestly 
witness for Christ without sharing the joy 
of this new life. Is there any reason not to 
share this joy in words of praise as well as 
in acts of love? To ask these questions is to 
point the direction in which the Brethren 
are moving even now. 

The Brethren in turn are deeply influ- 
encing the lives and faith of the dedicated 
lay volunteers who come into their midst to 
share faith in Lay Witness Missions. The 
value of service as an avenue of witness for 
Christ is being emphasized. A new accep- 
tance of the primacy of Jesus Christ as re- 
vealed in the New Testament is believed 
with joy. Lay Witness volunteers from 
other denominations return to local 
Brethren congregations to participate in 
love feast and communion services. 
Brethren pastors have been called by other 
lay persons to officiate in anointing serv- 
ices for healing in which quiet moments for 
confession are included. 

Gratitude is due to the Institute of 
Church Renewal and to the hundreds of 
dedicated Christians who answer the call to 
serve and witness in Brethren con- 
gregations. In turn God has called many 
members of the Church of the Brethren to 
join this core of volunteers to serve in con- 
gregations of other denominations. 

The lives and faith of all is being 
widened and enriched. □ 

18 MESSENGER March 1977 

by Sam Calian 

Restoring confidence 


yoss of confidence in leadership is a 
characteristic trend of our day. ReHgious 
leadership is not exempt from this general 
malady. The suspicion and mistrust ac- 
corded to the leadership of organized 
religion account in part for the declining 
enthusiasm and falling church membership 
witnessed in recent years. 

The above condition is unfortunate and 
needs to be remedied. Whatever the 
specific causes, a new strategy for credibili- 
ty must be sought. Religious institutions 
continue to play a significant role in 
American society. This role must be 
enhanced, not diminished, in the complex 
ambiguities of our Watergate world. 

The future of our church will depend 
upon responsible and responsive 
leadership. Our theological schools are 
preparing men and women to assume this 
leadership. Tomorrow's laity, concerned 
and better informed, will increasingly seek 
more meaningful partnership with this 
emerging leadership. 

Caught then between tomorrow's hopes 
and yesterday's traditions, the present 
voices from the pulpit and the pew struggle 
to restore trust among themselves. Will 
they succeed? Can a trusting climate 
reverse the trend of recent years? 1 believe 
it can, if some guidelines for action are 
held in mind. 

1. A confession by clergy and laity of 
their mutual mistrust must be openly de- 
clared. The purpose of confessing is to 
state candidly that each party has had mis- 
givings about the wisdom and actions of 
the other. Allowing this underlying un- 
easiness to surface is a necessary part of the 
confessing process. 

2. The laity must overcome the tempta- 

tion to "seek the head" of its ecclesiastical 
leader every time a decision, act, or 
program runs contrary to expectations or 
vested interests. As much as any other fac- 
tor, laypersons have been responsible for 
the frequent turnover of religious 
leadership. And such radical changes in 
leadership rosters speak ill for clergy and 
laity and do not inspire confidence in 
either part. 

We all must remember that the ability to 
take unpopular positions on occasion is a 
test of good leadership. Church officers 
need from the laity the psychic space to act 
on their best judgment without having to 
turn each moment for approval. 


(evertheless, leadership, religious or 
otherwise, must make a periodic account- 
ing of its trust. Though a responsible laity 
must carefully scrutinize its leaders' 
records, it must avoid committing the 
ecclesiastical lynchings that so often appear 
in retrospect to be martyrdoms. 

3. Prophetic religious leadership must 
provide a clearly conceived program; 
otherwise it is headed for trouble. Loss of 
confidence in religious leadership is due in 
no small measure to shallow programs of 
action that have exhausted lay energy and 
contributed confusion to the genuine 
problems at hand. 

In this connection prophetic leadership 
should concentrate on education as well as 
action. There are really no instant ways to 
enlighten a membership on the social ills of 
the day. Education is a painfully slow 
process, and the prophet as educator must 
search for the roots of the crises that 
plague us and thereby build a constructive 

solution for the future. 

4. Both clergy and laity must 
acknowledge the existing tension between 
means and ends in applying faith to action. 
Concrete problems in contemporary socie- 
ty have more than one way of solution. 
Failure to admit this is seen in the tendency 
to canonize one method or approach over 
another. Members of religious 
organizations have a unique witness to 
make: to show that means and ends are ul- 
timately related. We have not been doing 
this very well. 

5. The clergy must more consciously 
share ownership of its leadership role with 
the laity. Any viable strategy of credibility 
calls for a greater slice of the clergy's time 
to be spent in the library, preparing minds 
for speaking before the people. Ad- 
ministrative duties, important as they are, 
need to be shared with the underutilized 

6. Religious leadership must cultivate the 
spiritual life — a private interior dialogue 
with God. We all know that authentic piety 
is not the possession of any one class of 
persons; it needs to be cultivated and nur- 
tured by everybody, as does social concern 
and action. Prayer reminds us of who we 
are. Discerning laity will listen and be more 
willing to support the conscience and 
courage of a religious leadership that is 
nurtured by a lively spirituality, n 

Copyright A.D.; used by permission. Adapted from 
the forthcoming book. Today's Pastor in Tomorrow's 
World, to be published by Hawthorn Books in April. 

March 1977 messenger 19 

Qods plan h g 

Read Romans 12:1-2 

A story appeared not long ago in a popular 
Christian magazine about the accidental 
death of a 12-year-old boy, and his 
mother's struggle to talk about this tragedy 
in a helpful way with her other children. 
She tried to say "Thy will be done" in a 
spirit of resignation, still fighting with the 
hard "Why?" 

As I read this story, 1 found myself 
seriously questioning the idea of linking the 
death of that child with the will of God. 
Could a mother put her trust in God again 
if she thought God was in any way respon- 
sible for such a tragedy? Could such a God 
be trusted? 

There is much fuzzy and harmful think- 
ing about the will of God, and much need 
to hear the word found in the beginning of 
Romans 12. The first time I came upon J. 
B. Phillips' rendering of this passage, it was 
with a great sense of discovery and affirma- 
tion that I read: 

"With eyes wide open to the mercies of 
God, I beg you, my brothers, as an act of 
intelligent worship, to give him your 
bodies, as a living sacrifice, consecrated to 
him and acceptable by him. Don't let the 
world around you squeeze you into its own 
mold, but let God remold your minds from 
within, so that you may prove in practice 
that the plan of God for you is good, meets 
all his demands and moves toward the goal 
of true maturity." 

What a reassuring communication this is 
(apart from the language, which seems to 
exclude female human beings). It offers an 
important key to a sound understanding 
of the nature of God's intention and pur- 
pose: "The plan of God for you is good." 
Here is clear and firm assurance of God's 
complete trustworthiness. 

We must get it out of our heads that to 
pray for God's will is to risk having all the 
joy go out of our lives, or to resign 
ourselves to disaster. This is not to say that 
death, sorrow, pain and disappointment 
will not come to those who put their trust 

in God. In spite of God's good plan and 
purpose, these things do happen, 
sometimes because of evil human intention, 
sometimes because of unwise choices by 
well-intentioned human beings, and 
sometimes for reasons not understood. But 
the fact that tragedy is not understood 
should not mislead us into thinking that it 
must have been the will of God. God 
grieves with us, shares our pain, loves, 
comforts and strengthens us when death, 
sorrow, and disappointment inevitably 

J.n the Sermon on the Mount Jesus pic- 
tures God as a good parent who, even 
more than a fallible human parent, can be 
trusted to respond with good. Would a 
responsible human parent ever plan 
tragedy for a well-loved child? Even less 
likely would God, the perfect, divine 
parent, intend evil to come into our lives. 

If we think tragedy is God's doing, a 
harmful cycle can be set in motion. This 
cycle can begin with anger at God, move to 
feelings of guilt because of that anger, then 
to despair and depression, which in turn can 
lead to physical illness or more tragedy. 

What liberating good news in Romans 
12: 1 and 2 that God has something better 
than that in store. When we are convinced 
that God is indeed a God of mercy, and 
not a God who plans tragedies, our 
response is to abandon ourselves to 
cooperation with God's purposes. As we let 
ourselves be guided more and more by 
God's intentions for us, and less by secular, 
un-Christian standards, our experience will 
justify our confidence in God. 

We will be freed from feelings of guilt 
that come from a sense of never quite 
measuring up, when we see that this aban- 
donment to cooperation with God's pur- 
poses is all that is expected of us, and we 
will be freed to move on to fuller achieve- 
ment of our spiritual potential. This 
upward-moving spiral of cause and effect 
will lead us to a more mature faith ex- 

perience, as we allow God's purpose to 
work itself out in our lives. 

Perhaps one reason for so much mis- 
understanding of the will of God in rela- 
tion to tragedy is the way in which the 
crucifixion and death of Jesus have 
sometimes been interpreted. 

After seeing the movie version of "Jesus 
Christ Superstar," I found myself resisting 
the picture of God I felt this movie had 
created. The God of "Jesus Christ 
Superstar" seemed to really demand the 
death of Jesus, for some reason that was 
not adequately explained. Such an inter- 
pretation of the death of Jesus does not 
seem to me to fit with the nature of God as 
Jesus himself taught it. Surely God wanted 
people to accept Jesus and respond to him, 
not to reject and kill him. But in that cir- 
cumstance, because of the people's rejec- 
tion of God's good purposes for them, and 
the subsequent arrest and condemnation of 
Jesus, it would have been out of harmony 
with God's purposes for Jesus to resist his 
enemies with violence or to run away. Just 
as no responsible, caring parent would de- 
mand the violent death of a beloved son or 
daughter, surely it was not God's plan from 
the beginning that the young, vigorous 
Jesus suffer rejection and violent death. 

It is risky to tell another person what 
God's will might be for that person in any 
specific circumstance, since we all see more 
or less dimly, especially in relation to other 
persons. But by looking at the face of Jesus 
with our inner eyes, and trying to absorb as 
much as possible of the mind and spirit of 
Jesus, we gain insight into what the nature 
of God's plan might be. 

Taking our clue from Jesus, we learn 
that what God really wants for all persons 
is abundant life — wholeness, health, joy, 
strength, growth, beauty, peace, love. Jesus 
described his own purpose this way: "I 
have come in order that they might have 
life, life in all its fullness" (John 10:10, 
Good News for Modern Man). I believe it 
is God's intention that this fullness of life 
should be available to all persons 

irm assurance o 


20 MESSENGER March 1977 

regardless of their color, sex, nationality, 
or any other distinction. 

When God's spirit is present in us, as it 
was in Jesus, God's intention becomes our 
own, and we will want for all persons what 
God wants for them, allowing ourselves to 
be used as instruments of good for them. 

God's all-embracing love will find an 
echo in our own concerns for persons, 
whether they may live next door or in some 
distant part of our global neighborhood, 
where life may be anything but full and 
abundant. It will truly concern us that for 
half the people of the world, hunger is a 
daily fact of life, and that in some of the 
poorest countries, half or more of the 
children die of malnutrition before they 
reach the age of five. 

I believe it is God's purpose for children 
to grow up strong and healthy, and that 
God is suffering with all those mothers and 
fathers who see their children dying, or go- 
ing blind, or becoming stunted in mind and 
body, because they do not have enough of 
the right kind of food. 

J. believe it is God's idea to keep us 
stirred out of our comfort and have us use 
our time and energy and money to try to 
do something about that. 

National policies can also help or hinder 
God's purposes, and God's intention has 
something to do with such nitty-gritty 
things as priorities in our national budget. 
God must grieve when we, through our 
own government, spend 70 times more for 
military purposes that we do to help the 
poor countries of the world solve their 
problems of hunger and poverty. 

God has a plan for the church to make 
more effective its witness to God's loving 
plan for all people. It is surely God's inten- 
tion that members of the Christian family 
from all countries try to work and pray 
together for the elimination of mutual dis- 
trust and fear, war, and hunger, the com- 
mon enemies of humanity. 

God must suffer when suspicion and fear 

divide even Christian people because of 
the differing political systems of their 
countries, or because of fighting wars 
or cold wars. 

As Jesus prayed in the Upper Room 
that his followers would be one, God in- 
tends us to work and pray for a spirit of 
kinship and oneness among Christians 
of all races, all countries, and all 
churches, whether Russian Orthodox, 
Methodist, Roman Catholic, Presbyteri- 
an, Pentecostal, or Brethren. 

As we use our energies and abilities 
and resources to help in our own finite 
way to bring fulness of life for all per- 
sons, we fulfill God's purposes for 
our own lives. Let us prove in 
practice that the plan of God 
for us, and for all people every- 
where, is good, n 

rthress /bu fan Cl^mGns 

March 1977 messenger 21 

Story and p 

by Fred W. Swart^ 

Yes, Virginia, there is a NewFai 

congregation in the Southern Pi 

jsr sylvania District of the Churi^of th 

^Prethren, and you're going to find 

fW'cnmi^ r\f the- thinoc I toll «/rni oHrtiit if 


some of the things I tell you about it " 
hard to believe. But it's true, Virginia, 
^^^f seen it with my own eyes! 
I^^r example, would you believe that 
a church that still operates under the 
free ministry (i. e., no salaried pastor), 
kneels when it prays, expects its 
women to wear the covering at all 
services — would you believe that con- 
gregation could be engaged in one of 
the most exciting social action 
ministries in the Brotherhood? 

Would you believe that a congrega- 
tion that still holds to the necessity of 
rebaptism for members from other 
communions and maintains a closed 
love feast (for Brethren only) could 
possess one of the most modern 
church structures and be the leader in 
ecumenical activity in its community? 

Would you believe that a church 
that is uncompromising in its moral 
andtotualistic disciplines could have a 

growing, who are enthusiastic enough 
about the faith that they have a tour- 
ing chorus. 

At New Fairview you will find an unbelievable spirit— 
combining sectarianism and sacrifice, the old and new, 
tradition and love. You will come away 
amazed — rejoicing — and glorifying God! 

frequent weekend retreats, and a weekly 
prayer meeting? 

Would you believe that a congregation 
that has not adopted many of the twentieth 
century changes in the Church of the 
Brethren which have been accepted by An- 
nual Conference supported the 
Brotherhood program with $21,967 last 
year, including support accounts for eight 

Yes, Virginia, New Fairview is for real — 
a fellowship of 600 members who are 
sincere about their faith, but far from in- 
grown; a church whose members know 
where they stand on doctrine and belief, 
but are not content just to possess faith 
that is not complemented by deeds of serv- 
ice and love to the world. 

It is a unique church, Virginia. I wish 
you could spend some time in their com- 
pany, as 1 did. You'll find an unbelievable 
spirit — combining sectarianism and 
sacrifice, the old and new, tradition and 
love. You'll come away amazed — and 
rejoicing — and glorifying God! 

There is the strong suggestion of 
unanimous consensus that the major in- 
spiration and motivational force behind the 
enthusiasm and mission of the New Fair- 
view congregation is Murray P. Lehman, 
the elder-in-charge, and one of seven free 
ministers of the two-point parish. 

A modest and gracious person, bearing 
the scars of one whose face is exposed for 
long periods in raw weather, yet smiling 
with the warmth of a new sun breaking 
through the grey clouds and speaking in 
tones of mellow love and inviting interest, 
Murray Lehman is a hard-working com- 
posite of earth and heaven. The family in- 
come for himself, his wife, Mary Ellen, and 
one son still at home, David, a .12th grader, 
comes from the produce of 25 acres of fruit 
orchards and the raising of 13,000 broilers. 
His service to the New Fairview church 

and its ministries, which includes preaching 
at least twice a month, teaching and 
pastoral functions, and attending most of 
the organizational meetings, is all gratis. 
His typical day begins well before sunrise 
and doesn't end until late into the night. 
His co-parishioners accuse him of doing 
too much, but he only complains that he 
doesn't have as much time for study and 
sermon preparation as he would like. Still, 
he always found time to spend hours at 
hunting and interest trips with his three 

Perhaps the key to Murray Lehman's 
magnanimity is his Job-like praise of God 
and God's faithfulness. Among his earliest 
recollections are his teen years during the 
beginning of the Great Depression. His 
father, Paul Allen Lehman, a deacon at 
First Church of the Brethren in York, Pa., 
was a furniture dealer who relied upon his 
son for help in the business. 


.urray remembers a day in 1932 when 
his father gave him a folder containing 200 
leases and sent him out to attempt collec- 
tions. When the day had ended Murray had 
not been able to secure as much as a quarter. 
The family furniture store eventually became 
the victim of those dire days, but Murray was 
able to secure a position with a textile in- 
dustry where he not only learned the weaving 
trade, but soon proved to have the ability to 
be a supervisor. 

During these years he met Mary Ellen 
Chronister, another native York Countian, 
who consented in 1937 to be his wife. The 
newlyweds bought a home and three acres 
of ground near the New Fairview Church 
of the Brethren and began to establish 
roots in both. 

Domestic peace in many homes was to 
be shattered, however, by the outbreak of 
World War II. Murray was among those 

challenged by the draft for military serv- 
ice, but he had already answered a prior 
call from the Prince of Peace. The draft 
board gave him two choices: either report 
to Camp Kane (a Civilian Public Service 
camp near Erie, Pa.) or find a job farming, 
an occupation deemed a necessity for food 
supply and therefore warranting draft- 
exempt status. 

Murray hired on with a neighbor farmer 
at 30 cents an hour, a considerable come- 
down from a factory foreman, but a job 
that gave him more satisfaction in that he 
"felt it was a service where people were be- 
ing helped." To supplement the wages, the 
Lehmans converted part of their three 
acres into an orchard, some 100 peach trees 
and 30 apple trees strong. 

While fruit growing has been Elder 
Murray Lehman's "tent-making" sub- 
sistence, he still calls it a "novelty," for it 
started as a hobby for him as a young boy 
in the city. His father had an elderly friend, 
a retired blacksmith, who "tinkered" with 
tree grafting. His particular delight, to the 
fascination of young Murray, was to spend 
the fair days of early spring in the coun- 
tryside around York grafting cultured twigs 
onto wild fruit trees along the roadside. 
Each successive summer he would prune 
these special projects until the trees 
produced quality fruit. Murray recalls the 
pleasure the old gentleman secretly re- 

March 1977 MESSENGER 23 

ceived from hearing someone exclaim, with 
incredulous wonder, about finding the 
nicest "wild" cherries you could ever want 
out along the fence row! 

It was the influence of this gifted and un- 
selfish benefactor that spawned Murray's 
own interest in fruit trees. After school 
Murray would often find some fence rows 
of his own, where young trees were 
sprouting. Carefully, he would transplant 
the seedlings to the garden at home and 
nurse them until they were large enough to 
give to friends for their yards. "I had trees 
growing everywhere in the city," he 

When he was able to buy a portion of 
the farm on which he worked during the 
war. he and Mary converted 25 acres into 
peach and apple orchards. This past year, 
considered a poor season for the apple 
crop, the Lehmans sold three trailer truck 
loads of apples to the processing plant in 
addition to twice-weekly sales at a local 
farmers' market, and moved several thou- 
sand bushels of peaches. All of this 
resulting from nearly 40 years in a profes- 
sion (farming) which he never intended to 
embrace, but into which his Christian con- 
science led and kept him. 

"After the war my conscience would not 
permit me to seek a more profitable oc- 
cupation," he relates. "I felt if I could 
provide the service for a few years I could 
make it for a lifetime." 

It is obvious that the Lehmans have 
succeeded. "The Lord has really blessed 
us," Murray says. "Oh, we've had a few 
rough times, but we've never been hurting 
or lacking. The youngsters have all been 

educated as well." 

The "youngsters," in addition to David, 
are Nancy, who lives with her husband, an 
air conditioning engineer, and their two 
daughters in Pasadena, Calif.; Philip, who 
still lives in the York area with his wife 
and two daughters; and Michael Brian, 
whom the Lehmans accepted as a foster 
son in 1944. 


. ichael represents another important 
chapter in Murray Lehman's life. At the 
time Michael joined the Lehman family, 
Murray was president of the Southern 
Pennsylvania District Children's Aid Socie- 
ty which maintained a short term facility in 
Carlisle for orphaned and underprivileged 
children. Michael was a 12-year-old who 
needed a family who would introduce him 
to love and see that he received an ade- 
quate schooling. Murray announced the 
need in the church service at New Fair- 
view one Sunday morning but no one re- 
sponded. "So we (the Lehmans) said, 'Why 
not our home?'" 

It was a happy decision from the start. 
Michael and Philip were only one year 
apart in age and related very well to one 
another. The boys assumed chores on the 
farm and were rewarded with hunting and 
fishing trips with Dad. Michael became a 
part of the church family as well, and 
entered alternative service when he 
reached the draftable age. Michael now has 
his own family, and not to be 'outdone' by 
his "brother" and "sister," the Brians also 
have two daughters! 

Ministry to children and youth has 

always been a special concern for Murray 
Lehman. He was president of the Southern 
Pennsylvania District Children's Aid Socie- 
ty for more than a decade, including the 
transition of the Children's Home into a 
public school day care center for mentally 
retarded children, when the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania changed its 
policy on child care support, and public 
funds for the institutionalization of 
homeless children were no longer available. 

But Murray Lehman was not satisfied 
that his job among children with special 
needs was completed. Through a periodic 
relationship with the York Rescue Mission, 
for which New Fairview was providing a 
monthly worship service, he discovered 
there was a need for a shelter facility for 
children who were victims of some tran- 
sitional emergency, for example: parental 
illness in a home, runaways, and children 
awaiting a foster home assignment. 

Murray and the New Fairview congrega- 
tion encouraged the Children's Aid Society 
to purchase a vacant building near the 
Rescue Mission for use as an "emergency 
children's shelter," with the program to be 
administered by the Mission. In 1975 the 
shelter served 164 children for a total of 
526 child days. In addition, 96 mothers 
were sheltered in the building during the 

Below, center: Elder Lehman takes to 
the phone to tend his flock. Below, right: 
Elder Lehman preaches twice a month as 
one of New Fairview's free ministers. 

Left: Mary Ellen and Murray Lehman — 
for forty years, marriage and devotion. 

24 MESSENGER March 1977 

course of the year. Referrals come from 
many agencies, including the Red Cross, 
York Hospital, the police, the mental 
health association, schools, the Salva- 
tion Army, churches, and the local bus 

But the Children's Shelter is only the tip 
of the iceberg in the relationship between 
the New Fairview congregation and the 
Rescue Mission's total program. Even 
though the church is located some seven 
miles out of the center of York city where 
the Mission carries on its ministry, it is in- 
volved in almost a daily relationship with 
the Mission. H. Roger Miller, a deacon at 
New Fairview, is president of the Mission's 
Board of Directors. Murray Lehman is a 
member of the advisory board. 

The Mission's program for inner city 
boys, called the Lighthouse Boys Club, is 
supported financially by New Fairview, 
which also provides for several scholar- 
ships to send the boys to summer Bible and 
church camps. An Easter egg hunt for the 
boys club is sponsored annualy by the con- 
gregation. The majority of the youth (ages 
6-17) in this program come from the hard 
core section of York's urban area. 

New Fairview is also instrumental in the 
success of the Mission's Thanksgiving food 
program, which includes the distribution of 
more than 300 food baskets. In addition to 

Below: Elder Lehman plans inner-city mis- 
sion with Paul Gorog (left) director of York 
Rescue Mission and police captain Charles 
McCaffery, a New Fairview member. 

collecting a small mountain of canned 
goods, the congregation always supplies a 
chicken for each basket, which means an 
outlay of $700 or more. Appropriately, the 
Mission's chapel is named in honor of 
Jacob L. Miller, a late elder of the New 
Fairview church, who participated in many 
of the Mission's worship services. 

One of the primary backers of his con- 
gregation's involvement in the program of 
the Rescue Mission, as well as other inner 
city ministries in which New Fairview is in- 
volved, is York Police Captain Charles 
McCaffery. He comments: "I've been in 
this business for 25 years and through my 
church (New Fairview) I've seen a lot of 
good things happen in this community. Be- 
ing a police officer, constantly being 
looked down upon by many people, having 
to endure many trying moments like the 
riots of the 60s, you get pretty despondent 
and lonely. ... I see great need in the inner 
city, and up until about ten years ago 
nobody seemed to care. 1 took my 
problems to people like Murray Lehman 
and J. L. Miller. I emphasized that the kids 
in this community needed someone to love 
them and work with them, and that there 
was missionary work to be done right here. 
. . . The church really backed me!" 


captain McCaffery recalls that as part 
of the congregation's response to his 
challenges three children pooled their piggy 
bank resources and brought him $9.00 one 
Sunday morning "to give to a family to 
buy their children presents and have a big 
Christmas dinner." Moved by the 

children's faith and intention several adults 
supplemented their love gift with an ad- 
ditional $1 10 and fulfilled their wish. 

About the same time, the police captain 
was awakened early one morning by the 
Pennsylvania State Police who had rescued 
a 13-year-old attractive, but deaf and mute, 
girl who was being abused. Captain Mc- 
Caffery arranged for her admission to a 
local Teen Center which later reported to 
him that their testing had revealed that 
maybe Linda could hear if she had a 
special hearing aid. The problem was that 
the device would cost over $750. Mc- 
Caffery called Elder Murray Lehman, and 
the congregation went to work on the 

Five weeks later Linda participated in 
New Fairview's Rally Day program, and 
with broken but legible speech shared these 
thoughts with the 500 people present: "I 
prayed to God that someday I could hear a 
bird sing. Today, with the help of God and 
the New Fairview church, my prayers are 

Such opportunities for witness in the 
community resulted in the formation of a 
Brethren Service Committee, which in- 
volves the chairpersons of each organiza- 
tion of the congregation and uses all of the 
parish ministers as advisors. McCaffery 
chairs the committee, which annually 
provides up to $12,000 for inner city work, 
largely in response to need which come to 
McCaffery's attention through his police 
responsibilities, but which cannot be met 
by any existing agency. 

There are examples galore of the com- 
mittee's accomplishments. There was a 

Below, left: Erwin Myers makes plans with the elder for the annual "New Fairview Day." 
Below: the remodeled New Fairview church sits alongside a busy expressway by-pass. 

March 1977 messenger 25 

Mary Ellen gives Murray an affectionate 
pat, thanks for a good Sunday sermon. 

young girl who had become a mother at 14 
and again at 16, both out of wedlock. Ill- 
ness took her life, and the needs of the 
babies, who were abruptly given to a 
grandmother, came to the attention of the 
church. The Brethren Service Committee 
responded with complete layettes and food 
for the children. 

Once in a time of tension for the Spanish 
sector of York, the New Fairview con- 
gregation invited the Spanish community 
to participate in a Sunday morning 
worship service and share music from its 
own religious culture. The free and 
enthusiastic manner of the Hispanics 
presented quite a contrast to the more staid 
and formal worship patterns of the host 
congregation. Nevertheless, the encounter 
proved to be a valuable one and subse- 
quently, the church has provided food, 
shoes, and clothing for many in the 
Spanish-speaking group. 

In one inner-city neighborhood, the 
church helped the residents have a trash 
clean-up by offering trucks and a front end 
loader and youth muscle power. Tons of 
garbage were removed from the area, re- 
placed by an immeasurable amount of 
goodwill. The group had brought food 
enough for everyone, and its welcome was 
underscored when one 12-year-old 
youngster of the area consumed 21 hot- 
dogs! "Our youth learned a lot through 
that experience," reflects McCaffery; "for 
instance they are accustomed to eating 
lunch because it is 12 o'clock. These inner- 
city kids ate because they were hungry. " 

A frequent sidekick in Captain Mc- 
Caffery's patrol car is the Rev. Murray 
Lehman, who has been known to defy the 
captain's orders to "stay put in the car" and 
join him in quelling a fracas. The New 
Fairview elder-in-charge only illustrates 
Captain McCaffery's affirmation: "Our 
church is right there — where the action is!" 

The spirit of sharing, reconciliation and 
social ministry at New Fairview goes far 

beyond the local area. Its commendable 
support of denominational program has 
been mentioned. During the recent expan- 
sion program of the New Oxford Brethren 
Home the congregation pledged $50,000 
over a three year period. It actually gave in 
excess of $60,000. All needs and ministries 
of the congregation are met by special 
offerings. No budget is maintained. 

In addition to the seven missionary 
leaders New Fairview supports on foreign 
soil, the congregation is assuming sole sup- 
port of Sarah Markey, a nurse and 
member of New Fairview, who is serving in 
the medical clinic of the Voice of Calvary 
Ministry in Mendenhall, Miss. And one of 
the Sunday School classes has taken as a 
project the support of a regional rehabilita- 
tion center for drug addicted girls. 

In 1974 two men of the congregation 
shared in the restoration of McComb, 
Miss., following the devastating tornado; 
and countless hours of labor were given in 
1972 and 1975 in the Eastern Pennsylvania 
flood disasters. 


. he exciting spirit and record of service 
is the direct result of the leadership of the 
congregation's seven free ministers who 
preach that the Brethren ideals of recon- 
ciliation, peace and brotherhood are con- 
sistent with the gospel. They understand 
the fruits of faith and commitment to be 
evidence of the acceptance of salvation. 
One of the ministerial couples, Norman 
and Elsie Reber, are currently serving a 
year of Brethren Volunteer Service at the 
Church of the Brethren offices in Elgin, Il- 
linois, working in communications and 
marketing/ cafeteria areas, respectively. 
Norman is the former editor of Penn- 
sylvania Farmer, a publication with which 
he was associated for 30 years. 

Elder Lehman, the mainspring of the 
outreach stance, sees the decision of the 
congregation in 1964 to build a modern 
sanctuary and classroom building to have 
been a turning point in outlook. The com- 
plexion changed "from rural to suburban, 
from an isolated church to one that was 
open to sharing, willing to listen, af)- 
preciate, and if possible cooperate with 
other Christian groups." 

New Fairview has hosted a cooperative 
Easter sunrise service for the past several 
years, involving a Lutheran and three Unit- 
ed Methodist congregations in the com- 
munity. The Brethren youth group 
provides both the worship service and the 
fellowship breakfast which follows. Atten- 

dance always reaches into the hundreds, 
providing a significant unifying experience. 
New Fairview's annual daily vacation 
Bible School, which is held in the evenings, 
receives 60 percent of its participants from 
neighboring churches who have discovered 
the congregation's openness to share 
program and ministries. 

"We have discovered," adds Murray, 
"that the ministry of our Lord is so exten- 
sive that, if we would limit it to ministry 
among the Brethren, we'd never get it ac- 
complished. There has to be this openness 
to other Christians and the community. 
The ministry of Christ was such that 
wherever he went he was doing good. It's 
this concept that's caught hold of our 

It is notable that New Fairview has been 
able to apply that concept without com- 
promising some of its traditionally conser- 
vative teachings and membership re- 
quirements, which it deems necessary to 
keep in order to strengthen its witness to 
the Christian's ultimate loyalty to Christ. 
Nor is the conservatism in doctrine and 
worship preventing growth. Baptisms are 
averaging 25 per year, including some 
youth from other denominational 
backgrounds who are attracted to the spirit 
and activity of the congregation. 

One of the marks of a strong leader is to 
inspire leadership in his or her wake. 
Murray Lehman's co-workers joyously 
emanate the willing style of their elder-in- 
charge. For example, every church school 
class at New Fairview has at least three 
teachers. "The real spirit of this church is 
to serve," commented one of the members. 

Murray P. Lehman would prefer to drift 
into the background where this story has 
seemingly at points placed him. But one 
cannot ignore his spiritual and exemplary 
presence in the congregation and com- 
munity. In 1973 he and Charles McCaffery 
were the honored gsests of then Con- 
gressman George Goodling at the Presi- 
dent's Prayer Breakfast in Washington, in 
recognition of their leadership in communi- 
ty ministry. 

One would hardly guess that Murray 
Lehman lost the sight of one eye in an acci- 
dent 17 years ago, and two years ago un- 
derwent a complete hip replacement, which 
meant learning to walk again. Did he slow 
down? "No!" say the members of New 
Fairview, with both admiration and ad- 
monition. For day in and day out this giant 
of a leader is quietly and humbly planting 
and cultivating fruit — both of the Spirit 
and of the earth! D 

26 MESSENGER March 1977 

by Wendell Flory 


The Challenge of China 

'hina! That fabled land of one-fourth 
of the human race, land of a totally new 
social experiment, land where I was born 
has challenged me all my life. It still 
challenges me. Can the long love affair 
between the Chinese peoples and the 
American peoples be rekindled? Can our 
current political relationships be nor- 

"United States-China Policy" was dealt 
with in a two-day National Leadership 
Conference on US-China Relations, held in 
Washington, D.C. in December. The 
World Ministries Commission of the Gen- 
eral Board of the Church of the Brethren 
joined 20 other religious, educational, 
sports and political organizations in spon- 
soring the conference. Seven Brethren 
attended, among a total of 500 persons. 
About half of the group at the conference 
had traveled in China as a part of some 
12,000 American visitors in that land since 
the 1972 Nixon visit opened China again to 

I learned that normalization of relations 
between the two countries awaits full US 
adherence to the 1972 Shanghai Com- 
munique signed by Richard Nixon and 
Chou En-lai. China still insists that theie 
United States 1) remove all military forces 
and installations from Taiwan, 2) cancel 
the Mutual Defense Treaty negotiated in 
1954 with the Chiang government on 
Taiwan, and 3) cease deplomatic recogni- 
tion of the Nationalist Government as the 
official government of China. Even 
motions in these directions might open new 
doors for the growth of mutual 

Agreeing that the issue of Taiwan is the 
crux of the current problem, to many 
Americans it looks sad to break the long 
relations with the Chiang government. 
However the final settlement between 
Peking and Taipei is a Chinese matter. It is 
none of our business. Both Chinese 
governments agree that Taiwan is a 

province of China. For some 20 years 
Peking has insisted it wants to settle the 
matter without violence. There is no in- 
dication of change in that position. With 
the deaths of Chiang Kai-shek, and of Mao 
Tse-tung and Chou En-lai, the door may 
well be opened to positive steps in Chinese 

Regarding Taiwan, these things are 

1) When the US withdraws political 
recognition from Taipei, it is possible to 
continue relationships in trade, cultural ex- 
changes, sports and religious ties. Japan 
has set us a pattern. 

2) Taiwan is a very tight, oppressive, 
military dictatorship run by the Kuomin- 
tang for the benefit of the two million 
nationalists who fled the mainland in 1949 
when the People's Republic conquered the 
country. There is no freedom or 
democracy. Clearly, the time is here for the 
United States to cease interfering in the in- 
ternal affairs of another country. We must 
allow the Chinese to settle this matter, as 
they wish. 


. he Taiwan issue aside, I share four 
meaningful ideas that were reinforced in 
my belief as I attended the United States- 
China Policy meetings. 

First, the American definition of 'per- 
sonal freedom' cannot be applied in China. 
We must accept the Chinese definition of 
freedom for themselves. Political freedom 
to vote was not lost; they never had it. 
They have no heritage of individualism as 
we understand it in the West. The policies 
of the Peoples Republic of China have 
provided China's 800 million people with 
freedom to live safely, to eat, to have ade- 
quate shelter, to do meaningful work 
within society, to have access to simple 
medical care, to feel wanted, to dignify 
human life in eliminating begging, prostitu- 
tion, slavery, and starvation, and to be 

proud of their country and people. It has 
been done with group pressure, much 
forced re-education, and at times frightful 
cost of human life. Whether more persons 
died this way than would have died in the 
old way is quite unknown. But let us re- 
joice and accept. The Chinese people 
are now free to live for others, not 
for self. 

Second, the United States would greatly 
benefit from a normalization of relation- 
ships with China. It would free us from a 
discredited and dishonorable policy. A 
whole new climate of United States-Asian 
partnership would be free to develop. 

Third, normalization of US-China 
relationships could be a step to a reorder- 
ing of national relationships in the world, 
the beginning of the end of the domination 
of two superpowers. Nations of the third 
world would be free to listen to what we 
say. Respect for what we do would grow. 
Suspicion and resentment about our 
methods of using force and violence to 
secure our own way in poor nations would 
have a chance to diminish. An atmosphere 
of partnership could be born. 

Fourth, what of the Christian church in 
China? It continues in a small and very 
quiet way on the mainland. If Peking in- 
corporates Taiwan, what of the several 
fairly strong and indigenous churches on 
Taiwan? Perhaps the incorporation of 
these Taiwanese Christian churches into 
the Chinese social system might be the 
beginning of a new Peking policy on 
religion. Can they be the seed which will 
lead to a true Christian Church in China, 
Chinese in every respect, serving their own 
peoples in love? D 

March 1977 messenger 27 


Ministry on the campground 

by Floyd H. Mitchell 

A campground worship experience can be 
a significant ministry for campers and a 
challenging mission for a congregation. 
This is the evaluation of the Church of the 
Brethren in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 
after having conducted a unique type of 
worship ministry last summer in the Twin 
Bridge pri\ate campground. 

This ministry offered something new. 
The half hour service was not "worship as 
usual." The experience was designed 
specifically for people camping in a lovely 
nature setting. Each week the service fo- 
cused upon some object of nature in the 
campground that had biblical association. 

This contemporary ministry was the 
result of careful planning involving several 
groups of people. Eighteen campers were 
invited to assist in planning. They 
recounted campground services elsewhere 
which they had found meaningful, and 
offered suggestions for the worship in the 
Twin Bridge Campground. These 
suggestions were evaluated and im- 
plemented by a core of twelve persons from 
the congregation who had volunteered to 
assist with this ministry. 

The positive results of this innovative 
service can be seen in a number of different 
ways. Fifty-six campers selected at random 
gave a very high evaluation on a prepared 
questionnaire. Attendance was better than 
in previous summers even though the 
campground registrations were down. Per- 
paps the most appreciated evaluation came 
from some unsolicited comments. One 
family stated, "We've come back to your 
campground this weekend because we like 
the worship services." Another new camper 
said upon registering, "We have heard you 
have such meaningful services of worship 
and that's why we've come here." 

The services were designed to present a 
biblical message to a group of strangers. 

sharing a common experience of camping, 
and making use of the natural setting sur- 
rounding them. Care was exercised not to 
worship nature, but to use nature as an aid 
in the experience of worship. 

One significant ingredient included in all 
the services was the "building of communi- 
ty." Unlike a regular church service where 
people gather who have some knowledge of 
each other and share certain mutual con- 
cerns, the campground worshippers were 
strangers whose major common concern 
was the camping experience. Since worship 
is not a private experience but always cor- 
porate, the first act was to develop in the 
worshippers an awareness of and a concern 
for each other. 

When attendance was small the families 
were invited to introduce themselves to the 
total group. At other times awareness was 
created by identifying the communities 
from which they had come or the 
denominations to which they belonged. 
More frequently the worshippers were 
asked to go meet someone they didn't 
know and find out certain things about 
them. One result of this awareness building 
was that after the service those who had 
become aware of each other could often be 
seen chatting together. 

The community building proceeded from 
awareness of each other to identifying of 
concerns. Some general concerns were 
identified by the raising of hands, but op- 
portunities were given for the sharing of 
any specific concerns. Shared concerns 
along with expressions of thanksgiving 
then became a part of the period of silent 
prayer which was followed by an audible 

In the meeting with campers prior to the 
beginning of the camping season there was 
a request for a special service for the 
children. The church volunteers responded 
with a weekly children's storytime. Prior to 
the sermon the children would leave the 

A campground ministry by your congregation can be a rewarding opportunity in mission. 

service and go to their special place for an 
experience on their level. This met with the 
approval of the parents and the apprecia- 
tion of the children. 

Singing was a significant part of the 
weekly experience. It was difficult to find 
songs and hymns that were appropriate to 
the nature setting and known to the 
campers. "For the Beauty of the Earth" 
and "God of the Earth, the Sky, the Sea" 
were in for frequent use. Solos occasionally 
met the nature setting guideline and added 
to the worship experience. Vocal and in- 
strumental recordings, played as the people 
gathered, created worshipful atmosphere 
for the service. 

The sermons also were designed especial- 
ly for the campers and dealt with some 
nature object visible in the campground. 
The biblical writers made use of many 
nature objects to present their divine 
truths. Some of the sermon topics reveal an 
obvious biblical text: "The Righteous Are 
Like a Tree," "Look to the Hills," "Con- 
sider the Birds," "He Gives the Grass," "He 
Sends the Rain," "Be Still and Know," 
"There Is a River," "On This Rock." Ser- 
mon content emphasized the creative ac- 
tivity of God and our human stewardship 

The sermons often involved the people in 
sharing ideas. In the sermon, "Be Still and 
Know," the worshippers shared the sounds 
they heard during a period of listening. In 
other sermons birds were identified, values 
of trees were discussed, small stones were 
shared with each worshipper and they de- 
scribed characteristics of the rocks they 
held in their hands, and on a rainy day the 
campers listened to and talked about the 
rain. The worshippers were often asked to 
participate in the benediction by either 
passing the blessing on or by shaking 
hands and saying a blessing to each other. 

The venture proved to be a much ap- 
preciated ministry for the campers but also 
for the church. For the congregation sees 
the program as a significant mission and 
plans to continue it. All who assisted with 
the services last year have volunteered this 
year and others have indicated a desire to 
assist them. 

Not every church has a campground 
near by, and many who do have a 
chaplaincy program already there. But if 
there is possibility for such a ministry it 
could prove to be a rewarding opportunity 
in mission. D 


123rd BVS 
Training Unit 

(Training completed October i. 

Gladys J. Akers, of Manas- 
sas, Va., to Mother Goose 
Child Development Center, 
Elgin, III. 

Sally L. Alden, of Wheaton, 
Md., to Koinos House, Adrian. 

William M. Bennett, of Or- 
lando. Fla., to Better Way, Inc., 
Elyria, Ohio 

Linda M. Bridge, of Monti- 
cello, Ind.. to Mother Goose 
Child Development Center. 
Elgin, 111. 

Julie A. Clark, of Mt. Mor- 
ris, III., to Mississippi Prison- 
er's Defense Committee. Jack- 
son. Miss. 

Jan C. deGeus, of The Neth- 
erlands, to Multi-Services, Inc.. 
Indianapolis. Ind. 

James W. Eberly Jr.. of Lu- 
ray, Va.. to Camp Alexander 
Mack, Milford, Ind. 

Duane E. Grady, of Water- 
loo. Iowa, to Dayton Project. 
Dayton, Ohio 

Paul L, Guyer, of Berwyn, 
Pa., to Green Tree Church of 
the Brethren, Oaks, Pa. 

Dennis R. Harbaugh, of Wa- 
terloo, Iowa, to "The Defend- 
er" and The Good Samaritan 
Center, Jackson, Miss. 

Daniel J. Hernley, of Pitts- 
burg, Pa., to Bar 41 Ranch, 
Wilbur, Wash. 

Robynne A. Hylton. of Ash- 
land. Ohio, to Brethren Home 
for the Aging, Bridgewater, Va. 

Shinya Iwama, of Japan, to 
Mother Goose Child Develop- 
ment Center, Elgin, III. 

M. June Johnson, of Wave- 
land. Ind.. to Dundalk Church 
of the Brethren. Baltimore, Md. 

Ann L. Lugbill. of Fairfax. 
Va., to Church of the Brethren 
Washington Office, Washing- 
ton, DC. 

Ina Melse. of The Nether- 
lands, to Edna Martin Chris- 
tian Center. Indianapolis, Ind. 

Anne Merkey. of Ottumwa. 
Iowa, to Mississippi Family 
Health Clinic, Jackson. Miss. 

Pamela J. Metzger. of Lan- 
caster. Pa., to Washington 
County Health Department. 
Hagerstown, Md. 

Bretta Sue Oellig, of Hum- 
melstown. Pa., to Gould Farm, 
Monterey, Mass. 

Brenda J. Reish, of Elgin. 
III., to Brethren Service Cen- 
ter, New Windsor, Md. 

Paul N. Rohrer, of Elgin. 111., 
to Youth Center of McPher- 
son, Kans. 

Kevin L. Rosborough, of 
Mendota, III., to Brethren Serv- 
ice Center, New Windsor, Md. 

Marie S. Ryan, of Elgin, III., 
to Brethren Service Center. 
New Windsor, Md. 

Linda K. Simmons, of Gar- 
rett, Ind., to Florida Brethren 

Home, Sebring, Fla. 

Jody L. Stepanovich. of 
Youngstown. Ohio, to Friend- 
ship Day Care Center. Hutch- 
inson. Kans. 

Lynn Stoneback. of Holli- 
daysburg. Pa., to Brethren 
Service Center. New Windsor. 

John E. Wagoner. of 
McPherson. Kans.. to NISB- 
CO. Washington. DC. 

Karen R. Ward, of LaPorte 
City, Ind., to Dundalk Church 
of the Brethren. Baltimore. Md. 

Andrea L. Warnke, of Elgin, 
111., to Human Awareness Pro- 
gram, Dayton, Ohio 

Virginia S. Webb, of Have- 
lock, N.C., to Koinos House, 
Adrian, Mich. 

Donald Young, of Gary, 
Ind.. to First Presbyterian 
Church. Gary, Ind. 


Charles Griffith, licensed 
Aug. 29, 1976, Erwin, South- 

Kermit Jones, licensed Sept. 
4, 1976. Western Pennsylvania 

Paul N. Leatherman Jr.. or- 
dained Oct. 1976. Harmon. 


Frank Isenberg. from Pleas- 
ant Valley. Southeastern, to re- 

Richard Judy, from North- 
ern Ohio, to Hurricane Creek, 
Illinois/ Wisconsin 

John Keiper, from Buffalo. 
Southern Pennsylvania, to Bed- 
ford. Middle Pennsylvania 

(Correction. Whildin A. 
Reese, listed in the December 
Messenger, is an ordained min- 
ister in the Indian Creek con- 
gregation. Atlantic Northeast. 
Luke H. Brandt continues as 


Mr. and Mrs. Wilson Bur- 
ket, Martinsburg, Pa.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Tobias C. Cor- 
le. Martinsburg. Pa., 52 

Mr. and Mrs. Hazen Eber- 
sole. New Enterprise. Pa.. 59 

Mr. and Mrs. Sherman Ei- 
senbise, Elizabethtown, Pa., 60 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Emiey. 
North Manchester. Ind.. 60 

Mr. and Mrs. Herman Hege, 
Chambersburg, Pa.. 52 

Mr. and Mrs. Mason Hild, 
Cando, N. D., 71 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Hollinger. 
Westminster. Md.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Holsing- 
er. Martinsburg, Pa., 51 

Mr. and Mrs. I. Harvey Ka- 
garise, Martinsburg, Pa.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Clinton 
Keefer, Mercersburg, Pa., 57 

Mr. and Mrs. Earl Lantz. 
New Paris, Ind.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. John D. Mar- 
tin. Welsh Run. Pa.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Lester L. 
Steele. Martinsburg. Pa., 55 

Mrs. and Mrs. David Ston- 
er, Sebring, Fla.. 60 

Mrs. and Mrs. Irvin Ware- 
ham. Martinsburg, Pa.. 53 

Mr. and Mrs. Alonza Whit- 
acre. Cumberland, Md.. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Whit- 
mer. Sebring, Fla.. 67 


Bertha M. Ake. 75. Martins- 
burg. Pa., Oct. 10. 1976 

Ralph Avey. 75. Polo. III.. 
Sept. 28. 1976 

Elmer Banks. 82, La Habra, 
Calif.. Sept. 2. 1976 

Ada Barnhart. 94. Pyrmont, 
Ind., Aug. 25. 1976 

Harry Berger. 68. Lebanon. 
Pa.. Oct. 15. 1976 

Walter Biser. 36, Winter 
Haven. Fla.. Sept. 18, 1976 

Milo G. Bohn. 79, St. Pet- 
ersburg. Fla.. Oct. 24. 1976 

Levi A. Bowman. 101. Mar- 
tinsville, Va.. Jan. 7. 1977 

Frank Broadwater, 87, Pres- 
ton, Minn.. Sept. 16. 1976 

Ezra Brubaker. 92. Roa- 
noke. Va., Sept. 6. 1976 

B. Woodrow Burke Sr.. 57. 
Wilmington, Del.. Sept. 29. 

Katie Carpenter. 82. Lancas- 
ter. Pa., Sept. 10. 1976 

Rick Casciotti. 22. Johns- 
town, Pa.. Sept. 15. 1976 

Leon Copp, 57, Manchester. 
Md., Aug. 15. 1976 

Tobias C. Corle. 80, Mar- 
tinsburg, Pa., Oct. 16. 1976 

Gladys Crickenberger. Lew- 
isburg, W. Va.. Sept. 7, 1976 

Joe Dean. McGaheysville. 
Va.. Sept 6. 1976 

Mildred Keeny Deaton, 61, 
Portland. Ind.. Oct. I. 1976 

Russell Clark Diehl. 64. 
Waynesboro, Va.. Sept. 2, 1976 

Edna Dotzour, 86, Norwich, 
Kans.. July 31, 1976 

Joyce Eikenberry, 89, La 
Verne, Calif.. Sept. 1. 1976 

Modena Crumpacker Evans, 
78, McPherson, Kans., Oct. 17, 

Oriha Fisher, 97, Sacramen- 
to, Calif.. Oct. 10, 1976 

Roy Fuhrman, 55, Hanover, 
Pa., Sept. 15. 1976 

Mary Kagey Phillips Garber, 
80, Waynesboro, Va., Sept. 26. 

Josephine Hanawalt, 88. La 
Verne. Calif.. Sept. 22. 1976 

Terry Hawk. 33. Tucson. 
Ariz., July 20, 1976 

Clarence C. Heckman. 79. La 
Verne, Calif., Dec. 30. 1976 

Carrie Helsel. 81, Leola, Pa.. 
Oct. I, 1976 

Cuba Helvy, 78, Fort Wayne, 
Ind., Oct. 23. 1976 

Ruth Hepner. 76. Covina. 
Calif., Sept. 7. 1976 

Geraldine Butler Hill. 40. Sil- 
ver Spring, Md.. Sept. 15. 1976 

Arthur Hillsamer, 94. Breth- 
ren. Mich.. Oct. 12. 1976 

John Curtis Hogan. 83. Har- 
din. Mo.. Oct. 13. 1976 

Zella Lee Hostler. 74, Cres- 
son. Pa.. June 12. 1976 

Ellen Selestia Hunsberger. 
86. New Paris. Ind.. Oct. 29, 

Glayne Johnson, Middle- 
town, Ind.. Sept. 22. 1976 

Lela Jonas. 69. Portsmouth. 
Va.. Aug. 29. 1976 

Mae Kauffman. 91. Goshen. 
Ind.. July 6. 1976 

Frederick T. Kines. 33. Mid- 
land. Va.. Sept. 9. 1976 

Lottie Miller Kline. 87. Ar- 
lington. Va... Sept. 1. 1976 

Leota Kurtz Koby. 63. Ak- 
ron. Ohio. Oct. 16, 1976 

Ohmcr Kreitzer. 78. Rich- 
mond. Ind.. Sept. .30. 1976 

Carolme Kuhns. 62. York. 
Pa., Sept. 18. 1976 

James Kurtz. 22. Hartville. 
Ohio. Sept. 28. 1976 

Beulah Leek. 85. Cromwell. 
Ind.. Sept. 5. 1976 

Robert Lego. 87. Lanark. 111.. 
Oct. 4. 1976 

Robert R. Leidy. 39, St. 
Paul. Minn.. Aug. 16. 1976 

Effie Lesh. 90, Uniondale, 
Ind., Oct. 12, 1976 

Therow J. Liskey, 65, Bridge- 
water, Va.. Oct. 29, 1976 

Beulah Switzer Loving, 80, 
Washington, D. C. Oct. 4. 

Ted Lydic. 74. Johnstown. 
Pa.. Sept. 19. 1976 

Ralph J. Malus. Roanoke. 
Va.. April 15. 1975 

Mary Martindale. 73. Gettys- 
burg. Ohio. Oct, 7. 1976 

John McClure. 60. Shirleys- 
burg. Pa.. Sept. 19, 1976 

James V. McCuller Sr.. 79. 
Frederick. Md.. Sept. 25. 1976 

Walter S. McGaffey. 69. Mc- 
Pherson. Kans.. Dec. 2. 1976 

Dewev Meador. 78. 

Kokomo. Ind.. Oct. 8. 1976 

Wreford Meador. 67. 
Roanoke. Va.. Sept. 29, 1976 

Paul Miley Sr.. 82. Ephrata. 
Pa., Oct. 22. 1976 

Dessa Miller, 67, Altoona. 
Pa., Oct. 9, 1976 

Ilo Miller, 87, Bourbon, Ind.. 
Nov. 7. 1976 

J. Saylor Miller. 81. South 
English. Iowa. Nov. 6. 1976 

Alta Rosella Morris. 77. 
Churubusco. Ind., Nov. 22. 

Herbert G. Moyer. 76. 
Philadelphia. Pa.. Sept. 29. 

Howard Musselman. 74. 
Claysburg. Pa.. Oct. 12, 1976 

Mark E. Myers. 67. Bridge- 
water. Va., Oct. 5. 1976 

Delia Napier. Marcum, Ky.. 
Aug. 24. 1976 

O. W. Neher. 89. North 
Manchester, Ind.. Oct. 18. 1976 

Albert Neuenschwander. 69. 
Emporia. Kans.. Sept. 17. 1976 

Bessie Noble. 69. Nappanee. 
Ind.. Nov. 24. 1976 

Pearl Cobban Osborn. 56. 
Cando.' N D.. Sept. 15. 1976 

Elsie Ovier. SO. Kokomo. 
Ind.. Oct. 10. 1976 

Myrtle Pearcc. 91. Council 
Bluffs. Iowa. Oct. 26. 1976 

Bertha Peters. 67. Roanoke. 
Va.. Nov 27. 1976 

Alvin A. Pieper. 72. Pearl 
City. 111,. Aug. 15. 1976 

Albert Poffcnbergcr. 79. 
Adel. Iowa. July 13. 1976 

William Rabold. 75. Ephrata. 
Pa.. Dec. 7. 1976 

Eva Ragains. 89. Girard. 
Kans.. Sept. 26. 1976 

Verl Reger. 65. Patagonia. 
Ariz,. Aug. 17. 1976 

John Reitz. 82. Copemish. 
Mich,. July 28. 1976 

Robert Rinehart. 58. State 
Line. Pa.. Sept. 9, 1976 

Dorothy M, Robinson. Pan- 
ora. Iowa. Nov. 5. 1976 

Mary Darley Rupley. 65. 
South Whitley. Ind.. Oct. 29. 

Hangse Samruat. 46. San 
Diego. Calif. Nov. 25. 1976 

Susan Shafer. 87. Bancroft. 
Mich.. Oct. 12. 1976 

Mrs. Chauncey Shamberger. 
80. Fruitland, Idaho. March 25. 

Gladvs Shank. 59. Wakarusa. 
Ind.. Oct. 30. 1976 

Clarence Shively. 51. 
Lafayette. Ind.. Sept. 25. 1976 

James Shoemaker. 67. Day- 
ton. Ohio. Nov. 2. 1976 

Irene Smith. 81. Drayton 
Plains. Mich.. Sept. 7. 1976 

Oscar Smith. 94. Wood- 
stock. Va.. Oct. 19. 1976 

O. Ralph Snvder. Harrison- 
burg, Va., Nov. 10. 1976 

Rebecca Stauffer. 93. Lan- 
caster. Pa.. Nov. 5. 1976 

Mabel B, Steele. 83. Holli- 
daysburg. Pa.. Nov, 21. 1976 

Frank Struble. 75. Erie. Pa.. 
July 5. 1975 

Cora C. Studebaker. 87. New 
Carlisle. Ohio. Oct. 25, 1976 

Emma E, Stutzman. 92, Mc- 
Pherson. Kans.. Dec, I. 1976 

Hattie Symensma. 87. New 
Paris, Ind.. Oct. 24. 1976 

Jess Tarrence. 88. Center- 
ville. Iowa. Oct,^l2. 1976 

Joseph Taylor. 90. Alum 
Bank. Pa.. Aug. 31. 1976 

Carl E. Thomas. 79. Ashley, 
Ind,. Nov, 4. 1976 

Raymond Thompson. 88. 
New Paris. Ohio. Nov. 20. 1976 

Arthur A. Townsend. 65. 
Minburn. Iowa. Oct. 29. 1976 

Robert Waltersdorff, 62. 
York. Pa.. Nov, 11. 1976 

Cleta Wertenberger. 77, Nor- 
catur, Kans.. March 19. 1976 

Ruth Whilmer. 81. Pearl 
City. 111,. Oct. 24. 1976 

Forrest J. Wiedemane. 82. 
Bourbon. Ind.. Oct. 24. 1976 

Myrtle Wilson. 82. Roanoke. 
Va. Nov. 7. 1976 

Earl Witwer. 51. Akron. Pa.. 
Nov. 22. 1976 

Paul Worley. 67. Hanover. 
Pa.. Oct. 26. 1976 

March 1977 messenger 29 

'm/Q)\rd ^\r©\mi w^mBhmg\'t(B\ni 

On the way to helping the poor 

by Tim Speicher 

Being poor in the United States is a double 
burden. The poor not only suffer 
emotionally from their sense of failure in a 
country that sets success as the key to life; 
they also suffer physically from poor hous- 
ing, inadequate clothing, illness and dis- 
ease, and hunger. 

Although acute malnutrition in the 
United States is not as evident as in other 
countries, many children here do suffer 
from growth and development deficiencies 
due to poor nutrition. 

Congress enacted the Food Stamp Act 
of 1964 with two objectives: 1) to safeguard 
the health and well-being of the entire pop- 
ulation and raise the levels of nutrition 
among low-income households, and 2) to 
promote distribution of our agricultural 
abundance and strengthen our agricultural 

This noble effort, however, has attracted 
more myths, misconceptions, and criticisms 
than most other social programs. Last year 
the attempt of Congress to reform the 
Food Stamp Program failed due to the 
controversies involved. Yet both 
proponents and opponents agree that 
reform of the program is needed. 

Raising nutritional levels. The 16.3 
million food stamp recipients in the United 
States during June 1976 had an average 
monthly income of $298. Only 13 percent 
of the households earned over $6000 a year 
and 90 percent of those had five or more 
members. There were an additional 1.5 
million participants in Puerto Rico, Guam, 
and the Virgin Islands. 

While US Department of Agriculture 
(USDA) studies show that food stamps do 
bring an improvement in the nutrition of 
these food stamp recipients, the diets of 
many participants may still fall short of 
nutritional adequacy since USDA's defini- 
tion of "adequate nutritional diet" is based 
on its economy food plan. 

This nutrition plan is a carefully selected 
and measured list of foods designed to 
provide the minimum needs of basic 
nutrients. For a shopper to get an adequate 
diet with the food stamp allowance based 
on this plan is "technically possible" but 
practically impossible because the plan re- 
quires such precise calculations. 

Growth of the plan. The facts on food 
stamps rarely surface since media accounts 

of public assistance programs focus on 
isolated but spectacular cases of fraud. A 
deeper probe, however, suggests that other 
factors, not runaway fraud, underlie the 
growth of the food stamp distribution. 

The latest USDA studies show that 
fraud is evident in less than half of one per- 
cent of the food stamp caseload. Compare 
this to the commonly acknowledged fraud 
rate of 19 percent on income tax returns 
each year. 

Actually, the single largest factor respon- 
sible for the growth of the food stamp 
program in recent years has been the in- 
crease in unemployment which rose from 
5.3 percent in August 1974 to 9. 1 percent in 
March 1975 and declined only to 7.5 per- 
cent by June 1976. 

The food stamp program has expanded 
also because of its availability in more 

Poor people not only suffer 
emotionally from their sense of 
failure in a country that sets 
success as the key to life; they 
also suffer physically from poor 
housing, inadequate clothing, 
illness, and hunger. 

places. The program began in 1961 in just a 
sampling of counties and now food stamp 
outlets are required in every county. Also, 
cost-of-living increases are being updated 
more regularly resulting in an increase in 

Outreach programs are still working to 
enroll the eight million people below the 
poverty line who are not yet on the 
program. Reasons for this non- 
participation vary: lack of knowledge 
about the program, stigma attached to us- 
ing food stamps, transportation difficulties, 
frequently complex, abusive and degrading 
certification processes, and most impor- 
tantly, the requirement to put up a lump 
sum of cash to obtain food stamp coupons. 

Under the food stamp plan, eligible 
households exchange money for a greater 
amount of coupons. For example, $66 cash 
for $166 in coupons. The value of the 
"bonus" decreases as the income and 
resources of the household increase. The 
coupons may then be used to purchase 
foods designed for human consumption 
but not alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and 

imported foods, e.g., Russian caviar. 

Benefits to the economy. The impact of 
the food stamp program on the farmers has 
been demonstrated in several state studies. 
For example, farmers in Minnesota are es- 
timated to receive an additional $50.6 to 
$66.7 million in 1976 as a result of the in- 
creased purchasing ability of the low- 
income sectors. A USDA study has shown 
that the food stamp program in 1976 may 
have helped generate $27 billion in new 
business, 425,000 new jobs, and other 
benefits by its effect nationwide as an 
economic multiplier. 

Reform measures. The current Food 
Stamp Program is due to expire this 
September 30. Congress is now working on 
reform legislation for this program as part 
of the "Omnibus Farm Bill" which also in- 
cludes all farm-related bills and the "Food 
for Peace" foreign aid program. 

The most adequate proposal for food 
stamp reform has come from the combined 
efforts of Senators Bob Dole (R-Kansas) 
and George McGovern (D-South Dakota). 
Any reform of the food stamp program, 
though, will still leave the welfare maze un- 

Perhaps the fact that even the growth in 
public assistance programs has not nar- 
rowed the gap between the rich and the 
poor in our country points to the need of 
questioning our whole economic system. 
Part of the explanation lies in the devotion 
to free enterprise which exalts financial 
success while branding the destitute as 
moral delinquents. 

Interim step. Improvements in food 
stamps cannot be seen as a final goal, but 
as an essential short-range measure to 
provide a minimal standard of nutritional 
maintenance for our country. Ultimately, 
of course, the real solution will come 
through income security for all citizens. 

A small investment now towards ade- 
quate nutrition will save billions of dollars 
in future medical bills and will enhance 
educational achievement, work capabilities, 
and the priceless need for human dignity. 

For a list of in-depth resources on this 
subject, contact the Washington Office of 
the Church of the Brethren, 100 Maryland 
Ave., N.E., Washington, D.C., 20002. For 
progress reports on the "Omnibus Farm 
Bill" call the Interreligious Taskforce on 
US Food Policy in Washington, D.C., toll- 
free: (800) 424-7292. □ 

30 MESSENGER March 1977 


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March 1977 messenger 31 

hmr® D 

On marriage, God, guns, freedom, vision of 

Dick and Pat Shreckhise 

Marriage enriched 
— all were blessed 

As a way of alerting the remainder of the 
denomination to an opportunity that was 
very meaningful to a group of us, we are 
recounting an experience in Southern 
Pennsylvania that occurred on an October 
weekend. Called Flight 1089, the event 
took advantage of Laity Sunday by freeing 
16 pastoral couples to gather in a retreat at 
New Windsor, Md. 

The focus, on the marriage relationship 
of pastors and spouses, was rooted in a 
biblical understanding of reality and 
marriage. Graydon and Lois Snyder of 
Bethany Theological Seminary were our 
guest leaders. 

For us the weekend was: 

SHARING: We are so much on the go 
with all our activities that we live right past 
each other! We lack the time to discover 
each other or even ourselves. As couples 
we shared three things we saw as each 
others' strength and three weaknesses. We 
also shared with our mate what we felt 
were our own strengths. That sounds sim- 
ple, and it was, but it also was a moving 
and loving experience. It takes time to 
really share . . . time to live toward each 
other. Our sharing has grown deeper in 
spirit as a result of our New Windsor re- 

DISCOVERY: To rediscover the biblical 
meaning of marriage. To study together the 
words of Jesus concerning marriage in 
Matthew 19 was exciting. "The God func- 
tion is to bring together. God brings 
husbands and wives together. Do not let 
what God brings together be torn apart by 
our human fraility." 

COVENANT: Learning anew the 
richness of covenant and how God's 
everlasting love touches and creates our 
lives. In a marriage based on covenant we 
are living by God's direction rather than 

To hold in respect and fellowship those in 
the church with whom we agree or disagree 
is a characteristic of the Church of the 
Brethren. It is to the continuation of this 
value, and to an open and probing forum, 
that "Here I Stand" responses are invited. 

our own purposes. God creates us. We can- 
not get outside of God's giving. God 
creates us — together. We cannot walk 
away from each other. 

PRA YER: We knelt in prayer and read 
scripture. We were in prayer for specific 
couples. Our prayer concerns reached out 
to couples who could not be with us, and 
to flood victims in our areas. To pray 
together as couples leads us to the source 
and strength of covenantal relationships. 

RENEWAL: We received new insights 
to old problems. We were given creative 
and useful handles which allowed us to dis- 
cuss more openly. We moved toward the 
process of coming together to be "married" 
at new points in our relationship. The 
process of two becoming one flesh con- 

LOVE: Love one another. Jesus is Lord! 
Love one another. Jesus lived and died for 
us. Love one another. Jesus is creating us. 
Love one another! 

The weekend was an affirmation of 
marriage. It was beautiful to stand with 
brothers and sisters in Christ and to 
acknowledge with all our heart, with all 
our soul, and with all our mind that we 
wanted, more than anything else, to love 
one another with the everlasting quality of 
God's covental relationship with us. 

Lois and Grady shared that this was 
their first experience at leading such a get- 
together. We hope it will not be their last. 

They gave to us, we gave to them, and 
God's Holy Spirit gave to us all a deeper, 
richer, understanding of the bond of 
marriage. "Blest be the tie that binds ..." 

Joe Van Dyke 

Satisfied with 
simple 'I am' 

Like other readers, I often read the Here I 
Stand statements first in each current 
Messenger. Letters, too, are authentic ex- 
cept they are often written from emotion 
and tend to be less rational. I like to read 
what was very important to the writer, and 
while I don't want to suggest that by-line 
articles are without conviction, it does 
seem that those who write for Here I Stand 
are usually a blend of feeling and emotion 
that are at least a shade closer to what the 
writer really believes. 

I think I had better give a little of the 
genesis of this piece. First, I was a Brethren 
for the first 40 years of my life, a 
Methodist the last 30-plus (because I've 
lived in a city without a Church of the 
Brethren). I take Messenger and have oc- 
casional contact with Brethren, but I sup- 
pose I don't really know just what the 
Brethren are thinking nowadays. 

The first 20 days of last October I spent 
with a 19-year-old boy who lives in 
Goshen, Ind., and represented the church 
last summer at the Wichita Annual Con- 
ference. We were strangers at the beginning 
but became good friends immediately and 
much of the time we were together 
(backpacking on the Appalachian Trail 
was part of what we did) we talked about a 
million things. (By the way, the boy I 
hiked with, Loren Waggy, was later in 
Puerto Rico in a Brethren work camp ex- 
perience there. If the new generation in the 
church is anything like him, no one has 
anything to worry about.) 


'f course we were on religion and in 
telling him some of my ideas in that area I 
said that probably a Brethren church, if 
they could know what I actually believe 
would throw me out, or call me a heretic. 
To my surprise Loren said he was sure my 
ideas would be accepted by the majority of 
Brethren today. He challenged me to write 
an article on some aspect of my present 
beliefs (I had told him about writing a lot 
during the 1930s for the Messenger) and 
send it in. So 1 have. 

A few Sundays ago I asked a Brethren 
pastor what he thought about the idea that 
all religions are valid and he, too, believes 
about the same as I do. So here is where I 

Out of a burning bush He spoke to the 
man in the desert. "I AM WHO I AM is 
my name," He said. "Say to the people of 
Israel, 'I AM has sent me to you.'" But 
neither Moses nor the Israelites were 
satisfied with such an inclusive name for 
their God. Some called Him Elohim and 
others Yahweh, but no one called him "I 
am." They saw him then as the patron and 
protector of just their own small tribe, a 
local god who had chosen them and re- 
jected all the others. 

I wish that the human race could have 
been satisfied with the simple "I am" as the 
name of the spirit they glimpsed dimly. 

32 MESSENGER IVlarch 1977 

third century 

Maybe then they would not have been so 
bent on destroying each other, often in the 
very name of the one they worshiped as 
supreme. Even the rational Greeks thought 
their fratricidal wars were blessed by one 
or the other of quarreling gods. While the 
Jewish nation — the lonely people who 
claimed to know there was only one God in 
the entire universe, the "I am" — they could 
not keep from claiming Yahweh as their 
private deity who would always aid them at 
the e.xpense of the followers of other lesser 
gods. What other gods when there was 
only One? 

The Canaanites — and all the tribes the 
children of Israel met in their exodus from 
Fgypt — were not irreligious. They devoutly 
worshiped their Baals (the name they gave 
to their fertility and nature deities), even 
sacrificing their children in their devotion. 
So when Yahweh-worshipers invaded their 
territory, bloody battles were fought, partly 
just to establish territorial rights of course, 
but also to demonstrate the might of a new 
partisan god. Would Baal be the winner or 
would it be Yahweh? And thousands of 
years later, as we read the ancient stories, 
we are still rooting for Yahweh to win 
and denying that anyone else in that long 
ago time could have had contact with 
true God. 

It is time we begin to believe in earnest 
that in the whole of creation there w just 
one unmeasurable and ungraspable reality: 
that He has always been the same and will 
always be the same: a loving Father to all 
people. That reality became more real and 
understandable to us in the person of Jesus 
whose unique grasp of the nature of God is 
available to us. Jesus said simply, "The 
Father loves everyone." That leaves out ab- 
solutely no one. And if He loved everyone 
in 30 A.D., He loved the whole world in 
Moses' day and in ours. There aren't any 

I am proposing that we stop pitting one 
name against another. "I am" is the God of 
both sides, then and now. it would have 
been so much better if, in the beginning, 
Man, as he started giving names to 
everything, had stopped with the naming of 
water, trees, fire, stone— all the things he 
could touch or see. If he had just stopped 
there and left unnamed the mystery he felt 
when he began to look up. 

Some years ago a translation of the 
Bible, still in common use, came out with 
the ineffable name translated as Jehovah. 

For a while it was used almost exclusively, 
though now a little out of fashion. Some 
purists argue that we should go back to 
Yahweh or Elohim, the oldest names in the 
Jewish tradition. I seem to be arguing for 
the simple "I am." 

One name is as good as another, I think 
but the one I use in private is "You." 

I strongly suspect this practice is 
widespread. Whatever label you attach to 
your religion, when you pray in words, or 
not in words, you face alone the same 
"You" that I and others do. 

Maybe we all do believe in one God after 
all. 1 hope so. □ 

Don Snyder 

God and guns 
go together 

As I read Ken Brown's "God, Guns & 
Guts" in the January Messenger I couldn't 
help feeling compassion for one so ob- 
viously one-sided and unfair. He holds one 
of the narrowest and most prejudiced views 
I've yet encountered. I don't agree with the 
message of the sign he reports — it is bla- 
tant and in very bad taste. However, to say 
that guns — all guns — are made to kill peo- 
ple, or even intimate such, and should thus 
be abolished, is like saying that all knives, 
or clubs or other instruments should be 
abolished because they are made to kill 
people. I have to take issue. 

Sure guns are used to kill people (used, 
not made), but remember, this is the 
human factor, not the material or instru- 
ment factor. No gun, knife, club, or other 
instrument by itself ever killed anyone, it 
had to be wielded by another person, 
operated by human power. Brown says, "to 
wed God and guns is as contradictory to us 
Brethren as to proclaim Christ and Hitler 
the twin foundations of morality." Not so! 
His opinion of guns, perhaps, but opinions 
do not necessarily constitute facts. I'm 
Brethren, have been all my life, and am 
considered conservative by my fellow 
members, yet I do not see contradiction or 
incongruity in linking God with guns, / do 
see both in linking God with humans, or 
the actions of humans in the improper or 
immoral use of guns. And I have plenty of 
"good Brethren" friends who feel the same 
way. Let Mr. Brown speak for himself — 


the late Floyd E. Mallott, who for many 
years was Professor of Church History at 
Betfiany Tfieological Seminary, is a per- 
sonal exegesis of Ecclesiastes. Seeing the 
book as a philosophical inquiry into life's 
meaning, the initial viewpoint is personal 
(chapters 1-2), then obiective, the world 
surveyed (chapters 3-12:8) with a con- 
clusion that the meaning of life is m the 
Christian faith. $4.25 plus 455: p&h. 

ELGIN, IL 60120 


TRAVEL— By bus to Annual Conference in 
Richmond, Va., and hotel rooms. June 21- 
26, 1977. Write Dr. J. Kenneth Kreider. R. 3, 
Box 660, Elizabethtown, PA 17022. 

TRAVEL — Heritage Tour of Europe. June 18 
to July 10. 23 days by chartered plane from 
Chicago to London, then by chartered bus 
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See London, Pans. Geneva, Milan, Salzburg, 
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Complete brochure. Educational credit. 
Limited enrollment. Tour director, Dr. Dayton 
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WANTED-Falfurrias Church of the Brethren 
needs a few dedicated people— families, 
couples (young or old)— to be missionaries, 
teachers, leaders, and live in the Falfurrias, 
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of the Brethren. Falfurrias, TX 78355 

TRAVEL— with the Richard C. Wengers on a 
16-day grand tour of Europe departing July 
7, 1977, from New York, $1076, The Tour 
With a Difference! sponsored by the Council 
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call collect (814) 255-3657, 

March 1977 messenger 33 


not the rest of us Brethren! 

Don't forget for a moment that God 
created us with our talents, ingenuity and 
other qualities and also the materials of the 
earth with which we work and demonstrate 
these qualities. I'm sure that it's with the 
approval of God that we improve our sta- 
tion and environment, better ourselves, and 
become more efficient. Remember the 
parable of the talents? 

But let's get back to killing people! It's 
only when we misuse talent and material 
that God is not honored and pleased. 
When we are selfish, greedy, cruel, subser- 
vient to our baser nature, then God cannot 
be wed to our action, no matter what in- 
strument we may use to abet these actions. 
Sure, guns are used to murder, simply 
because they are handy and deadly, no 
matter whether relative or stranger is in- 
volved. Other means are plentiful also, and 
if one's purpose is to murder, I doubt if the 
absence of a gun would be a deterrent. 

Cain murdered Abel without the use of a 
gun. David didn't resort to a gun to 
eliminate Uriah. Stephen was not killed 
with guns. Yet we don't divorce God from 
the materials themselves, or instruments 
used in these dastardly acts. Wouldn't it be 
a bit presumptuous, even silly, to try to 
divorce God from stones, simply because 
they were used to kill Stephen? 

Guns are not made to kill people. They 
are made to sell to people to use for 
whatever purpose desired by the buyer. If 
people desire to kill other people with 
guns — having bought or possessed them 
for this purpose — neither the maker nor 
the gun can be faulted. I doubt that the 
maker or the seller of the gun is much in- 
terested in its end use. 

Guns are used, as I'm sure Mr. Brown is 
well aware, for many purposes other than 
killing people. He gives a lot of figures in 
support of his contentions: can he give us 
the percentage, or incidence of killings with 
guns to the total number of guns owned, or 
used for other purposes? 

Soldiers, criminals, others, perhaps, 
surely are subject to dying by the gun, 
whether or not they live by the gun. No 
argument. However, there are others, who 
live by the gun who do not come under this 
condemnation, or axiom. It may happen, 
but it's not axiomatic. How about the 
manufacturers? This is their livelihood. 
How about the dealer? The trapper, the 
professional guide, the collector? There are 

Of course human nature is the same 
around the world, but there are other fac- 

tors that contribute to Mr. Brown's safety. 
Customs vary, laws vary, enforcement 
varies. There are areas — London, for 
one — where there is not the looseness, the 
perfidy, the procrastination that exists in 
the US. If Mr. Brown, and many others, 
would put as much effort into having the 
machinery of justice adjusted as they do 
into gun control, they would see more and 
better results. Instead of pointing out what 
seems good and right in other countries, 
let's try to improve human behavior at 

The mere presence of a gun can stimu- 
late violence only in a violent person — one 
with this capacity. This violence can also 
be stimulated by other means. So let's not 
make guns the cause of violence. The gun 
doesn't stimulate the maker, the seller, the 
collector, the trap-shooter or some others, 
some of whom may even possess this quali- 
ty. As for those who are irrational, they 
will use the gun if it's handy, but most 
anything will trigger action and most 
anything will be used as a weapon. All of 
the types named, the addict, alcoholic, 
depressed, or enraged have access to 
cars, but we don't advocate banning 
cars. We try to eliminate the cause, 
not the means. (_ 1 

Robert E. Houff 

The Lord's song 
in a strange land 

I was inspired to write this after attending 
the International Conference on the 
Gospel, Freedom and Increasing Leisure, 
held in Williamsburg, Va., last fall. 

What is the Lord's Song? For the writer 
of Psalm 137, who was a political prisoner 
in Babylon eight hundred miles from 
home, the Lord's Song was of the God of 
Jerusalem, which could only be sung there. 
For many today it is the message of a par- 
ticular religious belief to be sung in the 
confines of their own faith. 

Actually, The Lord's Song is the 
Fatherhood of God and the gospel of the 
good news of Christ spread anywhere. It is 
the love of Christ, his glory full of grace for 
all people. The Rev. Louis Pitt, Rector of 
the Holy Cross Episcopal Cathedral in 
Lusaka, Zambia (a church of one-third 
Asian, one-third Black African, one-third 
European), said, "It is singing our commit- 
ment to Christ and to his radical way of 
responding to life." 

Where is a strange land? For the Jewish 
Psalmist it was Babylon. It is anywhere 
that is not home, the ski resort, beaches, 
parks, hiking trails, scenic roadways, bays, 
oceans, islands, even new areas for con- 
struction workers, migrants, truck drivers, 
and business executives. 

This is the age of people on the move. 
Tourism and the use of leisure has become 
the single largest item of world trade and 
approaches the biggest business. In 1948 
there were 4.5 million tourist arrivals in the 
world with an expenditure of $1.5 billion. 
In 1973 there were 300 million tourist 
arrivals spending $25 billion; in 1976 400 
million arrivals are expected at $40 billion. 
Barring a major catastrophe this will con- 
tinue to grow. By 1985 it is predicted that 
labor will have a 30- to 32-hour work 
week, with increased leisure time. 

This trend has become of more impor- 
tance to the church, especially since 
freedom and leisure has brought about 
more social, economic, and spiritual 
problems. John Kenneth Galbraith places 
tourism and leisure among the most power- 
ful agents modifying the environment and 
comments, "It is as dangerous in the long 
run as atmospheric pollution." Pope Paul 
VI says, "The church must revive, promote, 
and coordinate opportune initiatives to 
offer to tourists and migrants; and at the 
same time, express its judgment regarding 
the social, economic, cultural, and other 
problems which these migrations often 
bring with them." 

The church has as its most important 
task to minister to increasing volumes of 
people on the move. We must establish a 
theology of the gospel and freedom and the 
use of leisure. Paul said, "For Freedom has 
Christ set you free." The Christian im- 
perative is to find God, worship him and 
deal with him, wherever we are. 

Mass travel has now put upon Christians 
the imperative of the ecology of not just 
lands — but people too. What then is the 
Christian's responsibility and the churches 
duty? All churches must be made more in- 
clusive and less sectarian, more universal in 
scope. The Christian must oppose violence 
to people and to nature. We must prepare 
ourselves to find God in new ways and 
forms. We must educate people to other 
religions. Wherever we go we must look for 
Christian encounter, not just beautiful 
cathedrals and scenic attractions. We must 
give all people an opportunity to worship 
God in parks, forests, overseas areas, and 
everywhere that movement for freedom, 
work, or leisure might take them. [H 

34 ME.SSENGER March 1977 

Edward K. Ziegler 

The church in the 
third US century 

It is my faith that the Church of Jesus 
Christ will not only endure through these 
troublous, anguished times, but that it will 
prevail, if we are faithful to the Lord. I see 
some hopeful trends: 

• The evangelical and the liberal wings 
of the church, to use rather unhelpful 
labels, are drawing closer together. Liberal 
activists, awed by the demonic forces which 
raise dark towers of hatred, corruption, 
war. greed, and fear against easy progress, 
are driven back to biblical faith. 
Evangelicals, led by powerful younger 
theologians, are becoming more open to 
the insistent demands for social justice and 
peace as integral and essential aspects of 
the whole gospel. 

• All of God's people — Catholic, Jew, 
and Protestant — sobered by the common 
and horrendous threats of atomic destruc- 
tion and worldwide starvation, draw 
together in concern. But also they are made 
gloriously aware of our common heritage 
of faith and history by the witness of good 
Pope John XXllI, Rabbi Abraham Joshua 
Heschel, Reinhold Niebuhr, and a host of 
lesser teachers and leaders, and are affirm- 
ing our oneness in the kingdom of our 

• The people of God everywhere are no 
longer supportive of military might and 
national chauvinism. They are actively 
working to eliminate war and all its evil 
train from our world scene. 

• I see a new and dawning note of hum- 
ble and earnest search for the light and 
power of the Holy Spirit in the life of the 

• I see the swift liberation of the church 
from racism, sexism, materialism, and 
nationalism as a fulfillment of the age-old 
faith that indeed Jesus Christ frees and 
unites us. 

• I see among youth and persons of all 
ages a growing and confident faith in the 
ultimate but certain victory of Jesus as 

From these discernments I see a peni- 
tent, chastened, serving church, resolutely 
moving toward unity, concerned for all 
persons, simply but wholly obedient to 
Jesus Christ, as a prevailing, healing, 
cleansing, influential force in the third cen- 
tury of our nation's life and in the life of 
our world. [ 1 


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Pacifism: Politically or ethically based? 

by Ken Smith-Shuman 

Resistance to the Draft 1948-1973, by 

Martin Blatt. Un Davis. Paul Kleinbaum In- 
troduction by Noam Chomsky. London: 
Ithaca Press. 1975 

"Elijah rhe prophet, fleeing from men, 
hid in a cave, arid it was revealed to him 
that God would appear to him at the en- 
trance of the cave. A storm arose that 
broke the trees. Elijah thought this was 
God, and looked: but God was not there. 
Then came thunder: the thunder and light- 
ning were terrible. Elijah went out to look 
whether God was not there: but God was 
not there either. Then there came an earth- 
quake: fire arose from the earth, the rocks 
were rent, and the mountains quaked. Eli- 
jah looked, but God was still not there. 
Then a light, quiet breeze arose, bringing 
the refreshing scent of the fields. Elijah 
looked — and God was there! Such, too. 
are these simple words of God: 'Resist not 
him that is evil.'" — Leo Tolstoy, What I 

At the foot of Mount Carmel, not far from 
the Illegal Immigrants Ship Monument, 
lies Elijah's Cave. Unlike the biblical city of 
Acre (Accho) twenty kilometers up the 
coast, the relatively new city of Haifa has 
few historic or religious sites. 

In Haifa lives Joseph Abileah, a Jewish 
musician and pacifist of Austrian birth 
whose family came to Palestine in 1926. 
Having resisted military conscription in 
1944, he again resisted service under the 
new State of Israel in 1948. 

In 1968 Joseph Abileah was one of a 
number of prominent Israelis to sign an 
open letter calling for an end to the viola- 
tion of human rights in Israel and the Ad- 
ministered Territories. He today works for 
the Society for Middle East Confederation, 
which he co-founded and which advocates 
a confederation of states in Palestine- 

As Abileah puts it: "... the foreign 
policy of the Confederation must be the 
'welfare of our neighboring states' while the 
security boundaries should always be 'the 
friendship of our neighbors."" 

The story of Joseph Abileah's dedication 

to nonviolence comprises one chapter of 
Dissent and Ideology in Israel. The book 
deals with 13 individual histories of draft 
resistance, spanning 25 years, and in- 
cluding a range of positions from absolute 
pacifist to selective objection on political 
grounds. The cases are arranged in roughly 
chronological order and give an interesting 
picture of the changing situation and 
motivations of the conscientious objector 
in Israel. 

The 13 histories provide a kind of run- 
ning debate on two main themes. 

One theme concerns the nature of 
Zionism and, more generally, of all 

"We have evolved 

unaware into a 
Brotherhood split 
between those who 
have relinquished the 
peace position and 
those who have trad- 
ed it for a more con- 
temporary model." 

nationalist movements. The editors — and 
especially Uri Davis, whose own story is 
recorded in the book — are openly anti- 
Zionist and seem to define their pacifism in 
opposition to the Zionist nature of Israeli 
society, first of all. In light of evidence that 
the 1967 war was not a defensive one, on 
the part of Israel, but an expansionist one; 
and in view of the State of Israel's dis- 
possession of Arabs who still hold land. 
Davis and the younger generation of 
pacifists have rejected the Zionist vision of 
their elders. 

The second theme is about the nature of 
pacifism. The editors seem also to have re- 
defined their pacifism in terms which are 
politically rather than ethically oriented, 
geared primarily to structural social change 
rather than personal renunciation of 

It is while dwelling on this theme that 

the book provides much provocative 
thought for a historic peace church. We 
have submitted to a slow erosion of the 
New Testament ideal of nonresistance 
(Matthew 5:39). Today most Brethren who 
retain a pacifist stance would, I believe, 
justify themselves by appeal to the non- 
violent resistance practiced by Gandhi, 
King, Chavez, and others. 

We have evolved unaware into a 
Brotherhood split between those who have 
relinquished the peace position and those 
who have traded it in for a more contem- 
porary model. The rift is along socio- 
political lines, unfortunately, and there are 
very few voices being raised to call for a re- 
examination of the nonresistant position 
and its merits. Let this voice be one. 

It is only after we have re-evaluated our 
attachment to nonresistance that we can 
decide what value, if any, is to be gained 
from a conversion to nonviolence. 

The more concessions we make for the 
sake of expediency, the closer we come to 
accepting coercion and "tolerable levels" of 
violence. The more situational our posi- 
tion, to that extent is it less clear. On the 
other hand, nonresistance has not 
historically lent itself to the requirements 
of "direct action." The search for what is 
eternal seldom, if ever, proves to be very 

We have been, and continue to be. at a 
parting of the ways in regard to our peace 
position. We cannot go on trying to strad- 
dle both paths at once. Part of a renewed 
commitment to peace education should in- 
clude a clear presentation of these quite 
distinct forms of pacifism. 

Those of us who take the Brethren peace 
position seriously must recognize that we 
find ourselves faced with the same kind of 
dilemma that the Israeli war resisters con- 
fronted when part of their group wished to 
re-emphasize the word "conscientious," 
while the rest wished to exclude it 
altogether in the name of more effective 

The members who still hold to the ideal 
of nonresistance may not understand the 
signs of the times or even the changing 
character of the Church of the Brethren, 
but their faithfulness to the New Testament 
precept should be given some considera- 
tion, lest we barter an essential part of our 
heritage without realizing its worth. G 

36 MESSENGER March 1977 

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March 1977 messenger 37 


Big media — accountable only to investors? 

by Stewart M. Hoover 

NETWORK, directed by Sidney Lumet. A 
United Artists release. 

There are times when you are tempted to 
be extremely skeptical of a new film 
promotion. Too often, we have seen films 
presenting themselves as major statements 
of one kind or another, only to have them 
instead he hackneyed or stereotyped 
hatchet-jobs. Network aspires to great 
things. Not only has it been promoted as a 
major statement about television; it has the 
potential of succeeding as such. 1 say 
"potential" because it is a flawed film. It 
has severe shortcomings in concept which 
make it a less precise document than it 
could be. 

Network has created quite a bit of con- 
troversy in media circles. After all, it is 
purported to be an indictment of tele- 
vision by the film industry. It was written 
by an experienced television and film 
writer, Paddy Chayevsky, and it has been 
hailed by many knowledgable and ex- 
perienced people inside and outside of tele- 
vision as a true picture of the realities of 
big media machinations. Network has 
benefited from cover treatment in Satur- 
day Review, long reviews in Time. News- 
week, and the Sunday New York Times. 
and lengthy features in major metropolitan 
dailies. All of these have agreed on two 
things. First, that the film is an important 
document, and second, that it has its 
problems being so. 

In the last analysis, Network is not a 
hatchet job or the rip-off I initially feared. 
Network is a fascinating and enjoyable 
film. Its plot draws around a story that 
may well be the central morality play of the 
television institution. An aging, Cronkite- 
era anchorman, Howard Beale (played by 
the late Peter Finch) is to be let go by his 
network because 1) his ratings are sagging, 
and 2) the network has recently been sold 
to a conglomerate, and it is to become a 
profitable enterprise, "or else." One night 
on his newscast, Beale calmly announces 
that in two weeks, he plans to kill himself 
on the air. He is immediately hauled off the 
set and is canceled. Gradually breaking un- 
der the strain, he has a vision in which God 
instructs him to prophecy against the sins 
of society, in one of the films most un- 
derstated moments, he responds, "... but, 
why me. Lord?" "Because you're on lelevi- 

38 MHSsiNc.rR March 1977 

sion. stupid," comes the reply. 

Beale is given a chance to prophesy on a 
revamped version of his news show that 
would be funnier if it were less reminiscent 
of many present trends in network news 
programming. The network's program- 
ming chief and its new president (played by 
Faye Dunaway and Robert Duvall, respec- 
tively) have seen the incredible rating 
potential of a national news show that ap- 
proaches the Roman coliseum. Beale's 
mutterings of "I'm mad as hell, and I'm not 
going to take it anymore," are 
enthusiastically echoed by his studio 
audience and millions of viewers across the 
land. He is riding a popular trend common 
in television (viz., Mary Hart/nan. Mary 
Hariman). that of a new and shocking 
program which suddenly takes off in the 


.s soon as he is on top, Beale makes a 
serious mistake. In an approach to true 
prophetic comment, Beale launches a 
tirade against the recent sale of the con- 
lomerate which owns his network to a 
transnational conglomerate, one backed by 
foreign money. This is the closest Network 
comes to the jugular vein of the American 
Communication-Business Complex. You 
can question the government or private in- 
dustry, or organized crime, or the Vietnam 
War, but you tread on thin ice if you 
challenge the hand that feeds you or con- 

tributes to your network's capital liquidity. 

Beale is summarily hauled before the 
seat of power (the conglomerate president, 
played by Ned Beatty) who delivers an 
ironically precise homily to correct Beale's 
"misunderstandings of the situation." "You 
have tampered with the structure of the 
universe," says the president. "There are no 
longer any national, ideological, or class 
boundaries in the world: there is only one 
universal, immutable, unchangeable fact 
. . . the fact of the dollar." How insightful 
can you get? 

I am sure we are all aware of that "fact," 
but it is to Network's credit that it is shown 
to be so central to the structure and func- 
tion of our mass communication (and yes, 
even our news) media. It is perhaps the 
most disquieting problem with big media 
that our primary sources of information 
and enrichment are based solely on return 
on investment with no functional accoun- 
tability to public interests or needs. 

Beale sees the light during his "moun- 
taintop experience." and begins preaching 
a new gospel, that of patient acquiescence 
to the ebbs and flows of transnational 
economics. His ratings naturally slip, and 
in the climax of the film, he is murdered on 
the air under orders of Dunaway and 
Duvall in order that they might score one 
last ratings coup. 

Network is rife with amusing and ab- 
sorbing subplots and "bits." There is a 
love-affair between Dunaway's character 

After becoming news himself, newscaster Howard Beale (Peter Finch) talks to the press. 

and the ex-news president (William 
Holden.) There are the vagaries of day-to- 
da\ network operations which should in- 
terest anyone. There is another hit show 
called the "Mao Tse-tung Hour." where ur- 
ban guerillas (complete with a Patty Hearst 
t\ pc) are shown committing actual crimes 
on the air. (Not all that far from actual 
"hard action" shows, really.) The film's ma- 
jor Haw is the tendency for it to get lost in 
all of its side-shuffles. These are so in- 
teresting and entertaining that an entirely 
different film could have been made 
without the major plot line. 

Some of my discomfort with the film 
arises over these side plots. Perhaps it is 
the fact of my having been involved in the 
television reform movement that makes me 
extra sensitive to stereotypes and abusive 
portrayals in that medium, but a few of 
Chayevsky's sub-plots and (director) 
Sidney Lumet's characterizations are dis- 
turbing to me. 

The characterization 1 objected most to 
was that of Dunaway as the network pro- 
gramming chief. She is portrayed as cold, 
calculating, able to do anything (and they 
mean, anything) to get ahead. She exudes a 
sort of vibrance and sexuality that provides 
the film's romantic interest. Yet, she 
represents a myth. It is a popular myth in 
the world of big media and big industry 
that for a woman to get ahead, she must be 
a virtual prostitute — intellectual and car- 
nal. A recent example of this would be the 
salacious press that accompanied Sally 
Quinn's move to the CBS Morning News 
in 1973. This sort of characterization is less 
an accurate portrayal than it is a male 
fantasy-trip. Media women are more 
calculating, mercenary, and amoral than 
media men only to the extent that the 
male-dominated structure forces them to 
be so. 

Network is a film worth seeing. It is an 
important statement and it arrives at a time 
in our society's development when we are 
beginning to look critically at the role 
television and mass culture play in our 
lives. Critical concern with television is 
relatively new. Any new current or trend 
on a societal level requires a language and 
conceptual base on which to build. As a 
popular and engaging statement on the 
issue. Network may prove to be an impor- 
tant directive in our search for better ways 
of perceiving the impact mass media have 
of ourselves and our society. D 


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March 1977 messenger 39 


Time to break the massive silence 

Lei others cry out in despair. 
From pain, insult or hunger! 
We know that silence is much safer 
For silence, we know, is golden. 
See how easy it is to get richer 
See how easy it is to he master 
See how easy it is to he butcher 
Stay quiet, stay quiet, stay quiet. 
— Alexander Galich 

Ours is a world where an estimated half million 
people are crushed by waves of repression. In 
more than 70 countries military regimes threaten 
the expression of elemental human rights. Con- 
stitutional guarantees have been suspended, uni- 
versities controlled, the press censored, dissent 
outlawed. Individuals and sometimes whole 
families are seized, jailed, tortured and even ex- 
ecuted without charge or trial. 

The nightmare of the political prisoner is 
described in two articles in this issue. One, "A 
Burden Shared," appears anonymously to protect 
both the subject and the writer, the latter a 
member of the Church of the Brethren. The ar- 
ticles remind us that church men and women. 
Catholic and Protestant, in the quest for justice 
are the frequent targets of persecution. 

Because dictatorships are secretive, facts on 
overseas situations are hard to establish. More 
often, though, facts that are known are disre- 

One such fact is that our nation is supporting 
many states of torture, and we could stop it. This 
year the US government's first detailed report on 
human rights abroad disclosed that Argentina, 
Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Peru, and the Philippines 
flagrantly deny the right to life and liberty. But 
the report went on to recommend that these same 
countries continue to receive American military 
support, no matter what the consequences for 
their people. 

In a widely circulated open letter from a group 
of Latin America church leaders, we North 

American Christians were reminded that without 
our government's support the dictators in their 
countries could not long remain in power. "If in 
the past you felt it to be your apostolic duty to 
send us missionaries and economic resources," the 
appeal stated, "today the frontier of your witness 
and solidarity is within your own country." And 
there, they suggested, for us to change the course 
of foreign affairs from "a colonialist and op- 
pressive policy" toward "paths of greater justice 
and brotherhood." 


hat will it take to halt ruthless repression? 
More than generalized good will, to be sure. 
Study, travel, sustained interaction are begin- 
nings. Moral foreign policy will help. The moni- 
toring of human rights situations is important. 
Respect for civil rights need to be enforced in 
assistance programs. The weight of international 
law must be brought to bear. 

And from within the faith community itself, 
we must seek ways to be pastoral and prophetic at 
points where human life and dignity are on the 
line. We need to stand with Christians who in 
their struggle for liberation face the reality of the 
cross. We need to draw on the prayers and other 
resources of the universal church in support of 
one another. 

In sum, we need to say no to staying quiet 
about the vastly growing numbers of prisoners of 
conscience. Soviet exile Valery Chalidze 
observes, "I only know they will not be helped by 
our silence." And neither will we. As Hebrews 
13:3 puts it, "Remember those in prison as if you 
were there with them; and those who are being 
maltreated, for you like them are still in the 

In the world to speak up, to break the silence, 
to cry out for those whose own voices are stilled 
and who live in despair. — h.e.r. 

40 MESSfiNGKR March 1977 

FOR THIS DAY by J. B. Phillips (edited 
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Send your gift to Church of the Brethren General Board 
1451 Dundee Avenue, Elgin, Illinois 60120 ,f*^""' 







1 O ''^'^'3 O" ^^^ Move. Ernest M. ShuU gives an update on the 
Church of North India and a land where democracy is on trial. 

4 O When to the Water? Kenneth E. Bomberger urges us to pay more 
attention to youthful commitments to Christ, something he says we 
give less thought to than a child's request to get a driver's license. 

^ A What We Shall Be. D. Elton Trueblood discusses the 'gift of 
Easter' — the Resurrection. "The life of the world to come is a mystery, 
but everything we really know is a mystery," he says. 

4 A The Denial. Joseph W. Miller, in an imaginary soliloquy by Peter, 
has the disciple pondering the mysteries of Christ's last days on earth 
and wrestling with the guilt of his own denial of the Master. 

OQ The Jesus Way. Maynard Shelly, in a Bible study, proclaims the 
triumph of Jesus' way — the way of the Suffering Servant and King. 

22 Baxter Mow: Twinkley-eyed Scholar. Karen S. Carter in- 
troduces us to Sister Anna's husband, a delightfully witty scholar, who, 
like Mark Twain, is waiting for the reappearance of Halley's Comet. 

In Touch profiles Howard and Elsie Michael, Seattle. Wash.; Alice Martin, 
Champaign, 111.; and Ruth and Dave Roth, Loysville, Pa (2) . . . Outlook 
reports on Disaster network; handicapped people; Carter on arms; 'Joy of Bach'; 
Kueng book; Mark Ebersole; Women's events; 'Here's Life'; 'Six American 
Families' (start on 4) . . . Underlines (7) . . .Update (8). . . Poetry, by Ernestine 
Hoff Emrick ( 18) . . . Column, "Rx for Brokenness," by Earle W. Eike Jr. ( 19) 
. . . "Such a Time as This," by Pamela Brubaker Lowe (26) . . . Resources, 
"Foundation Series," by Shirley J. Heckman (28) . . . Turning Points (29) . . . 
Media, "'Jesus of Nazareth' — Six-hour TV Epic." by Frederic A. Brussat (30) 
. . . Here I Stand, statements by Hilda I. Gibbel, Randall S. M. Lehman, Omer 
S. Long, and Steve Longenecker (start on 32) . . . Column, "Vigil at Utah State 
Prison," by Sylvia Eller (35) . . . People & Parish, "What Kind of Tears?" by 
Desmond Bittinger (38) . . . "On Boys and Trees," by Edward R. Dalton (39) 
. . . Editorial, "Kunta Kinte, May Your Spirit Live!" by Kermon Thomason (40) 

COVER: "Christ Washing the Feet of the Disciples," katazome print by 
Japanese Christian artist Sadao Watanabe. The katazome art form 
produces pictures on crushed rice paper with dye after the design has 
been stenciled with a rice/ bran paste. Artist Watanabe is one of the 
world's few masters of this rare art form. See "Page One" column. 


Howard E Royer 
Kermon Thomason 

Kenneth I Morse 


Clyde E Weaver 

Gwendolyn F Bobb 

Galen B Ogden 

VOL 126, NO 4 APRIL 1977 

CREDITS: Cover, 1,21 art by Sadao Watanabe 
2 left and center. 3 Norman F, Reber. 4 Peter 
Michael, 5 left cartoon by Herblock; right Jules 
Shick, 6 Jim McKinnell, 8 Leah Oxley. 9, 14 
RNS, II Annamae Rensberger. 12-13 Edward J 
Buzinski, 16-17 art by Kenneth L. Stanley, 22-25 
Karen S, Carter, 28, 35 Nguyen Van Gia, 31 
Cultural Information Service, 38 Irven Stern. 39 
Tom Stack and Associates, 

Messenger is the official publication of the 
Church of the Brethren. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug, 20, 1918, under Act of Congress of 
Oct, 17, 1917, Fihng dale. Oct, 1. 1976, 
Messenger is a member of the Associated Church 
Press and a subscriber to Religious News Service 
and Ecumenical Press Service, Biblical quotations, 
unless otherwise indicated, are from the Revised 
Standard Version, 

Subscription rates: $6,00 per year for individual 
subscriptions; $4,80 per year for Church Group 
Plan; $4,80 per year for gift subscriptions; $3,15 
for school rate (9 months); life subscription, 
$80,00 single, $90,00 couple. If you move clip old 

I^_ address and send with new address, 
^H Allow at least five weeks for address 
^1 change. Messenger is owned and 
[H published monthly by the General 
^U Services Commission, Church of the 
^1 Brethren General Board, 1451 Dundee 
Ave,, Elgin. Ill, 60120, Second-class 
postage paid at Elgin, III,. Apr, 1977, Copyright 
1977, Church of the Brethren General Board, 


In the recesses of my memory rings the 
cadence of a haunting melody ("Whispering 
Hope," by Mrs, J. I, McClelland): 

Like the faint dawn of the morning. 
Like the sweet freshness of dew. 
Comes the dear whisper of Jesus, 
Comforting, tender, and true. 

Darkness gives way to the sunlight 
While his voice falls on my ear; 
Seasons of heaven's refreshing 
Call to new gladness and cheer. 

Whispering Hope? Yea, shouling hope at 
Easter time! For Jesus Christ ripped open his 
stony cell and confirmed his disciples and then 
went back to be with God. 

Nature itself joins in the rebound of new effort 
and enthusiasm. The fiends of darkness had laid 
nature low and masked it with a shroud. Was 
this reality? No. Reality is in the swelling bud 
which promises a rose; another bud promises an 
apricot, Hope makes the future ours even now. 

The bo,\ turtle pushes out his head and feet 
from his closed shop and ambles on again. The 
chipmunk scampers along its private road of 
fallen logs. The bees combine celebration with 
joyous harvest at the silver maple tree. Life is 
sure to be rewarding again. How do they know? 
They have hope and hope has never let them 

If hope does not bring everylhing, contrast it 
with despair. It brings nothing at all. We !i\e by 
hope; if wc yield to despair we are inviting 

Christ our own Master laid death low in the 
dust and ascended to heaven, where he waits to 
welcome you and me, 

Wll.LI,KM J, 1 INKI.I 

North Manchester. Ind, 


l.o\ed that Christmas issue! Used it on a 
number ol occasions. Everyone was \cr\ 
pleased with the beautiful cover too, 

Helen J, Hadiev 
Waterloo, Iowa 


I realb en|oyed the article in the December 
Messenger, "I85I-I976," I have been a member 
of this church for just about 60 years and I must 
confess I did not know some of this history and 
was thankful to learn some of it. as well as to 
learn some of the great progress we have made. 

But. on the other hand, 1 am glad we have 
held on to some of our original beliefs and prac- 
tices, such as the Lord's Supper and commu- 
nion, brotherly love, and our peace action. 

May we be willing to accept necessary changes 
in our church today, yet never sacrifice our rich 
heritage. In Matthew 5:16 it says, "Let your light 
so shine before men, that they may see your 
good works, and give glory to your Father who 
is in heaven," 

pmg}(B ©DDS 

May we as the church seek to do more for 
others through the Brotherhood Fund and the 
Church World Service which we as a denomina- 
tion helped to start many years ago. 

Marguerite Snoeberger 
Cumberland, Md. 


The pictorial history "1851-1976" in the 
December Messenger was timely; it was a 
masterpiece in many respects. The pictures were 
well chosen, and the writer of this history 
showed skill and empathy. 

Now 1 think that this needs to be followed up 
with an evaluation of the many changes that 
were reported by a study of what the New 
Testament — our professed creed — might relate 
to each of these changes. I shall mention a few 
as examples; 

1) We no longer send missionaries overseas to 
evangelize. (Matt. 28:19) 

2) We took the seminary to the suburbs, con- 
trary to the founders' aims. (Acts 15:36; 1 Cor. 2:2) 

3) We no longer stress the imperative of con- 
scientious objection to war. (Matt. 5:43-44) 

O, E. Gibson 
Westmont, 111. 


I am a layman. Sunday school teacher, 
farmer, and active in civic groups. 

I subscribe to several farm magazines, Ruritan 
magazine, US News and World Report, and to 
our church magazine, the Messenger. 

I try to keep informed on the latest techniques 
in farming, what's happening in the world, local 
news, and surely I want to be up on what our 
church is planning and accomplishing. I wonder 
why any member would not be interested 
enough to subscribe to Messenger. 

I read Ruby Rhoades' article in the December 
issue and agree with her about our church 
magazine. She has worked hard trying to in- 
crease subscriptions. Let's all help reach the 
30,000 goal by June. 

J. Harold Wampler 
Mount Crawford, Va. 


James Gittings" article on Guatemala 
(January) is very strong. I like the notion that 
the Brethren and Mennonite volunteers have the 
humility to work without grandiose credit lines. 
Is it possible that without it they would not be 
peculiarly Brethren and Mennonite? 

I also like his statement that "one must not 
expect Church World Service to engage in proj- 
ects that openly abet liberation movements or 
developmental projects that put great strain on 
the social order." He is, however, doubtless 
aware of the profound effect that a single com- 
petent and friendly CWS worker can have on a 
handful of Cakchiquel Indians. Multiply that 
handful by a few CWS workers and the effect is 

But I do strenuously object to the image he 
projects of the Salvation Army. In my work with 

the Salvation Army at Tecpan while engaged in 
Brethren Disaster Service, I found the Salvation 
Army building concrete block houses while 
everyone else was making lean-tos out of green 
pole and plywood or lap siding. Before the 
earthquake, families lived for generations in the 
same adobe house. Will a quickly constructed 
plywood shelter be an acceptable transition? 
Does the durability of a steel-reinforced concrete 
block wall offer an environment more con- 
tiguous with the culture? The Salvation Army's 
first attempt at a construction effort at a disaster 
site, is admirable and, I'll venture, socially and 
physically durable. 

As to identification at the project site, 1 recall 
a tattered banner revealing the presence of Ejer- 
cito de Salvacion, but it had none of the class of 
a full-dress billboard. I further submit, owing to 
the camaraderie of my fellow CWS members, 
had there been a Church of the Brethren or 
Mennonite banner handy we'd have raised it 
high above the roof of our plywood domicile. 
Gary Colb'^ 
La Verne, Calif. 


I cannot escape the impact that Katie Funk 
Wiebe's article, "Pushed out of the Ark" 
(January) has made on me. Her keen insight and 
experience has generated much thought on an 
over-neglected concern. 

For too long we have looked at the single 
woman as a threat to the established 
husband/wife relationship. Moreover, we see the 
single woman as useless unless she has a man to 
guide her thoughts and actions. Katie addresses 
these problems by destroying the very myths 
upon which they were built. 

As I review the needs and concerns that she 
points out, I keep thinking of our small con- 
gregations where there are very few single 
women within the church. It would be good if 
we could put into practice what Katie reminds 
us to do. 

Donald R. Booz Jr. 
Shippensburg, Pa. 


If Murray L. Wagner, librarian and assistant 
professor of bibliography, in any way reflects the 
views or opinions of Bethany Theological 
Seminary in his offensive article "Rinky-Dink 
Religion Goes Big Time" (January) 1 withdraw 
my support, both financial and moral, im- 

Evamae Crist 
Hallam, Pa. 


Concerning "Rinky-Dink Religion Goes Big 
Time" (January), God loves all of his people. 
Why do we not seek to be God-like, and love 
"Rinky-Dink" people, who may sincerely love 
Jesus as much as we? 

I personally am appalled that Messenger 
featured an article which so severely attacked the 
(Continued on page 36) 

One of Japan's leading artists is Sadao 
Watanabe, who provided the original 
katazome print for this month's 
Messenger cover. A member of the 
United Church of Japan, Mr. Watanabe 
has a way so unmistakably Oriental of 
bringing the stories and characters of the 
Bible to life that all Japanese find it easy 
to understand. 

Artist Watanabe combines ancient 
technique and subject matter with a total- 
ly modern style displayed in vibrant 
colors. His kata- 
zome process is 
explained on the 
opposite page. 

Mr. Watana- 
be's own words 
best describe his 
love of God, 
country, and his 
work: "I feel it is 
my mission to 
create Christian 
art for the Japanese people." 

With the Watanabe cover art setting 
the Easter theme, several writers have 
contributed seasonal articles: Kenneth E. 
Bomberger is pastor of the Royersford 
(Pa.) congregation. Author of 28 books, 
D. Elton Trueblood is professor-at-large 
at Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 
Joseph W. Miller is a retired minister in 
the Linville Creek (Va.) congregation. 
Free-lance writer Maynard Shelly lives in 
Newton, Kans. 

Karen S. Carter is a licensed minister 
in the Daleville (Va.) congregation. 
Former Messenger editor Desmond Bit- 
tinger is an educator from San Diego, 
Calif. Pamela Brubaker Lowe is in the 
Chambersburg (Pa.) congregation. 

Media reviewer Frederic A. Brussat 
directs Cultural Information Service in 
New York. Edward R. Dayton is director 
of MARC (Missions Advanced Research 
Communication Center). 

Brotherhood staffers include Norman 
F. Reber, BVSer on our communications 
team; Earle W. Fike Jr, PMC executive 
secretary; Shirley J. Heckman, PMC con- 
sultant for educational development: and 
Sylvia Eller, WMC criminal justice 
reform coordinator. 

Here I Stand statements were con- 
tributed by Steve Longenecker, Rich- 
wood, W. Va.; Omer M. Long, Frederick, 
Md.; Randall S. M. Lehman, Orrville, 
Ohio; Hilda I. Gibbel, Harrisburg, Pa.; 
and a sister whose name we have with- 
held. — The Editors 

April 1977 messenger 1 

Howard & Elsie Michael: The frontier spirit 

"Poppa, come quick and see the big 
kitty a-wavin' his tail," the four-year- 
old girl cried excitedly as she ran up 
to her father in their wagon train 
camp deep in the Rockies. Father 
grabbed his rifle and ran, but before 
he was in range, he saw a large 
mountain lion move quickly into the 

The girl was Howard Michael's 
sister, and the incident was one of 
just a few he remembers as a two- 
year-old tyke on trek from Kansas 
over the Great Divide to Washing- 
ton territory. 

That trip took five months back in 
1889. In 1977 it took me a less than 
two-hour flight to visit Howard and 
his wife Elsie at their home near 

1 doubt whether any Brethren 
preacher still living can show more 
authentic pioneer credentials than 
Howard. He spent the first two years 
of his life in a sod house in western 
Kansas. He experienced the shock of 
sudden death on the trail when a 
member of the family's party was 
killed by a grizzly. 

After many family moves in Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and California, 
Howard, at the age of 21, had 
proved his skill as a hunter — by then 
he had already put 70 deer on his and 

neighbors' tables. Then he was also in 
possession of a homestead. 

Worshiping at the Myrtle Point 
(Ore.) congregation, he was chosen 
for the ministry at 21. The same year, 
1908, he met Elsie Mae Aschenbren- 
ner while both were delegates at a 
district conference. The couple were 
married August 24, 1910, and three 
days later were on a train, a Brethren 
pioneer ministry couple seeking 
education at Bethany. 

The Michaels' rugged frontier 
spirit persisted through 52 years of 
active ministry. They pioneered the 
very first Brethren ministry to Latin 
Americans. Back in 1918, as pastor at 
the Garden City (Kans.) church, 
Howard started a Sunday school for 
some 200 Mexican railroaders and 
sugar beet workers and their families. 

Later the Michaels supervised con- 
scientious objectors in a work camp 
health project at Huitzilac, Mexico. 

What thrills the Michaels today? 
"We are seeing that the church is 
reaching out more and more in 
different fields using funds in new 
areas like Latin America and with the 
Navajos. That thrills us!" — Norman 
F. Reber 





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Alice Martin: The pastor i 

Last Christmas the Champaign, 111., 
church had a problem. A local en- 
dowment was offering a gift of $50 to 
each of various churches, the money 
to go to "the pastor's wife." But Alice 
Martin, the minister of the Cham- 
paign church, is the pastor and not a 
pastor's wife. The gift could not be 

Alice doesn't mind making such 
sacrifices for a career that she finds 
challenging and for which she pre- 
pared herself in a unique kind of 
seminary experience. She was in the 
first graduating class that completed 
a four-year training program in Inter- 
Met, in the nation's capital, some- 
times called Washington's "seminary 
without walls." Alice received her fair 
share of classroom instruction, but 
the emphasis at Inter-Met is on in- 
service training with a local church 
where students, under the direction 
of a supervisory team, learn all about 
the various phases of ministry 
through direct experience. 

Alice, whose background was 
Southern Baptist, worked with the 
Washington City Church of the 
Brethren at first and then later in an 
interim position with the Reisters- 
town congregation, near Baltimore. 
Since last September, Alice has been 
the Champaign pastor. She speaks 
highly of her unconventional 
seminary experience. For her there 
was no "learning in a vacuum" but a 
blending of study and parish work 
that prepared her to understand the 
needs of people and to work with 
them. And that means more to her 

2 MESSENGER April 1977 

1 woman 

than the Master of Divinity degree 
she earned. 

But aren't there some special risks 
for a young single woman, however 
well qualified, who becomes the full- 
time employed pastor of a church? 
Alice is aware of the risks, but she 
talks mostly about the opportunities. 
She thinks her church is open to new 
ways, willing to test new ideas, yet at 
the same time a little cautious. She 
enjoys preaching three times a month 
(she was a speech and drama major 
in college), and she values the visit- 
ing and counseling opportunities the 
pastorate offers. She expects to see 
many more leadership roles become 
available to women as churches over- 
come their fears of the unknown and 
the untried, and especially as con- 
gregations learn to accept a woman 
pastor as a person. 

Alice and Ron Adkins, currently a 
student at Inter-Met and formerly a 
member of the BVS training staff, are 
planning to be married later this 
year. How marriage may affect her 
ministry remains to be seen, but there 
can be no question of her sense of 
calling, her interest in all the ac- 
tivities of the parish, nor of her con- 
viction that the church must show 
concern for all people. Alice observes 
that "institutions enslave, systems 
enslave; and often as persons we 
enslave, exploit, and use one 
another." It's not only women's 
liberation but liberation for all 
human beings that the church should 
be working for. Alice can be counted 
on to point in that direction — K.M. 

Ruth & Dave Roth: Communicating love 

One day in 1949, while Ruth Roop 
Rinehart was trimming cabbage at a 
co-op store in Westminster, Md., 
Dan West asked her, "Why are you 
doing that?" He said nothing more, 
but he had started a train of thought 
that sent Ruth back to college and 
ahead in a career switch from co-ops 
to public education. 

As a school counselor she learned 
more about herself and got a better 
understanding of the behavior of 
others as individual persons. She 
learned that something has to happen 
inside individuals before social in- 
stitutions can be changed. 

"If you really want to practice the 
love of Jesus, let me feel it. Notice I 
didn't say let me hear it." That's how 
Ruth sums up her deep feelings about 
communicating the Christian 
message. "To let persons feel that 
love through us, we believe to be our 
mission in life." 

The "we" includes the full assent of 
Ruth's husband, David, and ex- 
presses the good-will teamwork in 
which they have been involved since 
their marriage in 1974. 

Ruth has come to this view of the 
need for close interpersonal relations 
from her experiences as a local, dis- 
trict, and national leader in the 
Church of the Brethren and a pro- 
fessional career as a guidance direc- 
tor and counselor in the Baltimore 
County (Md.) Public Schools. 

From Dan West's many "Hill- 
tops," Ruth learned the value of 
small-group sharing. As counselor 
she experienced the need to feel per- 

sons' hurts and frustrations, to help 
them be better persons. 

Likewise, from 16 years as a 4-H 
Club leader in Perry County, Pa., 
Dave Roth experienced small-group 
interaction and sharing. Like Ruth, 
he has found Christian fulfillment in 
helping these youths grow up to be 
better people, able to compete in real 
life situations. 

Ruth and Dave got acquainted on 
a 1974 tour of Europe, discovering 
they had strikingly similar Brethren 
backgrounds. From mere acquain- 
tances they rapidly progressed to 
deeper sharing and were married still 
that same year. 

They continue to be active in their 
congregations — Three Springs (Pa.) 
and Meadow Branch (Md.). As a 
successful dairyman, Dave has been 
director of the Pennsylvania Holstein 
Association, state soil stewardship 
chairman, and director of his milk 
marketing cooperative. He is a 
Master Farmer of Pennsylvania and 
currently president of the Pennsyl- 
vania Dairymen's Association. 

Looking at their work together 
with persons and groups, Ruth 
observes, "I would like to see more 
communication of the real feeling of 
loving and caring for persons as per- 
sons, not necessarily with the goal of 
adding numbers to the church roll." 

Making the love of Jesus felt, not 
just heard. In communicating the 
Christian message Ruth and Dave 
Roth show proof that they practice 
what they preach. — Norman F. 

April 1977 messenger 3 

General secretary-elect 
stresses covenant role 

Dr. Robert W. Neff, Old Testament 
scholar and seminary teacher, will become 
the denomination's highest administrative 
officer Jan. 1, 1978. He wilt succeed Dr. S. 
Loren Bowman who is retiring as general 
secretary of the General Board at the end 
of this year. 

A native Pennsylvanian, the general 
secretary-elect envisions the church as "an 
alternative society." Through mutual 
assistance and caring, he says the church of 
Christ provides "the social matrix" in 
which faith and life are made possible. 

As professor of biblical studies at 
Bethany Theological Seminary, Neff has 
given particular emphasis to the place of 
the Old Testament in a New Testament 
church. Such Old Testament concerns as 
community, justice, and a "this earthly" 
character to the faith are correctives to the 
stress on piety and individuality of so much 
religious expression today, Neff feels. He 
goes on to affirm the covenant community 
as much out of life experiences as out of 
his academic moorings. 

"The Incarnation is at the center of my 
life because I have beheld the glory of God 
in the people who ministered to me in 
Christ's name," the 40-year-old ordained 
minister said. Specifically he pointed to In- 
dia missionary Ida Shumaker, Yale Divini- 
ty School's Brevard Childs, an Old Testa- 
ment instructor, and Bridgewater College 
president Warren D. Bowman as among 
persons who inspired and encour- 
aged him. 

"Despite my enthusiasm for the Old 
Testament, I preach primarily from the 
New Testament," he acknowledged. 

On Sept. 1, Neff will leave his teaching 
role of a dozen years at Oak Brook, III., to 
prepare for the top administrative role at 
the general offices in Elgin. The appoint- 
ment was voted by the General Board in 
session Feb. 16 and announced the same 
day by Clyde R. Shallenberger, chairper- 
son from Baltimore, Md. 

Beyond his seminary work, Neff current- 
ly is one of six Brethren representatives to 
the Governing Board of the National 
Council of Churches. He also is a member 
of the Annual Conference committee on 
marriage and divorce. Last year he helped 
compile a statement on global hunger for 
the Illinois/ Wisconsin district. 

Along with faculty colleagues Donald E. 
Miller and Graydon Snyder he is author of 

General secretary- 
elect Bob Neff. "The 
Incarnation is at the 
center of my life, "says 
the Bethany Semi- 
nary professor of bib- 
lical studies. He goes 
on to say that despite 
his enthusiasm for 
teaching the Old Tes- 
tament, he preaches 
primarily from the 
New Testament. His 
new duties with the 
denomination will be- 
gin next January 1. 

Using Biblical Simulations, Volumes 1 & 2. 
He has published several articles in the 
field of Old Testament studies. 

In 1969 Neff represented the Church of 
the Brethren at the convention of the 
National Association of Evangelicals. 

He holds degrees from Penn State Uni- 
versity, Yale Divinity School, and Yale 
University. He also has studied in Ger- 
many, Israel, and England, having been a 
Danforth Fellow and a Two Brothers 
Fellow for study abroad. He taught one 
year at Bridgewater College in Virginia 
before taking the Bethany Seminary 

His wife, Dorothy Rosewarne Neff, is a 
graduate of Juniata College. The couple 
has two children, Scott, 15, and Heather, 6. 

A seven-member search committee 
nominated Neff to the General Board, after 
interviewing 1 1 candidates. Pastors, college 
and seminary personnel, and present 
General Board staff were among those in- 

terviewed during the leadership search. 

Phyllis Carter, Wabash, Ind., pastor and 
E.xecutive Committee member who chaired 
the search committee, indicated the vision 
that emerged in the search committee was 
for a leader "who out of a strong biblical 
base and with a common touch could rally 
the church in speaking to the world. The 
dream evolved first, then the person who 
fit the dream." 

Other search committee members includ- 
ed Ina Ruth Addington, Kingsport, Tenn., 
Wanda Will Button, Conrad, Iowa, Robert 
A. Byerly, La Porte, Ind., and James N. 
Poling and Joseph J. Schechter, both of La 
Verne, Calif., all members of the General 
Board. They were joined by Annual Con- 
ference moderator Charles M. Bieber. 
Brodbecks, Pa. 

General secretaries of the General Board 
have been Raymond R. Peters, 1947-52. 
the late Norman J. Baugher, 1952-68. and 
Loren Bowman since 1968. 

Discovery, interaction 
projected for women 

Two Brethren events and one ecumenical 
assembly are planned for the discovery and 
interaction of women in coming months. 
May 27-30, a Conference on the Role 
and Status of Church of the Brethren 
Women will be convened at Elizabethtown 
College in Pennsylvania. "We will celebrate 
who we are as women, reflect on who we 
have been and are becoming within the 
denomination, explore global concerns as 
they relate to women, call out the gifts we 
see in each other, and project future direc- 
tions," commented Beth Glick-Rieman, 
Parish Ministries' person awareness coor- 
dinator for the General Board. 

July 7-10, an Ecumenical Assembly on 
the theme. Signatures of Faith, is being 
sponsored by Church Women United at 
Purdue University. Through Bible study, 
speakers, dance, drama, seminars, small 
groups, and worship, the participants will 
identify crucial issues for Christian women 
and seek to move out on the cutting edge — 
"becoming truly prophetic, stepping into 
the third century unafraid." 

July 20-24, a Theological Happening for 
Church of the Brethren Women will be 
held at Bridgewater College in Virginia. 
"We will experience our faith in the com- 
munity of faith, explore our beliefs and the 
meanings of our lives, engage in Bible 
study, and celebrate our sisterhood," Beth 
Glick-Rieman commented in describing the 
plans. Similar events were held last 

4 MESSENGER April 1977 

summer at Manchester and La Verne 

Detailed information may be obtained 
from the Person Awareness Office, 1400 
Cornell Drive, Dayton, OH 45406. 

Carter details hopes 
on control of arms 

President Carter, who in his inaugural ad- 
dress pledged to work for the eventual ban- 
ning of nuclear weapons, more recently has 
declared he is "in favor of eliminating the 
testing of all nuclear devices, instantly and 

In an interview with reporters the Presi- 
dent said that "as far as nuclear arms 
limitations are concerned, 1 would like to 

"Let's see if we can lower that one, too." 

< 1977 by HcrbkKk in Tlic H'ailnngior P.,^i 

proceed quickly and aggressively with a 
comprehensive test ban treaty." 

White House officials later explained 
that the President does not plan to order a 
universal halt to US nuclear tests without 
reaching an agreement on the matter with 
the Soviet Union. 

Carter told reporters that he wants to 
"move very quickly, even prior to the 
SALT II agreement, toward a much more 
substantive reduction in atomic weapons as 
the first step to complete elimination in the 
"future." If agreement on reductions can be 
reached with the Soviet Union, he said the 
next step would be to get France and Great 
Britain and the People's Republic of China 
to join in the effort. 

Carter commented that the United States 

is "quite concerned about the reprocessing 
of spent fuel where you change normal 
radioactive materials which have been used 
for the production of electric power into 
weapons quality." and said he would like 
to put this under international control. 

The President said the Secretary of State 
will be much more hesitant to recommend 
to the Defense Department the culmination 
of arms sales aggreements, and that he has 
asked that all approvals of arms sales be 
submitted to him before recommendations 
go to Congress. 

Beyond reforms, how do 
we speak of God today? 

A book regarded by some critics as the 
most important theological work of the 
year is Hans Kueng's On Being a Christian. 
The author, a controversial theologian in 
the Roman Catholic Church, in a London 
interview set forth his views as to what the 
book does and doesn't do. 

"I haven't taken back any of my earlier 
reform demands, such as the call for a 
more humane solution to the birth control 
issue, for more democratic election of 
bishops and the Pope, for mutual recogni- 
tion of ministries and official intercommu- 
nion, for pastoral solutions to the problems 
of celibacy, women's ordination, and so 
forth. On the contrary, I have underscored 
all these demands here. But this is not the 
central point of my book. 

"Here," he said, "1 have tried to concen- 
trate on the basic issues. How can we speak 
about God in the world today? How can 
we believe and act as Christians who un- 
derstand what we believe and who can give 
a responsible and intelligent account of 
what we practice?" 

Father Kueng said the book was written 
not against Rome but for Rome and for all 
other churches which profess to be Chris- 
tian. The volume is "Not just another pious 
book about Jesus," he said, but instead a 
book written "to defend, to justify, and to 
clarify Christian faith, to face up to its nak- 
ed challenge when the cushioning up- 
holstery of museum piece dogmatics has 
been stripped aside." 

The Swiss-born reformer characterized 
himself as a "theologian of the middle," 
between the theology of the establishment 
and the theology of revolution. "I am a 
conservative in that I hold fast to the 
historical tradition of the Bible and the 
church; I am a radical in that I insist on 
going to the roots of tradition." 

Mark Ebersole named 
to Etown presidency 

Elizabethtown College's eleventh president 
will be an educator whose experience in- 
cludes the deanship of the graduate school 
of Temple University and the chairmanship 
of the religion department of Bucknell 

He is Mark C. Ebersole, 55, a native of 
Hershey, Pa. who will succeed Morley J. 
Mays as head of the Pennsylvania college. 
Dr. Mays will leave office June 30, at the 
college's mandatory age of retirement, after 
having served in the presidency since Oc- 
tober, 1966. 

President-elect Ebersole currently is dean 
of the graduate school and associate vice 
president for academic affairs at Temple 
University, Philadelphia. He has degrees 
from Elizabethtown College, Crozer Theo- 
logical Seminary, the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and Columbia University. 

Ebersole has had experience as a 
program specialist with the Ford Founda- 
tion and as a relief administrator in Italy 
following World War II, under auspices of 
UNRRA and Brethren Service. 

Now residing at Princeton, N.J., he is 
married to Dorothy Baugher Ebersole. The 
couple has two sons. Philip and Stephen, 
both in college. 

In his new role at Elizabethtown Eber- 
sole will follow in the steps of his father-in- 
law, the late A. C. Baugher, who was presi- 
dent of the college from 1941 to 1961. 

Ebersole's appointment was announced 
by Clifford B. Huffman, lay church leader 
of Lancaster, Pa., who heads the board of 
trustees of the college. 

April 1977 messenger 5 

'Here's Life' campaigns 
draw mixed reviews 

"Here's Life, America," an evangelism 
campaign with heavy media use 
orchestrated by Campus Crusade for 
Christ, has met both support and disap- 
proval from churches as it moves across 
the nation from one urban area to another. 

Two Church of the Brethren pastors 
reporting on their congregations' participa- 
tion in area campaigns have given a very 
high rating to the effort. They are from the 
Rockford, 111., and Fresno, Calif., con- 

At Rockford, First Church of the 
Brethren was one of 90 congregations join- 
ing in the intensive three-week media and 
telephone blitz. Nineteen members en- 
gaged in the 14 hours of training, and 17 in 
staffing the congregation's telephone 

An enriching part of the First Church 
experience, observed pastor James 
McKinnell, was sharing its telephone 
center with Mount Zion Baptist Church, a 
predominantly black congregation. 

For First Church the statistical tally re- 
vealed 930 persons contacted by telephone, 
192 callers receptive to the presentation of 
the message, 39 who prayed to receive 
Christ, and 135 who were visited personally 
by church members. 

In answering the telephone number listed 
in the "I found it!" ads, callers were in- 
formed of Campus Crusade's four spiritual 
laws and invited to accept Christ as Lord 
and Savior. 

At Fresno, a young retiree, layman Gene 
Davis, headed the involvement of the 
Fresno Church of the Brethren in the 
"Here's Life," Central Valley program. 
Pastor Hal Sonafrank said Davis was a 
reluctant recruit, reluctant particularly at 
the point of having to speak before groups. 
Soon, however, Davis was addressing 
pastors and others to explain the program 
and assisting in leading the training in- 
stitutes. "He's become one of our active 
leaders in current weekly evangelistic 
visitation," Sonafrank said. "'Here's Life' 
planted a seed for him." 

The Fresno minister told of one caller, of 
Mexican background, who after a visit 
from the Sonafranks decided to receive 
Christ, along with her husband. The couple 
began attending the Fresno church regular- 
ly and influenced her brother and family 
to accept Christ and also to attend 

Pastor Sonafrank said the "Here's Life" 

IVillie Smith of Rockford's Ml. Zion Baptist Church and Letha McKinnell of the city's 
First Church of the Brethren help out in the local telephone blitz for "Here's Life!" 

ministry was a success in training people 
for evangelism tasks and in creating a spirit 
of unity not before present among the par- 
ticipating churches. 

In some areas Brethren congregations 
declined participation in the campaign, 
questioning the understanding of its 
backers on either the gospel message or the 
witness that is to follow. While the 
emphasis is strong on the intimate, per- 
sonal and emotional dimensions of faith, 
some observers contend it diverts concern 
from human, domestic and international 
realms of witness. 

The program also has been labeled con- 
troversial by church leaders who fear Bill 
Bright, Campus Crusade founder and 
president, may be using the approach as a 
tool of nationalism, a base from which to 

compile mailing lists and build a con- 
stituency of fundamentalist Christians 
whose influence would go beyond the 
crusade itself. Still others, like Roman 
Catholic Bishop Edward O'Rourke of 
Peoria, 111., sees the campaign as 
proselytizing in a manner which "is not 
acceptable in a pluralistic society." 

"In spite of reported controversy over 
Bill Bright's politics and his alleged conflict 
with Billy Graham, we feel that Campus 
Crusade for Christ has put together a 
procedural model for evangelism similar to 
that called for at the Brethren Congress on 
Evangelism in 1974," commented Rockford 
minister Jim McKinnell. "It is simple, 
direct and personal — a tool by which the 
churches can win and disciple people for 
Jesus Christ." 

Goal for handicapped is 
to enter mainstream 

Churches, which several decades ago were 
leaders in providing care for the retarded, 
were urged in an ecumenical conference on 
retardation to lead the way in integrating 
the retarded in the mainstream of life. 

"Generally as a society we're as back- 
ward as the retarded," said John Schatzlein 
of the University of Minnesota's physical 
medicine department, in addressing a St. 
Paul, Minn., conference. 

"Technologically, we're advanced 
enough to do anything we want for the 
handicapped," he said. "Socially, we're 
back in the mid-19th century, still thinking 
'pioneer' era thoughts about the able 

When organizations give retarded people 
tickets to entertainments, he said, they 

usually are seated together in herds. Public 
funds rarely furnish transportation to 
recreational events. Many communities still 
worry about property values when group 
homes seek to open. 

"in restaurants, waitresses still ask the 
able-bodied person what the retarded per- 
son wants to eat." 

Schatzlein said, "We ought to provide 
retarded people more opportunities to be 
socialized by interracting in the community 
just like anyone else. It does no good to get 
them out of an institution and tucked away 
in a group home." 

One problem, he said, is that too little 
money is appropriated for the retarded. 
Another is that "bureaucratic systems are 
so cumbersome" that the funds that are 
there do not always reach "the level of the 

A third problem, he said, is that many 
people seem to "resent" and "fear" handi- 

6 MESSENGER April 1977 

capped people. A religious ethic, he said, 
makes people feel they must help the help- 
less and this somehow creates an urge to 
keep them helpless. 

"I think," Mr. Schatzlein said, "it has to 
be the job of everybody to try to assure 
that these individuals have the same oppor- 
tunities we have, allowing retarded persons 
to be who they are, to develop their self- 
esteem and have the same quality of life 
things that intellectually normal people 

"Retarded people have a role in the 
Church, not only to be ministered to, but 
also to minister." said Robert Malloy, 
Roman Catholic director of the ministry to 
the handicapped for the Detroit arch- 

He said one obvious contribution re- 
tarded people make is to remind others 
"what is most valuable in human life. Their 
limitation shows us there is more to a 
human being than what one can do." 

Lutherans plan tv film 
on The Joy of Bach' 

"The Joy of Bach," a television film about 
the life and music of Baroque composer 
Johann Sebastian Bach, is scheduled for 
production by Lutheran Film Associates. 

Robert E. A. Lee, LFA executive 
secretary, said tentative plans are for a 90- 
minute production for release in 1978, 
costing several hundred thousand dollars. 
Lee mentioned hopes that the production 
might become part of a series highlighting 
various aspects of the 17th century musical 
genius sometimes known as "the fifth 

"Even though Bach wrote much of his 
music as a Lutheran church musician he 
belongs to the world at large. We are not 
doing a traditional biography. Instead we 
plan to let Bach's music sing for itself and 
reveal the man in the process." 

He said the film would "celebrate the 
phenomenon of the amazing popularity of 
Bach's music as it is discovered by growing 
audiences in many nations. Bach's music 
lends itself ideally to jazz and rock adap- 
tations and this will be included in our 

Film producer is Lothar Wolff, whose 
earlier work for Lutheran Film Associates 
includes the films "Martin Luther" and 
"Question 7." 

Funds for the venture come from the 
American Lutheran Church, the Lutheran 
Church in America, and Lutheran 
Brotherhood, an insurance company. 



Five youth v/ho came together for BVS 

training in the November Discipleship Unit are staying 
together as a team to work at reconciliation and peace 
concerns. Based at New Windsor, Md. , the youth are Jean 
Norton of Michigan, Karen Hosier and Bernie Hershberger 
of Pennsylvania, Gloria Kindy of Ohio, and Kim McDowel 1 
of Illinois. A $10,000 gift from an anonymous source 
supports the work with congregations, camps, and retreats. 

CLERGY IN THE NEWS . . . Bethany Seminary students Peter 
and Christine Michael are in a unique situation — each serves 
as a pastoral intern in Fort Wayne, Ind. Peter is at the 
Beacon Heights church, Chris at the Lincolnshire church. 

Named president of the Indiana Pastors Conference, 1977- 
78, is David L. Rogers , pastor. North Manchester, Ind. . . . 
Honored for 50 years in the ministry were John H_. Claws on , 
Robinson, Pa. , and Frank Mulligan , Huntington, Ind. 

RADIO MINISTRY . . . Western Pennsylvania District is in 
its second year of broadcasting "The Bible and Your Life," 
11:45 a.m. Saturdays, WJAC. . . . Nevin H. 2uck , Goshen 
City, Ind. , pastor, was cited by the United Methodist 
Church for an "outstanding contribution" to a local program, 
"The Word — and Music," 12:15 p.m. Sundays, WKAM. 


including marriage seminars 

will be led by The Farr Fami 1 y at Dayton, Ohio, May 6-7, 
and Battle Creek, Mich., June 4-5. Coordinators for the 
Dayton area crusade at the city's Convention Center are 
Charles and Rosella Miller of the Lower Miami church. - 


New manager of Camp Pine Lake, El- 

dora, Iowa, is Donald Michaelson , formerly of Pennsylvania's 
Camp Swatara. . . . Don and Jane Stansbury Hoover are pro- 
gram directors for Camp Harmony in Western Pennsylvania. 


Instrtimentalists, singers. 

dramatists interested in performing at "Paul's Dungeon," 
at Annual Conference coffeehouse in the Richmond Coliseum 
June 22, 23, and 25, are asked to contact Joe Detrick, 
coordinator, Bethany Seminary, Butterfield and Meyers Roads, 
Oak Brook, IL 60521. 


Gil Dodds , 58, who in the mid-1940s domi- 

nated American track in the mile run, died in February at 
St. Charles, 111. He was a minister of the Brethren Church 
(Ashland) .... " Miss Mollie " Click , 87, friend of gener- 
ations of Bridgewater College students, died at Bridgewater, 
Va. , on Feb. 6. 

Robert L. Strickler , 61, pastor, Westernport, Md. , and 
former member of the General Board, died Feb. 10. 


Not only do parishioners of the Mexico, 
Ind. , have a new church building across the road from the 
old one, but a new telephone number as well: 985-2682. If 
memory slips them on the last four digits. Pastor Donald 
Ritchey advises simply dialing Church Of. The Brethren. 

April 1977 messenger 7 

FOCAL POINTS . ■ . for sharpening Brotherhood program priori- 
ties outlined at the Feb. 16-19 General Board meeting cen- 
tered on a proposal for Bible Study and Witness weekends in 
congregations and districts, and stepped-up advocacy in 
three areas: nonviolence and disarmament, "cosmic steward- 
ship" dealing with the unity of creation, and the family. 


is a new designation to be proposed to 

Annual Conference for persons interested in preaching but 
not in ordination. The proposal is the outgrowth of a Par- 
ish Ministries study on licensing and ordination which rec- 
ommends two polity changes to Annual Conference: 1) putting 
the licensing of ministers on a term basis, to be reviewed 
annually by the district, and 2) requiring as a minimal edu- 
cation standard for ordination the three-year reading course 
and two years of college work. 


Poland : Commemorating 20 years 

of the Brethren Service — Polish Agricultural Exchange will 
be citations to 21 Brethren and related officials by the 
Polish government in July. . . . Sahel ■• The drought relief 
efforts headed by Ralph and Flossie Roger will be extended 
two more years. . . . Nepal : A proposal to become engaged 
in the United Mission in Nepal, a country between India and 
Tibet, was tabled for a year. . . . Nigeria : The Lafiya 
medical program is being studied by the Nigerian government 
as a model for health programs all over the country - 

NIGERIAN WORKERS CITED . . . Grayce Brumbaugh , 40 years; 
Mary Dadisman , 36 years; Roy and Violet Pfaltzgraff , 32 
years; Samuel and Joy Rayapati , 2 years; William and Eliza- 
beth Hole , 14 months. All now serve under Nigerian agen- 
cies. Also recognized were Dick and Kitty Winfield , 9 
years, who recently returned home to Ashland, Ohio. 

PERSONNEL . . . Besides naming a new general secretary (see 
page 4) , the Board set April 30 as the date for meeting to 
elect the successor to Galen B. Ogden , associate general 
secretary and executive of the General Services Commission, 
who is retiring April 1 after 18 years with the board. 

Recognition also was extended to Mildred Hachtel , market- 
ing purchaser, retiring April 23 after 46 years, and to 16 
workers completing five-year intervals of service. 

IN BRIEF ... A major statement on justice and nonviolence 
and a recommendation for handling discipline concerns at the 
district level were passed on to Annual Conference. . . . 
The Foundation Series of curriculum (see p. 28) is to be ex- 
panded for youth and adults. ... A Virlina District re- 
quest to support efforts for adopting "America the Beauti- 
ful" as the national anthem was received. . . . The draft 
report of the Review and Evaluation of General Board program 
was discussed. . . . NCC general secretary Claire Randall 
brought greetings to the board. . . . Loans were approved 
for two churches, Hea thersdown , Toledo, Ohio, and Ridgeway 
Community , Harrisburg, Pa. , and the purchase of land auth- 
orized for Christ the Servant church , Cape Coral, Fla. 

8 MESSENGER April 1977 

Preparedness is aim 
of disaster network 

First-hand contact with other private and 
public agencies highlighted the second an- 
nual seminar of the Church of the Brethren 
Disaster Response Network. 

Representatives of 18 of the 24 districts 
met in Washington, D.C. with the 
American Red Cross, Federal Disaster 
Assistance Administration, and Foreign 
Disaster Service, where preparedness and 

Alice and Dale Kreider: veterans of dis- 
aster work in Mississippi and Colorado. 

advance contacts among agencies were the 
central themes. 

Alice and Dale Kreider, who directed 
Brethren projects in Mississippi and 
Colorado, shared their experiences and 
evaluation of the network's operation. 

Much of the seminar centered on deter- 
mining criteria for the Church of the 
Brethren response to disasters, natural and 
human, domestic and foreign. 

Working with the district coordinators is 
a national coordinating team comprised of 
Kenneth E. McDowell, Elgin, 111., and H. 
McKinley Coffman and D. Miller Davis, 
New Windsor, Md. 

Six family portraits 
to air in tv series 

A candid look at "Si.\ American 
Families"— families wrestling with infla- 
tion, violence, divorce, crime, race, en- 
vironment, employment, success, freedom, 
and duty — will be telecast on the PBS 
network beginning April 4. The series 
treats contemporary family life as it finds 
it: Individuals and units moving in and out 
of old family patterns. 

Comprised of six one-hour programs, 
the series was produced by the 

Westinghouse Broadcasting Corporation in 
association with the United Church of 
Christ and the United Methodist Church. 
In portraying diverse family situations, the 
treatment seeks to reveal what is happening 
in American family life without being 
moralistic about it. 

Subjects include the Pasciak family of 
Chicago, a blue collar Polish family with 
six children; the Greenbergs of Mill Valley, 
Calif., a separated couple and their two 
children; the Stephens of Villisca, Iowa, a 
farm family with six children; the Georges 
of New York City, involving a black 
policemen and his wife and three teenagers; 
the Kennedys of Albuquerque, N. Mex., 
who have three children, one of whom is 
retarded; and the Burks of Dalton, Ga., a 
rural family with ten children. 

In each segment a playback technique is 
utilized that enables the subjects to view 
portions of the program and to talk about 
their actions and decisions. 

A viewer's guide to "Six American 
Families" is available for church and 
school groups wishing to discuss the series. 
By Elliott Wright, the guide costs $1 from 
the United Methodist Church, 1525 
McGavock St., Nashville, TN 37203. 

On keeping business 
within the 'kingdom' 

"Christian Yellow Pages," a local telephone 
supplement of evangelical Christians in 
business, are reported to be in circulation 
in 50 cities, from Portland, Oreg., to 
Miami, Fla. Advertising in the directory is 
limited to those persons who sign an affir- 
mation stating, "I know I am a born-again 
Christian believer." 

As set forth in Atlanta, Ga., and Rich- 
mond, Va., by promoters selling adver- 
tising space, the rationale is "more or less 
to keep money within the kingdom. There's 
a certain margin of profit you have to do 
business, so wouldn't you, as a Christian, 
rather see this go to help support another 
Christian who has the blood of Jesus 
Christ flowing through his veins?" 

"Our point is not exclusion," explained 
Charles Allen Wells, a Southern Baptist 
minister launching the venture in Virginia. 
"It's inclusion of all persons in the Chris- 
tian community." 

Another clergyman, Clint Hopkins of 
the Virginia Baptist Board, expressed reser- 
vation. "We have maintained a pretty 
strong allegiance to places where we live 
without separating ourselves from people 

Bible plants hobby worth cultivating 

Mathieu Beerens is a Dutchman who has cultivated a hobby — raising plants of the 
Bible — into a field in which he has become an expert. His hobby has been helpful to 
him in learning more about the Scriptures. He has hundreds of plants and seeds from 
the Holy Land and exchanges them with friends around the world. Some of his 
plants (above, clockwise from upper left) are: Rose of Jericho, Cedar of Lebanon 
(cone), lady's thistle (Silybum marianum), and common poppy. 

we can be witnesses to. This is somehow 
separating oneself from that." 

Elsewhere non-evangelical Christians 
and non-Christians have voiced concern 
about the intent of the directory. Califor- 
nian David P. Weisberg, writing in News- 
week, said such "expressed bigotry against 
all but 'born-again Christians'" is "an in- 

ternal boycott not too dissimilar from that 
required by the Arabs of many American 
firms doing business in the Arab countries. 
With friendly citizens like this, who needs 
an enemy?" 

In most communities the directories are 
distributed without charge through local 
evangelical churches. 

April 1977 MESSENGER 9 

ps©DS]D \r(B\p(n)\rt 

India on 
the move 

by Ernest M. Shull 

From 1946 to 1964 Lois and I were mis- 
sionaries in India. Our roots were deep. It 
was our life, Then after being away from 
India for 12 years, a wonderful thing 
happened. Last June 4 we returned to In- 
dia to see our friends, to visit churches, and 
to see a few places that we were unable to 
visit when in active service. 

It was in the Ahwa church, where we 
had spent two terms, that a tumultuous 
welcome nearly overwhelmed us. Three 
hundred or more Christians were awaiting 
our arrival as the jeep approached the dis- 
trict headquarters. We were profusely gar- 
landed and then seated in a highly 
decorated bullock cart. As the cart 
lumbered through the Christian communi- 
ty, some people sang Christian hymns, 
others danced, while the welcoming band 
played and the photographer took pictures 
of the procession. What a thrill it was to 
enter the mission compound and see the 
house where our family had lived for ten 
years! Inside were the same water pots, 
same beds, and even the same drapes hang- 
ing over the windows. But one thing had 
changed — the rooms were lighted by elec- 
tricity, replacing the old kerosene lanterns 
and petromax lamps. One whole week was 
spent in celebration, meeting Christian, 
Moslem, and Hindu friends. 

On Sunday, dressed in the robe of the 
United Church of North India, I brought 
greetings from former friends and con- 
gregations in America and delivered a 30- 
minute sermon in the Marathi language. 
Rev. J. J. Choudhari, the retired pastor, 
and Rev. Tukaram Gaikwad, the present 
pastor, along with the church officers, were 
seated on the platform. The Ahwa church 
was packed to capacity, but this good 
attendance was not unusual. Membership 
in the church had more than doubled since 
our departure in 1964. Presently there are 

Back to Ahwa after 13 years: Robed for the church service, Ernest Shull greets (from left) 
presbyter D. J. Bhonsle. pastor Tukaram Gaikwad, and treasurer Julius Hiralai. 

about 1.200 members. Tukaram, the 
pastor, had accepted Christ when a boy in 
one of our Mahal youth camps. He 
graduated from high school and 
theological seminary. It was sheer joy to 
worship with this dynamic, charismatic 
young pastor. When I asked him what his 
goal for the area was, he replied without 
hesitation, "To win the whole Dangs dis- 
trict to Christ." Under God and with his 
Christian witness I believe that his goal can 
be realized. 


risits followed to churches in Bombay, 
Palghar, Dahanu, Bulsar and Vyara, and 
to many other spots that brought back 
precious memories. Everywhere changes 
were evident: 

Community Development: The Ukai 
hydroelectric plant, out from Vyara where 
Joy and Everett Fasnacht work, is one 
symbol of progress. Four giant turbines 
generate 75,000 kilowatts each and supply 
water and electricity to the villages for a 
distance of seventy miles from the dam. 
The roads and buses throughout the coun- 
tryside have been greatly improved. It is 
somewhat a novelty to see rural huts, with 
their cow dung floors, electric lights and an 
occasional electric fan. 

Improved housing construction, the 
high-rise hotels and apartments, new 
business centers, improved urban and rural 
transportation, the extension of 
educational and medical facilities have all 
worked to greatly improve the lives of 

millions of people. 

Economic growth: India with its 
620,000,000 people exudes a new spirit of 
optimism. Two consecutive good monsoon 
seasons have greatly improved the food 
outlook. India is nearly self-sufficient in 
food production. Last year India achieved 
a zero inflation rate. 

The nation's "20 Point Economic 
Program" is challenging the people to 
make greater sacrifices. Billboards, posters, 
and signs are everywhere, exhorting the 
people to "Hard Work, Farsightedness, 
Determination, Discipline — the Only 
Magic." Or, "You too have a role in the 
Emergency — Work Hard, Produce More, 
Practice Discipline" — signed Indira 

In the big cities, Arabs wait in long lines 
for the opening of the international banks. 
The oil business is booming. Many Indians 
are employed in the rich oil Gulf States as 
engineers, carpenters, teachers, technicians, 
and even as cooks. India's products are 
sold in many African countries and a 
favorable foreign trade balance contributes 
to her economic stability. 

Medicine: In a regular meeting of the 
Brethren Mission Hospital Society we were 
brought up-to-date on the medical 
problems of this fine hospital where Dr. 
Barbara Nickey had served so faithfully. 
Today the hospital is a community 
hospital. The new staff quarters building 
and the new residence home for nurses are 
signs of growth. Under the direction of the 
Society, public health centers reach the 

10 MESSENGER April 1977 

outlying villages of the Dahanu area. 

Dr. Das Gupta (formerly Dr. Bhonsle 
and a resident doctor of the Dahanu 
Hospital) attended the board meeting. She 
now works in the Mahatma Gandhi 
Memorial Hospital in Bombay. While 
visiting this Government hospital. Dr. 
Gupta spoke of the Government 
regulations in regard to the great emphasis 
being placed on family planning. People 
having two children are encouraged to 
have sterilization operations. It is un- 
derstood by teachers and other gov- 
ernment workers that they are in danger of 
losing their jobs and benefits if they fail to 
comply. Ration cards are not issued for the 
third and fourth child unless they were 
born prior to the regulations. These finan- 
cial inducements vary somewhat from state 
to state, but the stringent program is hav- 
ing some success in slowing the rate of 
population growth. 

Religion: Although only two-and-a-half 
percent of the population are Christians, 
the church in India is well established, ft is 
an indigenous church — self-governing, self- 
supporting, and self-propagating. The 
Church of the Brethren has faired better 
than many other churches because the 
philosophy of our missionaries and Indian 
leaders dealt more realistically with the 
building of an indigenous church. Today 
the national leaders are facing many dif- 
ficulties, but there is much evidence that 
the church will survive and grow. In the 
"Brethren" area the Vyara and Ahwa 
churches are experiencing phenomenal 

Bishop Kennedy and Canon Paul of the 
Bombay diocese expressed optimism for 
the Church's future. The Bishop expressed 
his hope that the Church of North India 
and the Church of South India would 
unite. Union would strengthen the Chris- 
tian position with the Government. 

Oome of the other religions of India — 
particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and 
Sikhism — are becoming mission-minded. 
They are alert and dynamic, expanding 
their influence not only in India but abroad 
as well. Witness their proliferation in 
"America: Zen Buddhism, Hare Krishna 
cults, the Golden Temple of the Sikhs in 
Washington, D.C., to mention only a few. 
The Emergency: On June 25, 1975, the 
president of India proclaimed that "a grave 
emergency exists whereby the security of 

Top: This government canal provides irrigation water year-round for Indian farmers 
who trained under mission agriculturalists. Two or three yearly crops are now pos- 
sible. Above: Missionary George Mason (left) at the Rural Service Center, Anklesvar. 

India is threatened by internal distur- 
bance." There is no doubt that commerce 
and education were grinding to a halt and 
that something drastic had to be initiated 
by the prime minister and the government. 

At present, it is feared by some that the 
Emergency may never end. By modifying 
the constitution and by limiting the powers 
of the judiciary, including those of the 
supreme court, there is fear in the minds of 
some that India will lose her democratic 
form of government. Indira Gandhi, 
however, insists that by taking such drastic 
measures she is preserving democracy, and 
parliamentary elections, at first postponed 
indefinitely, were held this March. 

Americans probably cannot understand 

the difficulties and the problems facing In- 
dia. As Westerners it is difficult for us to 
comprehend what it means to maintain law 
and order in a country of 620 million and 
to provide adequate housing, jobs, health 
care, and education for all. In many ways 
the government has followed the right 
course. Perhaps only time will determine 
the rightness of the Emergency program. 
Will democracy survive in India? There 
is no doubt that the overwhelming majority 
of the people in India support the program. 
Those imprisoned without trial and a few 
intellectuals may think differently. It is our 
prayer that India will survive this another 
crisis in her long history and again become 
a strong, secular democracy. I 1 

April 1977 MESSENGER 11 

by Kenneth E. Bomberger 

There is an attempt to amend our US Con- 
stitution so that the voting age can be 
changed from age 18 to age 12. You are 
asked to vote for or against this proposed 
amendment. How will you respond? Will 
you vote yes or will you vote no? 

The state government is proposing a 
change in our state law so that at age 12, 
one can receive a driver's license. How will 
you vote for this change in the law? Will 
you vote yes or no? 

The federal government is developing a 
law to draft both men and women at age 
12. Will you support this law, yes or no? 

Your 12-year-old daughter comes home 
from her first junior high dance and says, 
"Folks, I've met this wonderful boy at the 
dance. We are in love and we want to get 
married." How will you respond, yes or 

Your 12-year-old child comes home from 
Sunday school and says, "I have met Jesus 
today in Sunday school, I know he is in my 
heart, 1 want to be baptized, I want to 
make my covenant with God. I'm ready to 
begin a life-long walk with Christ." How 
will you respond, yes or no? 

How did you answer these five 
questions? Did you say no to the first four 
and yes to the last one? If you did, why? 

Does it take any less maturity to make a 
decision to make a covenant with God than 
it does to vote for a political candidate, 
drive a car, serve one's country or marry? 
Is one's covenant with God and the church 
any less important than any of these other 
decisions? Should not one's decision to be 
baptized be made by one who is mature 
and understands the meaning and implica- 
tions behind the promise being made? 

As a youth, "going to the water" was a 
phrase that I often heard adults use as a 
term for baptism. Baptism is one of the 
most important acts in a person's life, for it 

signifies the beginning of one's walk with 
Christ. It signifies that one has made a 
covenant with God and is about to par- 
ticipate in one of the most exciting life- 
styles possible. A life-style of significance 
and meaning. A life-style centered in 
sacrificial servanthood: one that allows us 
to be part of the church, the body of 
Christ, one of those believers on earth who 
is a witness to God's kingdom. 

The covenantal relationship established 
between a person and God at baptism can 
be likened to a marriage contract. It is a 
binding agreement between two parties. 
One must be mature enough to under- 
stand the importance of the step being 
taken and must realize the consequences 
and meaning of this event. At baptism one 
is establishing a lasting relationship with 
God for all of eternity. Certainly this kind 
of a decision cannot be made at a 
moment's notice. 


nfortunately, the act of baptism has 
become very confusing for many people. 
There have been many misconceptions and 
conflicting interpretations which have 
grown up alongside the act of baptism. 

Let us take a look at Jesus' baptism in 
Matthew 3. It is here that we gain our ex- 
ample for baptism. 

We must take note that Jesus was bap- 
tized as an adult. He is not an infant, in 
fact he is about 30 years old. The decision 
he is about to make is the most important 
decision of his life, he is about to depart on 
a three-year ministry that will change and 
revolutionize values and ways of thinking. 

The main purpose behind Christ's bap- 
tism was not the washing away of his sins. 
Jesus, as the Son of God, was not a sinner. 

If Christ's baptism wasn't for the 
removal of his sins then what was the pur- 
pose of it? Baptism for-Jesus was a sym- 
bolic act representing the time when he 
elected to come out of isolation and begin 
his public ministry. 

As Christians we continue to be bap- 
tized, not because it is some magical for- 
mula which guarantees us passage into 
heaven, but because Jesus Christ set this 
example for us and commanded us through 

12 MESSENGER April 1977 

When is the time for 'going to the water'? Does it take any less 
maturity to decide to make a covenant with God than it does to vote 
for a candidate, drive a car, serve one's country, or marry? 

his teachings to follow his example. As 
Christians we are baptized in obedience to 
the words of Jesus Christ who asked us to 
repent, believe and be baptized. 

When should we be baptized? When 
should we go to the water? We should be 
baptized when we, following the example 
of Jesus Christ, are prepared to begin our 
own personal ministry. We are ready to be 
baptized when we have counted the costs 
and have taken into account the great 
responsibility which Christian discipleship 

Baptism symbolizes our willingness and 
readiness to give up our self-centeredness; 
to come out of isolation and give ourselves 
to others. It symbolizes that we, like 
Christ, are ready to make ourselves 
vulnerable and available to others. 

Baptism then, for us, is our ordination 
into ministry. As I use the term "ministry" 
I'm not just talking about preaching ser- 
mons and leading worship services. That 
kind of ministry is only a small fraction of 
the work involved in ministering to a 
broken world. Ministry is willingly giving 
ourselves to others, living a life of self- 
giving sacrificial servanthood as Christ did. 
In making this decision we become part of 
the "new humanity," the "new creation." In 
doing this we are reborn; we are part of the 
new royal priesthood. 

The act of baptism does not save us from 
sin. The decision to begin a public ministry 
as did Christ saves us from sin. Self- 
centeredness is the basis of sin. Being con- 
cerned only about oneself is sin. The deci- 
sion to begin ministering to others is what 
saves us from sin. Baptism, when accom- 
panied by a ministry, saves us from sin; but 
baptism by itself has no power to save us 
from anything. The key is what happens in 
our behavior after baptism. 

In becoming baptized we give up our in- 
dividuality and become part of the body of 
Christ. We become brothers and sisters 
with one another. Our business becomes 
the business of all in the church. At bap- 
tism we give up the right to the attitude 
"that's my business and you stay out of it." 
When we take that attitude we are resort- 
ing back to our old selves. The self of isola- 
tion; the self of self-centeredness which is 

the life of sin. 

At baptism we take on the added burden 
of our brothers and sisters in Christ. In be- 
coming a person for others we are pre- 
pared to care, share and be concerned 
about their interests, their needs and their 
problems. This is all intricately involved in 
the ministry one begins at baptism upon 
opening oneself to others. 

More and more in the Church of the 
Brethren, we are moving to younger bap- 
tisms. We are baptizing children at ages 
anywhere from nine to twelve years old. 
This is occurring for many reasons. Anx- 
ious parents, peer pressure, evangelistic 
pastors, people who honestly believe that if 
you aren't baptized and you die, you will 
go to hell. 

Children are being baptized before they 
can begin to understand what Christian 
discipleship is all about. They are being 
baptized before they can begin to know 
their identity, who they are, what they 
want to be, what their God-given gifts are. 
Children are being baptized before they 
have formulated their own values and 
beliefs. Children are being baptized long 
before they can begin a responsible 


. t nine or even twelve, it is difficult for 
us to understand what is God's purpose for 
our life; what he is calling us to do with 
our lives. At that age rarely can a person 
make as important a decision as is involved 
in baptism. When baptized at this age it is 
usually an act to please one's parents or to 
do it because other youth are doing it. 

My plea to the adults is to allow our 
youth to voluntarily make the decision if 
and when they should be baptized. Help 
give mature guidance as you would in 
other things such as marriage. 

My plea to our youth is be sure you un- 
derstand the importance of the decision to 
be baptized. Be sure you understand what 
a life of Christian discipleship will mean. 
Ask yourself, "Am I beginning to gain a 
picture of what God intends for my life? 
What will my ministry be?" If the answer is 
"Yes, I understand what God wants of 
me," then you are ready for the water. If 

the answer is "No," then wait, God is still 
working out a plan for your life. 

Baptism like marriage, should not be 
entered into until one comes to a clear un- 
derstanding of what the act can mean for 
one's future life. At the same time let us de- 
mand of our church the best possible 
program it can initiate at the time our 
children reach adolescence. 

This is a vulnerable age for our children; 
it is a time of rebellion, a time of seeking 
out what their values are, a time when peer 
pressure and the influence of the group 
becomes important. This is an age when 
many children lose interest in the church 
and leave it for good. It is important at this 
critical age for the church to stand with 
these youth as they struggle with life, and 
the changes that broaden their horizons 
and bring in an influx of new and different 
values which conflict with their parents' 

For many churches, weekly youth clubs 
have become popular — which includes a 
time of play, choir, eating together and 
participating in biblical instruction. In the 
Jewish faith there is the Bar Mitzvah. In 
many Protestant Churches it is a time for 
confirmation classes. 

1 feel in many Brethren churches we are 
sorely lacking a program to meet the needs 
of children at this age — so we try to re- 
spond by baptizing them. This should be a 
time when we are standing with our youth, 
educating them in biblical instruction, 
identifying their God-given gifts and point- 
ing out areas of ministry they can become 
involved in, if and when they decide to 
enter the Christian faith. We must help 
them to increase "in wisdom and in stature, 
and in favor with God and man." 

When to go to the water? We should go 
to the water when we have decided to give 
our life to Christ. When we are prepared to 
make a covenant with God and when we 
are ready to begin a ministry consistent 
with the goals of God's Kingdom. We 
should go to the water when we have 
decided to turn from self-centeredness to 
others-centeredness; when we are ready to 
give our lives in sacrificial servanthood, as 
did our Lord and Master Jesus Christ. Are 
you ready to go to the water? □ 

April 1977 messenger 13 

by D. Elton Trueblood 

What we s 

Look at the reality around you — the future which we are unable to 
comprehend is no more mysterious than the present which we do know. 

It is most unfortunate that in normal ex- 
perience we face the fact of the resurrection 
only once a year. Of course, that is better 
than not facing it at all. But it is important 
for us to realize that in following this prac- 
tice we have abandoned the pattern set for 
us by the early Christians. For with them, 
the resurrection theme was both a constant 
and central emphasis. 

You will recall how the apostle Paul out- 
raged the Athenians and especially the 
Epicurean and Stoic philosophers by in- 
cluding a mention of the resurrection in his 
famous address on Mars Hill. And again in 
the first letter to the Corinthians Paul 
reminded them of the terms under which 
he preached the gospel: "For 1 delivered to 
you as of first importance what I also re- 
ceived, that Christ died for our sins in ac- 
cordance with the scriptures, that he was 
buried, that he was raised on the third day 
in accordance with the scriptures, and -that 
he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 
Then he appeared to more than 500 
brethren at one time, most of whom are 
still alive, though some have fallen asleep. 
Then he appeared to James, then to all the 
apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely 
born, he appeared also to me. Whether 
then it was I or they, so we preach and so 
you believed" ( I Cor. 15:3-8, II). 

If we face the history of the gospel 
realistically we are forced to the conclusion 
that apart from the belief in the resurrec- 
tion of Christ there would never have been 
an enduring church. Following the trial of 
Jesus and his death on the cross, the 
apostles were beaten, cowardly, discour- 
aged, and disappointed men. They had 
returned to their homes and former tasks 
believing that the cause in which they had 
been recruited had ended in abject failure. 
But just a few days later their whole mood 
was changed to one of victory and hope. 
And the only explanation we have for this 
amazing reversal is that Christ had actually 
risen from the dead and they had en- 
countered him in person. 

It is vitally important for us today to un- 
derstand what the resurrection means as 
applied to ordinary persons like ourselves 
and our loved ones. It is indeed significant 
that both The Apostles' Creed and The 
Nicene Creed end with statements con- 

cerning the resurrection. The conclusion of 
The Apostles' Creed involves two phrases: 
"The resurrection of the body; and the life 
everlasting." And the final sentence of The 
Nicene Creed is: "And we look for the 
resurrection of the dead and the life of the 
world to come." 

The point most difficult for modern men 
and women is that of the resurrection of 
the body. Even though thousands upon 
thousands of people repeat these phrases 
every Sunday, I suspect that many write 
them off in their own minds as antique and 
meaningless expressions. Since they know 
that our physical bodies decay, belief in the 
resurrection of the body seems incredible. 
Nevertheless, as we study the term more 
carefully, we begin to realize that it stands 
for something exceedingly meaningful. 

X. believe the heart of the meaning of the 
resurrection of the body is found in the 
conviction that the recognition of in- 
dividuals will be part of the world to come. 
The body, whether physical or spiritual, is 
our means of recognition. The classic 
passage on this belief is found in I Cor- 
inthians 15. It is stressed here that the 
resurrected body will not be the physical 
one we now know, but it will be some- 
thing entirely different; a spiritual body. 
Here indeed is a vivid affirmation of the 
fact that God can and will give us other 
means of recognizing each other after the 
disintegration of our physical bodies. 

The very heart of the Christian faith 
rests on the notion that individuals are 
what count. If we were to have mere im- 
mortality, in the sense that each spirit is 
reunited with a general spirit, thus losing 
its identity like a drop of water when it 
flows back into the ocean, this would not 
represent the saving of what is most 
precious to us. Furthermore, according to 
the teachings of Jesus Christ, it would not 
represent a saving of what is most precious 
in God's estimation. Jesus taught that God 
counts each of us as important and 
valuable and worth saving, and he stressed 
the unending and undefeatable care of the 
Father for each one. 

We know a great deal about Christianity 
when we come to realize that Easter Day is 

not a celebration of immortality in some 
vague, philosophical sense of the word. 
Rather, it is a triumphant, glad, and vic- 
torious affirmation of the resurrection in 
the sense that individuality is preserved and 

How is this possible? That is a valid 
question because we know that our means 
of recognizing one another in these pres- 
ent bodies is determined by such physical 
characteristics as the shape of our nose, the 
coloration of our hair, the contours of the 
face and head and body. But it is hard for 
us to imagine a non-physical means of 
recognition. The only answer we can come 
up with to this problem is to recognize our 
own ignorance. But let's look at it this way: 
If a dog or a cat were lounging in a room 
where we were holding an animated con- 
versation, it would hear sounds but in most 
instances it would have no idea of what 
was being said or of the meaning. In like 
manner we may be as much beneath the 
level in which spiritual bodies make sense 
as the dog or cat is beneath the human 
level of understanding. There must be so 
much in the world around us which is real, 
but of which we in our finitude are not 

The life of the world to come is a 
mystery, but everything that we really 
know is also a mystery. The late Professor 
Whitehead of Harvard made this point so 
insistently that his students could not miss 
it. He pointed out so beautifully that even 
as we cannot know how personality can 
survive, there is no way we can know how 
personality has arrived. How strange it is 
that out of a world of matter — of stars, of 
earth, of sand — there should arise beings 
who are able to think, to love, to know one 
another, to criticize themselves, and even 
to love God. But we know that this has oc- 
curred. For this reason, the future which 
we are unable to comprehend is no more 
mysterious than the present which we do 
know. There is a sense, then, in which the 
final word of wisdom on this most impor- 
tant of subjects is, "Brethren, we are the 
sons of God and it doth not yet appear 
what we shall be." [ 1 

Reprinli'il with permission from The Gifl of Easter, 
ed. hv F. H; Thaliher. "^ 1976 hy Ward. In,\ 

April 1977 messenger 15 

by Joseph M. Miller 

Was I, Peter, a coward for following those soldiers into 
the court of the high priest? To hear what was being said 
might possibly be of help. Could I be blamed for loving him, 
and risking my own life hopefully to save him from those treacherous 
enemies? Others were standing among the guards. All of the disciples had 
fled except me, big husky Peter, and maybe I could remain unidentified. 

The air was chilly and the fire which the temple guards had made from the thorns 
burned brightly, giving a homey warmth below while a million stars shone from the 
sky above. 

I might have saved him, if only I had not fled. But for the too sharp eye 

16 MESSENGER April 1977 

"For the third time I had denied I ever knew him. Then If eh those 
tender eyes of Jesus searching for me with a look I shall never forget." 

of the high priest's maid, it might have been 
done. \i only the Hght from that fire had 
been less bright, she might not have 
recognized me. Oh! 1 can hear her yet: "You 
also were with the Nazarene, Jesus." Im- 
pulsive soul that I am. I denied her by being 
evasive. "1 neither know nor understand 
what you mean." And that was a denial. 
Worse than that, it was untrue; it was a lie. 

Was it danger or cowardice that caused 
me to shift my position among those 
guards? In my tears, 1 am not certain. It 
seemed that some invisible force drew me 
away from the guards and into the 
gateway, away from the fire. Maybe here 
she would not see me again. If somehow, 
somehow, I could avoid her. But, as if that 
evil eye could not be taken from me, she 
had to announce to those standing by. 
"This man is one of them." When a 
bystander spoke to me for the third time 
then I cursed myself and denied him for the 
third time. "1 do not know this man of 
whom you speak." Then that cursed bugle 
of a cock blew its reveille. For the third 
time, I had denied I ever knew him. 

I felt those tender eyes of Jesus searching 
for me with a look I shall never forget. I 
denied him . . . and fled. 

Time passes, oh so slowly, when you are 
in a state of dazed shock, perplexed, faith 
gone, hope gone. And I, Peter, did have 
faith. I did believe he was Jesus; I did 
believe he was the Messiah. 

AH Israel had hoped for a leader — a 
king — who would rule with compassion 
and destroy injustice. But, strangely, he did 
not fill the role for them. Still he was all 
those qualities to me. Yes, he was even 
more — for I loved him. 

I, Peter, was the one who had said, 
"Though they all fall away because of you, 
I will never fall away. Even if I must die 
with you 1 will not deny you." In the gar- 
den, when all had fled, I stood. I even drew 
my sword and struck the ear of Malchus. 
Yes, at, that moment I knew no fear. 1 
would have defended him, even with my 
life. But he would not have it so. "Put your 
sword back into its place; for all who take 
the sword will perish by the sword." Those 
words were firm and kind, yet I did not un- 

derstand. But I obeyed. I thought that, all 
by myself, I could master this situation. I 
could turn back those guards. Yes! Even 
the soldiers with them. I loved him; I had 
faith in him. But now. he was in the hands 
of the enemies. Enemies to a good man. 

Memories! Memories! If only my 
despondent soul could erase them from my 
mind. If only they could be wiped from my 
mind as a child wipes the markings from a 
slate. This depression would then no longer 
depress me. And yet, I cannot forget. 

On the slopes of Mt. Tabor ... I 
wondered why he was so eager to scale 
those rocky slopes, where the air was thin 
and the ascent so difficult. Especially, since 
it was evening and darkness soon would 
envelop us. Why did he go? He had said, 
"Peter, I want you to accompany me. 
James and John are going too." 

Yes, his face glowed with the radiance of 
an evening sunset. And to talk with Elijah 
and Moses out of a shining cloud; this was 
unbelievable but true. And the voice said, 
"This is my beloved Son, in whom I am 
well pleased. Hear ye him." Sure, we dis- 
ciples were afraid. Fear froze our muscles 
to momentary immobility. We fell on our 
faces in fright. I can hear that voice, even 
now, so gentle, yet so reassuring. "Rise! Be 
not afraid!" 

How could a man keep from trusting a 
person such as that? A man who could 
communicate with the prophets of the 
past? Who sought and so completely felt 
himself within the counsel of his Father? 

I, Peter, still recall the look of surprise 
when he told a lame man to stand up and 
walk. How the surprise turned to joy and 
praise. Also, there was the marvel and 
wonder on the face of a blind man who for 
the first time saw the miracle of a blooming 
flower, or the green of a grassy meadow, or 
the twinkle of a distant star shooting its 
light through a frosty night. 

Yes, I forsook him, and fled. I, who 
walked the dusty paths over Judean hills 
and heard him speak peace to disturbed 
souls, saw him embrace small children 
within his arms of love, set people free 
from the death of sin, and made them more 
than they were. 

Feelings were high in Jerusalem at this 
feast time. Fear for life pervaded even us 
disciples. All were meeting in secret places 
for fear of their lives. Even the fear of 
rioting existed, and should it have broken 
out, Rome, with all its legions, would have 
wiped out many of the Jews. 

On the first day of the week, very early 
in the morning, Mary Magdalene went to 
the tomb and found it empty. She ran in 
search of me. "They have taken away the 
Lord from the tomb, and I do not know 
where they have laid him." We ran to the 
tomb and 1 entered. I saw the linen clothes 
lying there with the napkin a slight distance 
apart. We returned to our lodgings. Mary, 
of course, was greatly disturbed, for she 
loved him much. It was she who had been 
freed from seven devils by Jesus, something 
no one else had ever been able to ac- 
complish. This, Mary could never forget. 

Somehow John believed that he must 
have risen. I could not accept that so readi- 
ly. There were reports that he had made 
himself known to some of the disciples. But 
I had not experienced this meeting with the 

It was I who proposed to go back to 
fishing. The other disciples said they were 

April 1977 messenger 17 

going with me. We went out at night, since 
fishing by torchhght is much more efficient 
than fishing by dayUght. We fished all 
night. Nothing had been sighted by the 
light of the torch. We were returning in the 
early morning, when a voice from the shore 
said, "Lads, have you caught any fish?" We 
all answered "No!" "Cast your nets on the 
right side of the boat and you will find a 
catch." We did so and lo! we could not 
haul it in for such a great number of fish. 
It was John who said to me, excitedly, 
"It is the Lord." Realizing who it was, L as 
quickly as possible, pulled on suitable 
clothing and plunged into the water. The 
other disciples came, dragging the net, for 
they were only about a short distance from 
the shore. The catch was so large, it could 
not be lifted on deck. When we had disem- 
barked, there was a charcoal fire on the 
shore. The man said, "Bring some fish you 
have just caught." I sprang on board and 
hauled the net forward, full of fish. He 
said, "Come and have some breakfast." He 
took some bread, gave to each of us, and 

some fish in the same manner. 

When we had eaten, he turned to me, 
and with a gesture of his hand, as if point- 
ing to our boats, and to the sea, he said, 
"Peter, do you love me more than these?" I 
hesitantly answered, "Yes, Lord, you know 
that 1 love you." He answered, "Feed my 
lambs." Be a shepherd to his lambs? As if 1 
were seeing a vision, my mind recalled his 
healings, his miracles, his devoted love, his 
demonstration of the life and love of 

A second time he asked me, "Peter, do 
you love me?" Instantly I thought of my 
boat, which I loved; of my home; my voca- 
tion; friends with whom I fished. But not 
only that: I now began to recall instantly, 
as if a flash of insight, when at the last 
supper he said, "It is to your advantage 
that I go away, for if I do not go away, the 
Counsellor will not come to you. But if I 
go, I will send him to you. And he will 
declare to you the things that are to come." 
And a second time I answered, "Yes, Lord, 
you know that I love you." And a second 

time he said, "Feed my sheep." 

Yet, still the third time he said, "Peter, 
do you love me?" That thrice-asked ques- 
tion was somewhat grievous, for it brought 
back the memory I so much wanted to 
forget — how in the high priest's court I had 
denied him three times. This was the most 
painful memory to recall, that I, who was 
the embodiment of strength, of will, and of 
courage, should fail my Lord, in what 
seemed to be his greatest hour of need. 
And yet, he never ceased to love me! So, 
grief stricken, I answered, "You know 
everything; you know that I love you!" But 
here he gave me the chance to wipe out 
forever the memory of the night when 1 de- 
nied him and ran away. 

For then I saw the message that could be 
preached down the ages as I could tell the 
story of my own denial, and say. "That is 
what I did; but this amazing Jesus never 
stopped loving me, and promised 'Lo I 
will be with you always.'" 

And 1, Peter, say to you, I will feed his 
lambs. I will feed his sheep. D 

This love comes not easy 

On a dark dawn 

For our brokenness 

It does not fall 

On Easter morn or any. 

We kneel around 

from some sky-throned 

in accustomed dark 

the lengthened table of the Lord 

dispenser of wellwishes. 

we approach with heaviness 

and with sacred crumb and cup 

sprinkling handfuls of heart-shaped 

the place of perished good. 

commemorate the Body 

confetti love 

Expecting dawns of nothing. 

that was token of our brokenness. 

and tickertape streamers of goodwill 

we are startled to find 

on the mortal parade. 

that night's death-tomb 

We rise 

is empty. 

resolving in our lives 

This love comes crying. 

At first 

to mend the broken bread. 

manger-bedded and cross-hung. 

we do not recognize 

pull pieces back into a loaf 

in tears of caring 

life standing by our side. 

and make a sacrament 

that river tortuously 

looking like eternity. 

of wholeness. 

through the God-gap 


of our humanhood. 

it is sunrise. 

— Ernestine Hoff Emrick 

18 MESSENGER April 1977 

by Earle W. Fike Jr. 

Rx for Brokenness 

When a virus begins to spread, the 
National Center for Disease Control in 
Atlanta tells us if we have an epidemic on 
our hands and prescribes preventive 
procedures. The Church of the Brethren 
does not have an epidemic on its hands, 
but there appears to be a small virus in our 

Over the past two years, three churches 
have sought to disassociate themselves 
from the Church of the Brethren and go in- 
dependent. It might be well for us to review 
the resources which are available for such 
situations, the symptoms which precede 
such decisions, and some possible 

IVhai are our resources^ Our polity (the 
covenantal agreements which govern our 
life together as the Church of the Brethren) 
is a strong antidote. When congregations 
ask to become a part of the Church of the 
Brethren, they are asking to be within the 
fellowship and governance of our 
denomination. Among actions of Annual 
Conference related to disassociation, two 
statements are very clear; 

1) "In case of strife or division, if any 
part of the congregation refuses to abide by 
its obligations as a member of the Church 
of the Brethren, that part of the congrega- 
tion, whether a majority or a minority of 
its membership, which continues in unity 
with the Church of the Brethren, shall be 
recognized as the lawful congregation and 
shall continue in possession of all the 
property of the congregation." 

2) "If a congregation (a) disbands, (b) 
departs from membership in the Church of 
the Brethren, or (c) so decreases in 
members and financial strength as to 
render the congregation unable to fulfill its 
purpose, the district of the Church of the 
Brethren in which it is located, or its 
successor, shall have the right to take 
charge of and control of all property, and 
thereafter to hold, manage, and convey the 
same at the discretion of the district." 
These statements mean no congregation 
can disassociate itself without district 
approval — and anytime a congregation dis- 
bands, the property reverts to the district. 

Our polity recognizes theologically and 
legally, that neither persons nor con- 
gregations are entities unto themselves. 
As members of the Church of the Brethren, 
we are subject to the counsel and discipline 
of the larger bodies of the church when 
there is disharmony in small units. In addi- 
tion our polity prevents individual persons 
from leading congregations astray to their 
own personal profit or benefit. 

We are grateful that we have not had a 
large history of litigation with con- 
gregations in the Church of the Brethren. 
But in those instances where we found it 
necessary to be legally involved, the courts 
have recognized the linkage between An- 
nual Conference, the district, and the local 
church, and have, in every instance 
recognized our polity as being binding 
upon the local church. 


'isaffilialion symptortu. Symptoms for 
the disaffiliation virus are somewhat 
similar and easily recognizable. Look for 
combinations of the following: 

— Usually a pastor trained at an in- 
dependent Bible school with very little 
knowledge of the Church of the Brethren 
polity or procedures, who is willing to 
work for a reduced salary. 

— Strong pastoral appeal to biblical 
authority (attractive to our churches), but 
with little relationship to the heritage and 
understanding of the scriptures shared by 
the Church of the Brethren. 

— Strong appeal to congregational 
autonomy, and individual loyalty to the 
local church. 

— Preaching and discussion which 
focuses on such things as "district in- 
terference," "lack of leadership," 
"ecumenical cooperation," "too much An- 
nual Conference power," and "pulling 
away from 'Brethren ways'." (Very often 
what the pastor is calling the congregation 
to has no relationship to "Brethren ways.") 

— Changing the church's name, restruc- 
turing the church board or the deacon 
body, or revising the church constitution or 
articles of incorporation in order to ex- 

clude denominational relationships. 

Responses to ihe symptoms. If such 
symptoms occur, find some way. in the 
spirit of Matthew 18:15-17 to share your 
concern. Early recognition of symptoms 
may allow for healing and reconciliation to 
occur. Recommended responses include: 

1) When it is aware of concerns, the dis- 
trict should move decisively to reconcile es- 
tranged persons outside of litigation. 

2) If an illegal vote should occur, the dis- 
trict should counsel with those who wish to 
remain faithful to the Church of the 
Brethren and move to protect their legal 

3) If a district decides there is no reason 
to contest a vote of the congregation to 
leave the Church of the Brethren, the dis- 
trict should take legal action to disaffiliate 
itself from the congregation and relinquish 
its rights to the property. 

Conclusion. It is not wrong, within the 
Church of the Brethren, to be critical of the 
denomination or its leaders. But in our 
theology it is wrong to seek, by devious 
ways, to separate a congregation from the 

Going to court is not tasteful to us. If it 
is possible to treat those who have voted to 
leave the Church of the Brethren and those 
who desire to stay in some fair way short 
of court action, we should make every ef- 
fort in that direction. However, if churches 
desire to separate themselves outside of the 
covenant agreements which are a part of 
our polity, then we must stand firm. 

If you are experiencing some tinge of the 
virus and are concerned, sharing in the 
spirit of Matthew 18 with brothers and 
sisters in your congregation and your dis- 
trict may allow for healing and reconcilia- 
tion to occur. And that would indeed be 
"in the Brethren way." [ ] 

April 1977 MESSENGER 19 

TH£ jeSUS UJflH 

Read: I Corinthians 1:23, 25; 2 Corin- 
thians 13:4 

The people who heralded Jesus" last arrival 
in Jerusalem set the stage for a lost cause. 
"Hosanna," they cried. That ancient word 
of praise was also a prayer to God: "O 

In that last week of his earthly life. Jesus 
most clearly showed his followers the sav- 
ing way. In Jerusalem, in the space of just 
a few days, he demonstrated all that he had 
taught them in Galilee; weakness alone 
must be the servant's way of life. 

Yet, the people shouted, "Hail to the 
King!" (Mark 1 1:9, Living Bible). And king 
He was. But not a warrior king after the 
manner of old King David. Rather, he was 
the bleeding and dying Passover sacrifice, 
the Lamb upon the throne. 

In hailing Jesus, the Jerusalemites ex- 
pected from him the mighty works that 
only a king could do. No one could come 
to their city as a king without being asked 
to do one more mighty work: "Save us 
from the Romans." 

Without lifting a sword. Jesus would 
save them — and us — from so much more. 
But in doing so, he cut our understandings 
of power into little pieces and cast them to 
the wind. He had to save us from our own 
notions of strength by being the Suffering 

The ancient prophets left us with clues 
about the meaning of that servant deed. 
They affirmed that "he took our infirmities 
and bore our diseases" (Matt. 8:17; see also 

Is. 53:4). We cannot explain just how this 
happened, but we know Jesus did just that. 

Jesus proved himself the perfect servant. 
He made himself available for what needed 
most to be done: to bear the sins of the 
people of the world. 

Here's good news: Jesus gave himself to 
the cross. All else written in the Bible until 
this point was written so that we might un- 
derstand the meaning of the Servant's self- 
giving. Christ on the cross is the gospel, the 
good news from God and the good news 
that the apostles preached. 


hrough Christ, God set his people free. 
Christ saved us from slavery. He has 
brought us into a new nation and kingdom. 
In becoming the offering for our sins (Is. 
53: 10, II), he became the ransom for many 
(Mark 10:45). In him. the last became first, 
the servant became king. 

The power of the Jesus Way was 
obedience to God, willingness to suffer that 
others might live. The greatest test of that 
obedience for the Servant King was the 
willingness to give himself to a lost cause. 

All that the people of Jerusalem could 
see in the events of the crucifixion was 
weakness and defeat, the bitter end of a 
lost cause. They had hoped that in Jesus 
Christ they would see God acting as he had 
once acted through Moses to lead them 
across the Red sea. 

But God allowed Jesus to be destroyed 
on the cross. The evil one triumphed and 
the enemies of God won the victory. Or, so 

it seemed. 

Says Paul of Christ: "He was crucified in 
weakness" (2 Cor. 13:4). And he discovered 
that to "preach Christ crucified (is) a 
stumbling-block to Jews and folly to Gen- 
tiles .... For the foolishness of God is 
wiser than men, and the weakness of God 
is stronger than men" (1 Cor. 1:23, 25). 

Don't think that just because the 
strength of God was once expressed in the 
weakness of the cross that now the rest of 
us can return to strength in the old human 
tradition. For that would be to deny all 
that we have learned about the Jesus Way 
and all that has been revealed to us by God 
through Him. 

The Suffering Servant way was not a 
temporary tactic of God to get through the 
tight spot of the crucifixion after which he 
would turn once more to the dazzling spec- 
tacles of power that people have always ex- 
pected of gods made in their own images. 
Weakness and suffering are God's standard 
operating procedures. 

Since we have come to know God in the 
person of Jesus Christ, God can and will 
not use any other way of working. Jesus 
Christ was his fullest and most complete 
revelation of himself. 

Through weakness and suffering, God 
works in us and through us. Paul found 
this true for his own life. After struggling 
to make it otherwise, Paul heard God say, 
"my power is made perfect in weakness" (2 
Cor. 12:9). 

That's the Jesus Way — the way of the 
Suffering Servant and King. [J 

ou Maunarc 

20 MESSENGER April 1977 

"Descent oj Christ from the Cross." hy SaJao H'aiatiahe 

April 1977 messenger 21 



Story and photographs 
by Karen S. Carter 

Brilliant people oftentimes live in the shadow of anonymity, 
quietly absorbed in some pursuit of their mind of which the 
average "graduate" has only a vague notion. So it is with 
Baxter Mow, 85-year-old husband of "Sister Anna," 
goateed amateur astronomer (who sometimes puts 
professionals to shame!), retired missionary and 
pastor, scholar of ancient languages, and much, much 

While his effervescent wife travels from coast to 
coast on church-related missions, Baxter, who 
"contributes Anna to the church," figures out 
the intricate courses of what to me are "just 
stars," teaches Greek and Hebrew with a 
never-dying twinkle in his eye that sets his 
"crow's feet" a-dancing, and keeps his ar- 
boretum in trim shape. In short, his 
"pursuit of happiness" is vastly 
different from that of his wife, and 
hidden from the prying eye of the 

The Mows live humbly, in a 
small cottage bought by Anna's 
father. I.N. H. Beahm. and lived 
in by him only two days 
prior to his fatal 
car accident in 
November, 1950. 
When I visited for the 
first time with Baxter 
during one of Anna's 
frequent trips. I wondered to 
myself, "How can anyone ever 
find a way through such a 
mess? How does Baxter ever 
find a book or a paper when 
he needs it?" 

I soon began to realize, 
however, that there was pur- 
pose to the apparent chaos 
around him. Perhaps Baxter 
was working on the calcula- 
tion of the return of one of 


Now it can be told: Anna 
Mow has a husband, a 
twinkley-eyed scholar 
with unique gifts. 

our space satellites, and the papers on his 
desk (and chairs and floor) showed the 
progress of his figurings. Or maybe he was 
checking out the meaning of an ancient 
Aramaic or Arabic inscription someone 
had brought back from a trip to the Mid- 
dle East. And I have yet to catch him un- 
able to find what he is looking for, even 
when it is an item unexpectedly requested 
by his visitor, 

Anna, too, might be caught by surprise, 
laboring over a bibliography for one of her 
latest books, and little assorted heaps of 
volumes of various sizes and colors would 
be strewn over the living room floor and 
furniture and running into adjoining 
rooms, all in an order not apparent to the 
casual visitor. 

But books are swept off the sofa in a 
hurry, a cup of tea (Indian-style, with 
cream and sugar) is steaming before me, 
and soon I am enveloped in an atmosphere 
uniquely Mowian, created by Anna's 
warmth and listening ear, and Baxter's 
engaging charm and sparkling wit. 


• orn and raised on a farm in Indiana in 
the German Baptist tradition, Baxter 
recalls learning "readin', 'ritin', and 
'rithmetic, taught to the tune of a hickory 
stick." When almost ten, following a 
pressure revival, he was baptized in the 
river by cutting a hole through the ice. 

When Baxter was 1 1, the family joined 
the Brethren westward migration and 
moved to Idaho, where Baxter later attend- 
ed the university, studying mostly literature 
in English, Latin, Greek, German, 
French — and Hebrew and Aramaic on the 
side! He also took education and 
mathematics courses and after graduating 
with a B.A. degree in 1913 began teaching 
school at the Parma High School. That 
same year he was. also called into the 

Baxter, then and now: He was defrocked in 
1914 for foregoing Brethren plain collars. 

ministry by his home congregation, the 
Weiser church in Idaho. 

"I soon discovered the hardness of life," 
Baxter remembers with a chuckle that 
deeply furrows his cheeks, "for a clique of 
boys formed the well-known pattern of do- 
ing deliberate and consistent mischief until 
the teacher gives up in despair. I failed to 
cope with that, and was glad to resign at 

"Not much later 1 collided with hardness 
and coldness in the church also, when I 
was summoned to answer charges for 
irregular conduct. Chiefly, 1 could not 
promise to forever cease wearing a neck- 
tie! That did it. I was deprived of my 
ministry. I am a rather keen and indepen- 
dent thinker, and this experience shadowed 
my life at the time, although I tried to ig- 
nore it." 

Six months after this incident, Baxter 
was on his way to England as a recipient of 
a Rhodes Scholarship, tenable at the Uni- 

versity of Oxford. He switched from 
classics to chemistry. 

"World War I was in full swing," Baxter 
recalls, "and college halls were decimated 
of their boys. So although college life was 
at low ebb at least I had more time for 
study. In vacations I cycled around the 
country a bit, and spent some time helping 
in a military hospital in Paris and at 

Three years later, Baxter returned to the 
States with a B.A. in Natural Sciences 
from Oxford University. Judging that "the 
world needs preachers more than 
chemists," he switched from sciences back 
to religion. With the consent of the Weiser 

April 1977 MESSENGER 23 

Upper: A cycling enthusiast, Baxter has 
never owned a car! Lower: Baxter at the 
baptism of a former Moslem in India. 

congregation that had defrocked him four 
years earlier (and by now had necktie- 
wearing members, too!) Baxter was 
restored to the ministry and spent four 
years at Bethany Seminary. It was there 
that Baxter met Anna Beahm. and they 
were married in a simple ceremony on 
March 30, 1921, shortly before each re- 
ceived divinity degrees. 

"A niche was found for us," Baxter con- 
tinues, "as home missionaries among the 
secluded mountain valleys about Smedley 
in Rappahannock County, Va." The Mows 
lived in an old log cabin of "five rooms and 
a path" Baxter served as pastor and oc- 
casional circuit rider and evangelist to 

other counties, until he was called to teach 
in the Hebron Seminary in Nokesville. 

This period in the backwoods of Virginia 
proved to be an excellent preparation for 
their later missionary work. The pride of 
the mountaineers, they learned, was 90 per- 
cent dignity, which was also true for the 
village people of India. 

In March, 1921, the Mows applied for 
"overseas mission work. Rather than dis- 
playing in flashing colors his academic 
achievements and scientific pursuits, Bax- 
ter assessed himself rather soberly when he 
wrote to the Brethren mission board: 

"You will find plenty of my faults in the 
replies from the references I have named. I 
think most of them will be found traceable 
from these dispositions of mine: 

— to assume too high a level of in- 
telligence in my pupils or hearers, and then 
to be disappointed in them, 

— to be at ease in my own company, and 
not meddle in the affairs of others, 

— to talk but little, and what I do say is 

— to be very self-conscious and easily 

— to be economical to a fault. 

— to procrastinate in certain matters. 

"I have never been a popular person, yet 
I have no lack of friends. I assume the best 
in people, without examining them 
closely. ..." 


'axter and Anna received their ap- 
pointments to go to India in 1923 and were 
stationed at Bulsar, in Gujarat State. Some 
persons had predicted that Baxter would 
not be able to communicate with the 
villagers to whom he was sent. The mission 
in India was at that time directed primarily 
toward the depressed classes, which then 
meant illiteracy, superstition and poor 
knowledge of basic sanitation, health prac- 
tices, and technological development. But 
Baxter's practical intelligence, keen obser- 
vation, and ability to fit in with and learn 
from his environment made him an asset to 
the mission work — even beyond his exper- 
tise in the fast-acquired Gujarati language 
and his previous pastoral experience. He, 
who could find his way through the jungle 
to cross a mountain by means of his native 
sense of direction when most villagers 
could only reach the other side by 
laborious and round-about paths, soon 
won the respect of the people. 

When the mission decided to extend its 
approach to the Moslem element, Baxter 
volunteered for this new opportunity. In 
addition to Gujarati he now studied the 

Urdu. Hindi, and Arabic languages, and 
gained familiarity with the Koran. On 
furlough in 1931-32 he studied at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and received his M.A. in 
Islamic Studies. Baxter was so know- 
ledgeable in languages that he was ap- 
pointed to the National Language Com- 
mittee for Christian Literature for India. It 
was his task to correct previously mis- 
translated and misquoted passages from 
Arabic sources in tracts and other 
literature and prepare them for re-issuing. 
Political self-rule and anti-foreign agita- 
tion in India brought much trouble to the 
missionaries. When the Mows were retired 
from the field in 1940, their lives had been 
enriched both by the joys and the hard- 
ships of their work. "I never went hunting 
tigers," Baxter grins, "but I could write a 
book on the snakes and insects and how we 
avoided the pests." 


' pon return to the States, Anna taught 
at Bethany Seminary. Financially unable to 
indulge in further prolonged University 
work, and advised, for health's sake, to 
quit sitting behind books (he was under 
observation for TB) Baxter got employ- 
ment of a more physical nature as a stock- 
man with Sears. Some time later, how- 
ever, he returned to employment with 
books again, at the Newberry Library in 

Baxter is interested and proficient in so 
many things that there abound many 
fascinating and often humorous stories 
about him. 

While in Bulsar. Baxter observed the 
professional builders of culverts go about 
their work. The Mows, too, were badly in 
need of a culvert in front of their house, 
but Baxter noticed that by the way the 
"professionals" put them together, the 
culverts could not last very long. When the 
men came to offer their services to 
Baxter — after all, they needed all the 
business they could get — Ba,\ter offered 
them the job under one condition: the cul- 
vert would be built according to his 
specifications. They agreed. After a year, 
all the cuherts near the Mows had washed 
out. while Baxter's, after 26 years, was still 
in good shape and functioning. 

Then there is the incident of the first 
space satellite's return, which was predicted 
in the newspaper with date and time. Bax- 
ter, somewhat astonished, remarked to 
Anna that according to his calculations it 
would return one week later — and it did. 
Baxter first became interested in astron- 
omy when together with his mother he 

24 MESSENGER April 1977 

observed a solar eclipse in 1900. At the age 
of 12 he wrote a little story entitled "A Trip 
to the Moon" which was published. Need- 
less to say, today Baxter is a valuable 
member of Roanoke's Amateur Astron- 
omers" Club. Today Baxter studies the 
heavens through a precision telescope 
whose lenses were ground by Baxter him- 
self and his son-in-law (Any kinship to 


►axter does not mind managing at home 
alone during Anna's absence, but he does 
mind doing the dishes. So when Anna 
returns, every dish is usually dirty. One 
time, while Anna was gone, Baxter had un- 
expected company: Dr. Lowell Heisey 
from Bridgewater College had dropped in 
for a visit. When Anna returned shortly 
after the guest had left (she had been gone 
for a week or more) she was amazed to 
find only the dishes from that morning's 
breakfast in the sink. She thought to 
herself, "Baxter had company and they 
straightened things out for him," and pro- 

ceeded to wash the breakfast dishes. Bax- 
ter, coming in from the porch, said quietly, 
"I guess you will want to have these," set- 
ting down at Anna's feet a bushel basket of 
dirty dishes! 

Anna's chuckling explanation: "He 
knows I like to wash dishes, and he does 
not want to take away my joy." 

A couple of years ago I got my first in- 
structions in Greek from Baxter and now I 
am studying Hebrew with him, his way, 
that is, with a few words of Aramaic and 
Arabic thrown in for good measure to 
"broaden my understanding of the interre- 
latedness of the Semitic languages." There 
are times when in my impatience to acquire 
a difficult language 1 wish that Baxter was 
not quite the scholar that he is. Instead of 
just teaching me Hebrew, starting with the 
alphabet and a proper dose of grammar, 
Baxter had piled up a mountain of some 25 
books, each bristling with little scrap paper 
markers, with which he greeted the anxious 
student for her first lesson. 

He was eager to impress upon me how 
the Semitic languages developed, how 

No mean astronomer, Baxter grinds his own precision lenses for his telescopes. He studied 
Halley's Comet in 1910 and is eagerly anticipating its return around 1986. 

Hebrew in its classical form had evolved 
and how the characters had changed, let's 
say, from the time of the inscription in the 
tunnel of Hezekiah (King of Judah from 
715 to 687 B.C.), through the post-exilic 
period to the time of Christ. We went 
through pages of photographs and draw- 
ings, a picture of the Moabite stone and 
sections of the Dead Sea Scrolls, compar- 
ing letters and noting their similarities and 
differences. I grew restive during the dis- 
course, but I knew from past similar ex- 
periences that I would recall this sidetrip of 
Baxter's mind with pleasure. 

The other day I asked Baxter what I 
thought was a simple question: What was 
the Hebrew verb used in Jeremiah 31:22 
which the RSV translated, "a woman 
protects a man." Baxter, with an impish 
gleam in his eye, gave me a not so simple 
answer, but apparently was not satisfied 
with its scope and a day later wrote me the 
following post-card: 

"Dear Exegete — 

"In the Jerusalem Bible (1966) I find 
perhaps some light on that curious passage 
Jer. 31:22 5n3A 33fon npp]" N^qeb^ah 
t^sob^eb" gabber (a female surrounds a 
man), viz: 'the woman sets out to find her 
husband again' with footnote that s-b-b 
can mean search around. Reversal of her 
waywardness. See Ho. I, Is. 54:5, Ez. 

The LXX goes wide: €V ffujTf|p(a 
TrepieXeucrovTai d'vGpuJTroi. (surround = 

"Vulgate says: Usquequo deliciis 
dissolveris, filia vaga? quia creavit Domi- 
nus novum super terram: Femina circum- 
dabit virum. 

Luther had it: Das Weib wird den 
Mann umgeben. 

The RSV says: a woman protects a 
man. Well, so there you are. 

"I'll add, I'm pretty sure Jeremiah did 
not mean the new women's liberation, viz., 
'she will hedge him in and throttle him.' 
"Hermeneutes — Rabbi Mow" 

A scholar who does not look like one! If 
you happen to run into Baxter on one of 
his bicycle trips downtown (his main mode 
of transportation is a three-gear bicycle; 
the Mows have never owned a car!), wear- 
ing a well-worn jacket, baggy pants, and 
the requisite cap, you might think that he is 
an old farmer coming to the market. He 
may stop and talk with you and, with his 
hands in front of his chest, fingertips 
touching, reveal to you his secret hope: to 
live to see the reappearance of Halley's 
Comet in 1986! IJ 

April 1977 messenger 25 

Such a time as this 

by Pamela Brubaker Lowe 
Like the biblical Esther, we sisters, under Church Women United, were 
empowering ourselves to respond creatively and positively to our time. 

Esther 4:12-16— 

'2 And they told Mordecai what Esther had 
said. "Then Mordecai told them to return 
answer to Esther, "Think not that in the king's 
palace you will escape any more than all the 
other Jews. '"For if you keep silence at such a 
time as this, relief and deliverance will rise for 
the Jews from another quarter, but you and 
your father's house will perish. And who knows 
whether you have not come to the kingdom for 
such a time as this?" '^Then Esther told them to 
reply to Mordecai, "'"Go, gather all the Jews to 
be found in Susa, and hold a fast on my behalf, 
and neither eat nor drink for three days, night or 
day. I and my maids will also fast as you do. 
Then I will go to the king, though it is against 
the law; and if I perish, I perish." 

With these words from Esther, the first 
morning's worship service of the Consulta- 
tion for Women for Empowerment within 
Christian Constituencies was begun. We, 
too, are at just such a time. And as Esther 
and her people prepared themselves to 
respond — empowering themselves to take 
the situation into their hands and dealing 
creatively and positively with it — we met 
under the sponsorship of Church Women 
United to empower ourselves to respond to 
our time. A time with so much desperate 
need — violence, hunger, injustice, 
brokenness — that the full energies of all 
people are demanded in creative response. 

Who were we who came together? We 
were 70 women 

— from 15 denominations 

— Protestant and Catholic 

— denominational staff, caucus and task 
force members, women's groups 

— ordained, members of religious orders, 

— white, black, Hispanic, Asian- 
American, native American. 

A diverse group but a group whose 
members in the days from November 10- 
14, 1976, built and celebrated their 
sisterhood. Facilitated by trainers Barbara 
Thain McNeel and Bessie C. Howard and 
CWU staff person Gail D. Hinand, we af- 
firmed our differences and commonalties 
and drew strength from them. 

What did we do to empower ourselves? 
Workshops developed from the resources 
of the group brought about meaningful 
learnings as they came from our own ex- 
periences. Topics we chose to work with 

were power, change, styles of leadership, 
backlash to the women's movement, and 

An important learning from the 
workshops was the necessity of having a vi- 
sion and keeping that vision before us. One 
vision we claimed was the transformation 
of persons and institutions through God's 
and our power. 

The ethnicity workshop was at times 
painful, but a growing experience. The 
workshop began with the statement that 
ethnicity can be a "Madison Avenue" term 
which obscures the real issue of racism. 
Our sisters of color then shared, through 
the use of role plays, problems of a racist 
nature which they have faced. Our white 
sisters discussed in small groups how 
churches could deal with these situations. 
A dialogue followed concerning the help- 
fulness of the suggestions. 

We became painfully aware of some of 
the ways in which we and our churches are 

— membership policies 

— publishing materials only in English 
and from a white perspective 

— setting timetables for ethnic groups 
without respect for the needs of the group. 


presentation on sexism /racism 
helped us realize that both come from the 
same roots of oppression. 

To reflect on the learnings of the 
workshops, a series of small groups met. 
The first day we met in denominational 
groupings. There were five Church of the 
Brethren women who met daily. Our sec- 
ond day groupings were in streams. Three 
streams were identified. The first was 
traditional women's groups; the second, 
women in caucuses and task forces; and the 
third, women in ethnic caucuses. Third day 
groupings were cross-stream: Represen- 
tatives from each of the three streams were 
in each cross-stream group. These various 
groupings were a time for meeting different 
people, for dialogue, for learning about 
other denominational structures and 
policies, and for incorporating the learn- 
ings into our own experiences. 

There were times to share our own "Her- 
stories"— our personal life story — with the 

group. These were often very moving as 
women shared the struggles they ex- 
perience in becoming full persons. From 
the sharing came a response to the stories 
which celebrated our sisterhood: 

"(Name of I he person sharing), we affirm 

your journey. , we are 

part of your journey." 

Printed and audio-visual resources 
brought by individuals and denominations 
were available for perusal. Participants 
could often be found during free time look- 
ing over these materials. 

Free time was also used for informal 
community building. Some walked through 
the beautiful wooded, rolling hills and 
lakes at Marydale Center (near Cincinnati). 
There was late-night singing in many 
languages. And at most times conversation 
was going on. 

In one such conversation a Catholic 
sister shared an insight with relevance for 
our time. Commenting on the radical 
changes many orders are making, she said, 
"When we realized the structures and 
traditions of the church were not ihe faiih, 
we could change." 

Worship was important in the daily 
schedule. Readings and scriptures of signif- 
icance to women today were shared. We 
heard again the story of Martha asking Je- 
sus to send Mary to help serve and Jesus 
telling Martha that Mary was doing the im- 
portant thing (Luke 10: 38-43). The story of 
Job leaving an inheritance to his daughters 
as well as his sons (Job 42: 10-15) was read. 
New and traditional hymns were sung; 
litanies and prayers were offered. 

The communion service was the 
highpoint of the celebration. Our response 
while sharing the bread and cup with the 
sister next to us was "1 affirm your 
journey; I am part of your journey." A new 
element in this service was an affirmation 
of our vision and the need to keep it before 
us. Reminiscent of the Old Testament vi- 
sion, we shared a cup of milk and honey. 

We then went out empowered to meet 
our time; a time in which a new creation is 
struggling to be born. And we will help 
birth that new creation — a people sharing 
equality from the Creator, wholeness pro- 
claimed by Christ, and oneness through 
the Spirit. 1 1 

26 MESSENGER April 1977 




Charles P. Desanto selects 
and shares many of the endur- 
ing qualities and guidelines for 
dating, courtship, and marriage 
that have stood the test of 
time. The author blends a 
strong biblical stand with 
sound sociological and 
psychological understandings. 

"This book serves as a help- 
ful resource for discussions 
with young people in a variety 
of settings . . . youth leaders, 
Sunday School teachers, pas- 
tors, and parents will also find 
much in LOVE AND SEX 
will clarify what is needed for 
a solid marriage relation." 
—John M. Drescher in the 
introduction. Paper, $3.95. 


Gordon G. Talbot urges us 
to maintain a proper perspec- 
tive on life. He does not ask 
us to despise material things 
and become ascetics, but he 
warns us against letting them 
assume a place of primary 
importance. He reminds us 
once again that "a man's life 
does not consist in the abun- 
dance of his possessions." 
Paperback, $1.95. 





David W. Augsburger has 
written a book which Allen 
Verhey in the Calvin Theologi- 
cal Journal called a, "wise, 
delightful, sensible, funny, 
sober, cherishable book. It is 
neither sentimental slush nor 
cynical jibe. It is neither joy- 
less sobriety nor mindless 
delight. I have not seen a book 
I would more highly 
recommend for couples con- 
templating marriage, beginning 
marriage, or struggling with a 
marriage." Hardcover, $4.95; 
Softcover, $1.50. 



Zola Levitt and Norma 
Martin have provided positive 
help in an area of desperate 
need. They combine life 
stories of those caught in 
marriage failure along with 
solid teachings by serious 
biblical scholars. This book 
will prove profitable for all 
committed people of com- 
passion. Paperback, $1.95. 

At your 

local bookstore 

Herald Press 

Dept. MS, Scottdale, PA 15683 
Kitchener, ON N2G 4IVI5 



Workshops have been held across the 
country to introduce persons from con- 
gregations to The Foundation Series. The 
Foundation Series is a curriculum for 
children through grade 8. It is available for 
use beginning in September, 1977. 

The material is published by the 
Brethren in Christ Church, the General 
Conference Mennonite Church, and the 
Mennonite Church. The Church of the 
Brethren has cooperated in its development 
and recommends it for use in Brethren con- 
gregations as one option for church school 
through grade 8. 

The Foundation Series is planned to 
"Provide congregations with educational 
materials containing 

— information 
— methods 

— resources 
— evaluation 

to assist adults share with children in the 
midst of the congregation the heritage of 
the people of God 

— its history 

— its present life 

— its destiny 
so that the children individually and cor- 
porately will freely respond to the full ex- 
tent of their ability to Jesus Christ 

— in love 

— in faith 

— in obedience." 

The name of the series comes from I 
Corinthians 3:1 1 "For no other foundation 
can anyone lay than that which is laid, 
which is Jesus Christ." The name of the 
series invites everyone to build on Jesus 

Which curriculum? 

Four questions are quite often asked by 
persons in congregations as they consider 
what curriculum materials to use: 

1) Are the materials biblical? 

2) Are they easily taught? 

3) Are they colorful? 

4) Can we examine the materials before 

Answers to these questions regarding 
The Foundation Series are all "yes": 

1) It is a biblical curriculum. The first 
two quarters of each year in Grades 3 
through 8 are a through-the-Bible study 
with each year picking up where the past 
year had left off. The third quarter each 
year focuses on the Gospels and Jesus 
Christ. The fourth quarter each year 
provides a study of a theme, subject or 

2) Those who developed The Foundation 
Series were aware that most church school 
teachers are busy volunteers. The lesson 
structure and the resources provided are 
designed to assist the teacher to have an 
effective ministry. 

3) Color is a necessary part of a 
children's curriculum. Using color adds to 
the cost of materials so efforts were made 
to use color wisely as a teaching tool rather 
than just for sales appeal. 

4) Sample copies of the materials of The 
Foundation Series can be ordered through 
The Brethren Press. The cost of the sample 
copies is billed to the congregation. How- 
ever, if the samples are returned, there is 
no charge. Sample copies were available at 
workshops held across the country during 
March, 1977. 

Four other principles were important in 
the development of The Foundation Series. 
These indicate ways in which The 

Foundation Series might be an appropriate 
choice for the Mennonite /Brethren in 
Christ /Church of the Brethren con- 
gregations for which it was designed. 

1) Every curriculum has a theology. 
Much of the non-denominational material 
does not deal with some dimensions of the 
Christian faith which are important to 
those with an Anabaptist theological 

2) The preaching and teaching in a con- 
gregation should be compatible 
theologically. The Foundation Series with 
its Anabaptist basis provides materials 
which are consistent with that which is 
preached. Biblical knowledge and a confi- 
dent faith are developed in the total 
ministry of the congregation. 

3) Selecting curriculum materials is a 
congregational responsibility. In many con- 
gregations, individual teachers are allowed 
to choose their own materials. Choosing 
one curriculum as the primary teaching 
resource provides balance, sequence and 
comprehensiveness. The teaching of The 
Foundation Series deals with the whole 
gospel and reflects the historic, biblical 
faith of the group of which it is a part. 

4) The curriculum has grown out of the 
people. There were 38 writers, three 
editors, and two assistant editors. Each 
writer had a group of consultants. Task 
forces in the areas of music, preschool, 
graphic design and teacher training were 
active. Some of the persons who worked in 
the development of The Foundation Series 
were Theresa Eshbach, Warren Eshbach, 
Hazel Kennedy, Gladys Olson, Glee Yoder, 


the Bible 
in the con^egation 

!„M.^ fte teacher 
m the congregation 

28 MESSENGER April 1977 

Wilbur Brumbaugh, Clyde Weaver, and 
Shirley J. Heckman. Other Brethren 
worked as consultants to writers. 

The basic resources 

For grades 1 through 8, basic resources in- 
clude a teacher's guide and student 
resources which are sometimes in two 
parts — a reading book and a workbook, 
which are sold only as a unit, and a teach- 
ing packet: a variety of helps like records, 
cassettes, pictures, maps, games, charts, 

For five-year-olds, God Keeps His 
Promise is a Bible storybook for church 
and home used with a teacher's guide, a 
weekly storypaper, a record, and a teach- 
ing packet. 

Materials for three-and four-year-olds 
include take home cards, a teacher's guide, 
a song book and a record. 

Living with 3s, 4s, and 5s is for parents 
of three- to five-year-olds. It is designed for 
reading by parents and for study in 
parents' groups. 

Infants, Toddlers, and Twos is provided 
for parents and other adults who are with 
the very young. It provides insights into 
child growth and suggests ways that adults 
can enter more fully into the spiritual 
growth of little children. 

Resources for teacher training include A 
Guide to Teacher Training with directions 
for seven sessions. The Resource Book for 
Teachers contains articles and stories 
useful to teachers as well as worksheets for 
the seven sessions. 

A pamphlet for parents and a statement 
on evangelism and 77?^ Foundation Series 
are also available. A filmstrip about The 
Foundation Series has been provided to 
each district office. 

Posters like those pictured and bulletin 
covers with the same designs are available. 

The Leader's Guide to The Foundation 
Series describes the background and basis 
for the curriculum as well as details about 
each of the age-group materials developed. 
Prices and ordering information has been 
sent to each congregation to the person 
who orders church school material. Ad- 
ditional information is provided in the 
resource sheets sent with the order form 
and to persons who chair nurture com- 
missions in congregations and districts. 
—Shirley J. Heckman 

^^[LairDT^DDTigj ^©ddi]!^^ 


Dale Eldon Bowman, li- 
censed Nov. 7, 1976, Loon 
Creek. South/Central Indiana 

James A. Davis, licensed 
Nov. 76. McFarland, Pacific 

Larry Davis. licensed Nov. 
76, McFarland. Pacific South- 

G. Wayne Edwards, licensed 
Nov. 76, Tucson, Pacific South- 

Kenneth Ellis, licensed Nov. 
76, Tucson, Pacific Southwest 

Galen R. Hackman. or- 
dained Sept. 26, 1976, Mohler. 
Atlantic Northeast 


Richard T. Boggs. from other 
denomination, to Arbor Hill. 

G. Edwin Bontrager. from 
other denomination, to Santa 
Ana, Pacific Southwest 

Woodrow Brown, from other 
denomination, to Tear Coat, 
West Marva 

Joe Campbell, from Santa 
Ana. Pacific Southwest, to 
Long Beach, Associate. Pacific 

Earl F. Cater, from Brook- 
lyn. Northern Plains, to Jones 
Chapel. Virlina 

Connie Cleary. to Rowland 
Creek. Va.. Southeastern 

Tom Clevenger. from lay per- 
son, to part-time. Middletown. 

Ind.. Southern Ohio 

Michael Daniels, from other 
denomination, to Beaver Run. 
West Marva 

Earl D. Diet?, from interim 
pastoral, to La Vale, West Mar- 

William Hayes, from secu- 
lar, to interim. Canton, Maple 
Avenue. Northern Ohio 

Dean A. Kagarisc. from 
placement, to Ml. Pleasant, 
Northern Indiana 

Willard McDaniel. from Sur- 
rey. Northern Plains 

Talmadge Parks, to Low- 
man Valley, Va., Southeastern 

D. Alfred Replogle, from 
New Carlisle. Southern Ohio, 
to Waynesboro, Southern 

Greer R. Sheets, to Peak 
Creek. N. C. Southeastern 

Emil E. Shober, from secu- 
lar, to part-time, Frederick, 

Eugene M. Smith, from secu- 
lar, to part-time. Paoli, Im- 
manuel. Atlantic Northeast 

Irwin P. Walls, to interim, 
Fairview. Fairchancc, Western 

Lowell H. Witkovsky, from 
Meadow Branch, Mid-Allan- 
tic, to Living Stone. Cumber- 
land. West Marva 


Mr. and Mrs. Harold Barn- 
hart. North Hampton. Ohio. 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Crosscopes, 
Winter Park, Fla.. 60 

Mr, and Mrs. Sam Etsinger, 
Nappanee, Ind.. 57 

Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Fike, 
Winter Park, Fla.. 55 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Hood. 
Lebanon. Pa.. 54 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Jami- 
son, Quinter, Kans., 50 

Mr. and Mrs. John J. Kane. 
Manassas. Va., 72 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond 
King, South English, Iowa. 54 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy Kreit/er, 
Dayton. Ohio, 59 

Mr. and Mrs. Sam Lehman. 
Johnstown. Pa.. 54 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry C. Neff 
Lancaster, Pa.. 60 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Piper, Se- 
bring. Fla.. 50 

Mr, and Mrs. Wesley Por- 
terfield. Sebring, Fla., 63 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Rine- 
hart. Richmond. Ind., 60 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Shivcly. 
Modesto. Calif. 65 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
•Shriver, Hanover. Pa., 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Slayer. 
New Enterprise. Pa., 50 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Wade. 
Cabool. Mo.. 56 

Mr. and Mrs. Willie Wag- 
ner, Cerro Gordo. 111.. 66 

Mr. and Mrs. Earl White- 
head. Warsaw. Ind,. 51 

Mr. and Mrs. Glen White- 
head. Warsaw. Ind.. 56 


Zora Allen. Sault Ste. Marie. 

Ontario. Canada, Nov. 2. 1976 

Levi T. Angle. 88. Wirt?, Va., 

Nov. 19. 1976 

Alice Love Baughman. 40. 
Somerset. Ohio. Nov, II. 1976 

Emma Bollinger. 73. Lititz 
Pa.. Oct. 25. 1976 

George Bollman. 82. Waka 
rusa. Ind.. June 10. 1976 

Howard T. Borden, 81. Nor 
man. Okla., Oct. 7. 1976 

Cecil Broom, 67. Warren 
Ind.. Oct, 26. 1976 

Ruben Brumbaugh. 74. Ai 
bion. Pa.- July 12. 1975 

Rose Burger, 81. Udell, Iowa 
Oct. 10, 1976 

Llovd Burkhart. 63, Orwell 
Ohio, Oct, 11, 1976 

Lloyd Carr. 59. Rio Grande 
Ohio, Oct, 4. 1976 

Elsie M. Cheal. 87. Lansing 
Mich.. Oct. 24. 1976 

Nita Chocklelt. 90, Roan 
oke, Va.. Oct. 4. 1976 

Dale Claar. 52, Claysburg 
Pa.. Oct. 3. 1976 

Grace Claar, 73, Claysburg, 
Pa.. Sept. 28. 1976 

John Christian Cline, 86 
Boonsboro. Md., Nov. 22, 1976 

Charles A. Colyn, 88, Lenox, 
Iowa, Nov. 5, 1976 

Rachel Crawford, 66, Clover- 
dale. Va., Nov. 5, 1976 

Alban Curtze. 75, Erie. Pa. 
Nov. 8, 1976 

Barbara Daniel, 44. New- 
port News. Va.. Oct. 17, 1976 

Stella Dawson. 68. Dayton 
Ohio, Oct. 19. 1976 

Cletus Detwiler, 61. Akron, 
Ohio. Sept. 17. 1976 

Marjorie Doering. 83, 
Wakarusa. Ind.. Nov. 14. 1976 

Zelma Emrick, Glenford 

Ohio. Nov. 22. 1976 

Frank T. Forbes, 91. 
Roanoke. Va.. Nov, 27. 1976 

Joseph Gilbert. 90. York, 
Pa.. Nov. 17. 1976 

Edith Ginniman. 75, Cum- 
berland, Md.. Oct. II. 1976 

Mollie E. Glick. 87. Bridge- 
water. Va.. Feb. 6. 1977 

Fern Godfrey. 50. Dallas- 
town, Pa.. Oct. 24. 1976 

Sam Harrison, 77. Kings- 
port. Tenn.. Sept. 11. 1976 

Minnie U. Heisey. 89, Lititz, 
Pa..Ocl. 10, 1976 

Mary Studebaker Hinshaw. 
88. Boonsboro. Md.. Nov, 7. 

L. Michael Hoal. 25, 
Roanoke. Va.. Nov. 29, 1976 

Alice Hockman. 66, 

Elphrata, Pa., Nov. 19. 1976 

Miranda Johns. 69, Leola, 
Pa., Aug. 24. 1976 

Ina Johnson, 76, Flora. Ind.. 
Nov. 13. 1976 

Leonard Keency, 70, 

Jacobus, Pa., Oct. 4. 1976 

Frank Kelley, 70, Pomona, 
Calif. Sept. 3, 1976 

Nettie V. Kuhlman. 86. York. 
Pa.. Nov. 15. 1976 

Jack Landes. 54. Lombard. 
111.. Oct. 31. 1976 

Eliza Lehman. 86. New Ox- 
ford, Pa., Nov. 4, 1976 

J. H. Likens. 85, Roanoke. 
Va.. Nov. 15. 1976 

E. Vance Lovelace, 56, Erie, 
Pa.. Feb. 12. 1976 

William H. Yoder. 93, Mc- 
Pherson. Kans., Nov. 19. 1976 

Chester W. Zeigler, 82, Han- 
over. Pa., Aug. 5. 1976 

April 1977 me.ssenger 29 


'Jesus of Nazareth' — Six-hour tv epic 

by Frederic A. Brussat 

Jesus of Nazareth April 3 and April 10. 
NBC. 8:00 - 11:00 pm ET 

We are living in a time of unprecedented 
religious renewal. Individuals are seeking 
meaning for their lives. They are looking 
for spiritual leaders and a new sense of 
fellowship with others. In this milieu, it is 
no wonder that the life and personality of 
Jesus of Nazareth continues to fascinate 
people of all ages. Even those who are not 
members of an institutional church seem to 
be intrigued by this extraordinary man. 
There is something compelling in the 
nature of his ministry, suffering, death, and 
resurrection which speaks to the deepest 
needs and hopes of human beings. As Paul 
van Buren puts it: 

"The Christian is a person who is haunt- 
ed by the image of Jesus." 

On Palm Sunday and Easter, NBC's 
"The Big Event" will present "Jesus of 
Nazareth," a six-hour biblical epic. Franco 
Zeffirelli (Romeo and Juliet: Brother Sun. 
Sister Moon) is the director of this $12 
million production which was shot primari- 
ly in Morocco and Tunisia. Preparation for 
the series lasted two-and-a-half years 
before filming began in September of 1975 
on the edge of the Sahara. 

A panel of distinguished scholars from 
Protestant, Roman Catholic, Moslem and 
Jewish faiths served as advisors. The 
screenplay was written by Anthony 
Burgess, Suso Cecchi d'Amico, and Zef- 
firelli. (Two books will be released in con- 
junction with the tv broadcast. A hard- 
cover volume Jesus of Nazareth by William 
Barclay with 149 pages of full color 
photographs is being published by Collins 
World at a price of $14.95. A paperback 
version of the same work, for release by 
Ballantine for $ 1 .95, has sixteen pages of il- 
lustrations.) Academy Award winner 
Maurice Jarre {Dr. Zhivago. Lawrence of 
.Arabia) has composed the original score. 

"Jesus of Nazareth" is a Lew Grade 
presentation and following the pattern of 
his other efforts, the movie boasts a large 
and prestigious case of international actors 
and actresses. A partial list of the guest- 
starring roles includes British actor Robert 
Powell as Jesus Christ, Anne Bancroft as 
Mary Magdalene, James Farentino as 
Simon Peter, Olivia Hussey as the Virgin 
Mary, Stacy Reach as Barabbas, James 

Mason as Joseph of Arimathea, Ian 
McShane as Judas, Laurence Olivier as 
Nicodemus, Anthony Quinn as Caiaphas, 
Rod Steiger as Pontius Pilate, and Michael 
York as John the Baptist. 

Film Interpretations of Jesus. Over the 
past fifty years there have been many films 
dealing with Jesus Christ. A few of these 
featured him in a peripheral role: Quo 
Vadis (1951). The Robe (1953), Salome 
(1953), Ben Hur {\959). The Big Fisherman 
(I960), and Barabbas (1962). Of the movies 
dealing exclusively with the life of Christ, 
the most notable were Cecil B. De Mille's 
King of Kings ( 1927). Nichoas Ray's King 
of Kings (1961), George Steven's The 
Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), Pier Palo 
Pasolini's The Gospel According to St. 
Matthew (1965). Johnny Cash's Gospel 
Road (1973), David Greene's Godspell 
(1973), Norman Jewison's Jesus Christ 
Superstar (1974), and Michael Campus's 
The Passover Plot (1976). 

Together these films bring us a varied 
and often conflicting portrait of Jesus as 
teacher, healer, savior, judge, revolu- 
tionary, ascetic, superstar, clown, prophet. 
Son of God. They have often been con- 
demned by critics for preachiness, holier- 
than-thou posturing, excess of spectacle, or 
sentimentality. Church people have also re- 
sponded to them in less than enthusiastic 
ways questioning the director's point of 
view, historical accuracy. Scriptural un- 
derstanding, and doctrinal stance. 


.he point is that no definitive movie 
about the life of Jesus has been made, and 
there is little reason to believe that one ever 
will be, given the complexity of the subject 
and the potentially varied interpretations 
of his life, death, and resurrection. 

Nonetheless, it is important that 
Christians continue to keep track of and 
respond in a personal way to any artistic 
recreation or handling of the greatest story 
ever told. That is our intention on these 
pages. Since it has been impossible to 
screen "Jesus of Nazareth" in advance 
(final editing was still in progress when 
Messenger went to press), I have relied on 
a reading of the script and interviews with 
several of the creative individuals behind 
the tv production to prepare this introduc- 
tory material. For families and special 
educational groups of youth and adults in 
the church, viewing "Jesus of Nazareth" 

together and talking about it afterwards, 
considering the questions cited here, could 
become an excellent Holy Week spiritual 

Adolph Holl has written: "The truth is 
that Jesus was not at all reliable. He 
roused people's anger and provoked unrest, 
was a stumbling block and a cause of scan- 
dal. He escapes every attempt to pigeon- 
hole him. He is severe when one might ex- 
pect him to be mild, yielding when one 
might expect him to be decisive. He 
prayed in the Temple and yet called for its 
destruction, upset his own family and then 
included close relatives in the circle of his 
disciples. And everywhere he met the same 
question: Who are you? How do we place 
you? Are you the Messiah? Are you the 
prophet? Will you restore the Kingdom of 
Israel? In whose authority do you act?" 

A new portrait of Jesus. Biblical scholars 
have developed various portraits of Jesus 
and popular conceptions of him are cer- 
tainly no less numerous. Here are some 
thoughts from the creative people behind 
this interpretation of his life: 

Franco Zeffirelli. director: "There are 
many aspects to the figure of Jesus Christ, 
which can be broken down in turn into 
thousands of tiny facets. For example, 
there is the spiritual one, the philosophical 
one. There is his human faculty, his para- 
psychology, his miraculous powers, his 
political charisma — Jesus is a complete 
figure. Above all, there is the mystery of 
his divine origin, around which the con- 
sciousness of humanity has revolved for 
2000 years." 

Anthony Burgess, screenplay writer: "In 
our television poem, we want to restore to 
our culture the strength, the power, the in- 
tensity, the gigantic intellect and the pas- 
sion of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. What 
we are trying to do therefore, through the 
great popular medium of television, is to 
communicate not a sermon or a lesson but 
the reality of the life of Jesus of Nazareth 
via the Roman Empire. The temples, the 
Jewish synagogues, work, songs, and the 
language of that stormy era." 

Vincenzo Lahella. producer: "We're 
striving to get the utmost in historicity and 
realism. We see Christ as the tiger, as the 
one who tears you apart as well as soothes. 
My idea was to take this monumental 
figure and set him between two historical 
plans — the Roman and the Jewish, and 
achieve by reflection as much historical 

30 .MhsshNGi-K April 1977 

Christ crucified: Beyond the image, we never exhaust what there is about him to know. 

accuracy as possible." 

Robert Powell, actor who portrays 
Jesus: "Our aim was to show him at all 
times remarkable; at no time in the whole 
six hours will he be seen as casual. Jesus is 
like a permanently coiled spring, always 
aware. Outwardly calm, within him, there 
is steel." 

Discussion: The portrayal of Christ. 

— Does Jesus always threaten to tell us 
more than we want to know about God 
and ourselves? 

— Since this is a film and as such a visual 
medium, what do you read of Jesus" impact 
upon others by watching their faces? Try 
the exercise in regard to Peter, Caiaphas, 
Pilate, Barabbas, Mary Magdalene. 

— Does Zeffirelli's Christ evidence any 
doubts about who he is and what is in- 
volved with his mission? 

— Many of the cinematic versions of 
Jesus have been criticized for making him 
so somber. Does Powell's characterization 
give any indication of Jesus' joy or the joy 
he passed on to others? 

— Which of the following descriptions of 
his ministry best fits Zeffirelli's image of 
Christ: The man for others, the Holy One, 
the Savior, gentle Jesus, the rebel? 

— Does Robert Powell come across as a 
complex Christ or as a waxwork figure? 

— Does this depiction of Jesus embody 
your hopes? Does this Jesus of Nazareth 
pass on a "contagious freedom" to his dis- 

The traditional storv line. "Jesus of 

Nazareth" takes as its main scriptural 
source the Gospel of John and relies heavi- 
ly on the suffering servant imagery of 
Isaiah. The screenplay follows the 
traditional narrative line of his life moving 
from birth to the temple incident at age 
twelve to baptism and the wilderness ex- 
perience, to the calling of the disciples, his 
extensive preaching and teaching mission, 
his open conflict with the Pharisees and his 
refusal to align himself with the zealots, his 
entry into Jerusalem, the Lord's Supper, 
the betrayal by Judas, his trial and 
crucifixion. The movie ends with a member 
of the Sanhedrin looking back at the empty 
tomb and saying: "Now it begins. Now it 
all begins." 

Discussion: Omissions and additions. 

— At certain points the screenplay 
writers have taken liberties with the actions 
of Pilate, the zealots, and the Sanhedrin. 
Have these additions further illuminated 
the situation of Jesus as he is caught in the 
vortex of pressure and power? 

The role of the disciples. This film ver- 
sion of the life of Jesus puts a great deal of 
emphasis on the people who surrounded 
him. Zeffirelli has explained: 

"What I have tried to accomplish in 
"Jesus of Nazareth" is to bring out the im- 
portant aspects of the disciples' characters 
as strongly as possible. Peter was a man of 
absolute faith while John was a man of 
youthful zeal, a trustworthy, loving person. 
Judas was ruined not only by his iniquity 
but by the fact that he believed that in- 

tellect was enough to resolve anything. One 
might say that the twelve apostles are a 
representation, a sampling, an array of 
shades of the complete human character." 

Such an amplified perspective on the dis- 
ciples and other devotees of Jesus has the 
effect of increasing our understanding of 
his entire ministry. We see that people were 
attracted to him for a multitude of reasons. 
Simon the Zealot becomes an apostle for 
political reasons; he leaves the Zealots 
when they continue to believe in armed 
rebellion as the only way to bring about 
change. Others are pulled to Jesus by 
spiritual feelings. 

One biblical character who is filled out 
in this movie is Nicodemus. He is a wise 
and patient member of the Sanhedrin who 
defends Jesus against those who are quick 
to make him a scapegoat. Nicodemus also 
sees how the man from Nazareth in his suf- 
fering and death is the fulfillment of Old 
Testament prophecies about the Messiah. 

At the end there is an empty tomb. The 
disciples are confused although Peter and 
Mary Magdalene believe Jesus has risen 
from the dead. By leaving the ending open 
in this way, Zeffirelli will not satisfy 
everyone. But since he has made Jesus' 
followers such well-rounded characters 
throughout the film, we are convinced that 
his mission will be carried on. 


he disciples indeed are people who 
could go out two-by-two to preach the 
word with power. And as Frederick 
Buechner has noted in his excellent work 
The Faces of Jesus, "in the last analysis, 
what convinced the people that he had 
risen from the dead was not the absence of 
his corpse but his living presence." 

Haunted by the image of Jesus. No 
doubt many viewers will come to this tv 
biblical drama with preconceptions about 
its aesthetic worth or religious depth. That 
is to be expected since Zeffirelli is such a 
controversial director. However, Christians 
who are haunted by the image of Jesus are 
sure to savor every moment — no matter 
what the quality of the story or the theo- 
logical value of the movie as a whole. For 
the true believer is so intrigued by Jesus 
that any exploration of his life and mission 
is bound to add something previously un- 
perceived or unexplored. Jesus can always 
be seen anew. 

Again quoting Adolph Holl: "Whoever 
feels attracted by Jesus cannot adequately 
explain why. He must be prepared to be 
always correcting his image of Jesus for he 
will never exhaust what there is to know. 
Jesus is full of surprises." □ 

April 1977 messenger 31 

On confessing Christ, distinctive dress, priorities. 

Name withheld 

That other souls 
may be touched 

Dear Daddy, 

Maybe I'm stepping out of line in writing 
this letter, but it's something that has been 
on my mind for a long time, and 1 love you 
too much not to say it. It all involves God 
and our reason for being. Life could be cut 
short tomorrow, and that's why it all seems 
so urgent. 

Our life on earth is not for the con- 
quering of worldly or material things, but 
for the preparation of eternal life. I for one 
have not given my time to Christ as I 
should but 1 have had an increasing desire 
to know and learn with each passing day. 1 
call myself a Christian, but I have never 
read the Bible from cover to cover, only a 
few short verses since I have been in 

I am making progress, but it is 

slow reading because the Bible says so 
much in such a little space. I have to stop 
and grasp it all as 1 read. 

Sometimes things seem so difficult, and I 
get the most empty, lonely feeling. It seems 
strange, as right now I have everything 1 
have ever wanted. A home, husband, baby, 
and I am being 100 percent mother and 
housewife. Yet there is something missing. 
Even though I know what it is, I fail to do 
anything about it. As the saying goes, "It is 
easy to quit going to church, but so hard to 
start going." I don't think just going to 
church will get one a place in heaven, but it 
certainly helps to strengthen one's belief. 
Being in the environment of the church and 
seeing others active in God's work makes it 
easier to profess one's belief in Christ. 

Daddy, you're a good man; you have 
done too much for too many people not to 
be, but that doesn't get it. Just as children 
are to honor and obey their parents, we 
need to honor and obey God our Father. 
God gave us ten commandments and these 

To hold in respect and fellowship those in 
the church with whom we agree or disagree 
is a characteristic of the Church of the 
Brethren. It is to the continuation of this 
value, and to an open and probing forum, 
that "Here I Stand" responses are invited. 

are the most important rules to follow as a 
Christian — follow these and the rest in life 
will fall in place. But to become a Chris- 
tian, one has to accept Jesus as one's per- 
sonal Savior and be baptized. To go 
forward in public and admit you have 
sinned takes more courage than anything I 

Baptism doesn't mean no more sinning, 
but it does mean God will forgive you if 
you ask him. That's something else — 
praying. At first, you feel like you are talk- 
ing to the wall, and then one day 
everything becomes very real. Prayer has 
meaning and so much comfort. God has to 
be out there; we didn't just happen. 

When I think about life on earth and all 
the pleasures it has to offer, I am thankful, 
but what comes after this? Death — and the 
human life is snuffed out like a candle. I 
would go mad if I didn't think there was 
more to life than this. Life is the prepara- 
tion for eternal life; our shell dies but if our 
soul is living in the word of God, it con- 
tinues forever. 

I don't know what a soul looks like, but 
I do believe such a thing exists. The Bible 
says so. There are a lot of questions I can't 
answer. What was I before I was born? 
Where is heaven? How are miracles per- 
formed? Faith is all we have to go by and 
trust in God. Doubt has failure and faith 
has hope. God asks us to believe as little 
children and we will enter the gates of 
heaven. Children accept what they are told 
as the truth. 

I hope I haven't embarrassed you or 
myself and nothing has to be different the 
next time we see each other — tomorrow 
never comes and I suddenly felt it impor- 
tant to say what was all bundled up inside 
of me. I might not be around tomorrow to 
give moral support, but then you might not 
be around to receive it. No one really 
knows what is in God's plan for persons, 
but we have to be ready; I would never 
forgive myself if I didn't make some effort 
in trying to win your soul to Christ. 

Daddy, I love you very much, and I have 
always been very devoted to you. I 
sometimes feel no one could love a father 
more than I do mine, but to compare this 
love to the love God has is as im- 
measurable as a grain of sand on the 
beach. He gave his son to die on the cross 
so we could be with him in heaven. I have 
a son I love, but how great God's love is 
for us to watch his very being die on the 

cross. Jesus has your sins, my sins, and 
every one else's on his shoulders, so that we 
can have something to look forward to at 
the end of earthly life besides endless 

Forgive me if 1 have stepped out of line. 
I do wish I could have said all this in per- 
son, but maybe I would not have had the 
courage. It seemed of utmost importance 
to me and I do feel better now. Maybe I 
feel God will be holding me in judgment 
for you, so don't let me down. Whatever 
you do — do for your own sake, not for 
mine. Follow your heart and you can't go 
wrong. Happiness to you always and may 
God bless you. 

With love. 

P.S. After confessing to the life of 
Christ, it's not whether God can forgive 
us, because he can: it is whether we can 
forgive ourselves. I 1 

(The recipient of this letter, after ac- 
cepting Christ, asked that it be shared.) 

Randall S. M. Lehman 

A rationale for 
distinctive dress 

There exists within our Brotherhood a 
wide and varied attitude regarding dress 
and its effect on the role of Christian 
Brethren, ranging from the conservative 
dress of black coat and clerical collar to 
modern everyday styles of dress. 

Many prominent Brethren authors have 
written articles concerning plain and simple 
living, and the meaning of simplicity in our 
life-styles. Others would say, however, that 
the externals don't make the person, that a 
simple mode of dress doesn't indicate the 
faithfulness of the heart. 

Nevertheless, for the moment, let us con- 
cede that our Brethren forerunners, and. 
those that still adhere today, found a 
definite purpose in plain and simple dress 
appearance. An example would be the 
robes of the church choir, to illustrate its 
role in the services. Or, even the police- 
man who stands on the street corner, pro- 
tecting the peace and tranquility of society. 

To this I'll relate an experience of a new- 
ly ordained minister, who one day dressed 
himself in his new black suit and spotless 
white collar. This effect seemed to be pleas- 
ing to him, so. he took a stroll down the 

32 MhsshNor.K April 1977 

Deace, singles 

sidewalks of the city. As he stood on the 
curb wondering what to do next, he was 
observed by a drunk who seemed unim- 
pressed. The drunk, from his near hori- 
zontal position, said, "Sonny, what do you 
know about God?" The young man made 
no reply but went back to his room, and 
wondered what he did know about God. 

In this I see a valid argument for 
ministerial dress distinction — if used in a 
humble way — it is witness in itself. 

We are one of the few churches left still, 
trying to hold the line on dress, grooming, 
and neat appearance — rare these days. 

To go back to our role images, the most 
satisfying, and at the same time most dis- 
turbing, is that of the apostle. Satisfying 
because it represents the heart of the 
ministry as we have received it — messen- 
ger, reconciler, missionary, father in God. 
It is disturbing because it sometimes 
demands more than a person can fulfill. 
The best intentions, the best training, will 
not always fill the gap. Only God will. 
Whom God calls, he sustains and em- 

Yes, the priestly aspect of a person is 
prayer, whether Brethren or any of the 
bodv of believers. 1 1 

Omer M. Long 

Why soft on drink 
and hard on war? 

It seems to me that many actions taken by 
the church's leadership are poorly con- 
ceived. For example last July the delegates 
to the Annual Conference approved a posi- 
tion paper on alcohol so conciliatory that 
the news services considered it news worthy 
and distributed it to their members. The 
only item in the Frederick news about the 
conference was a foot of copy on this ac- 

In contrast to this meager stand against 
alcohol the church leadership concentrates 
its efforts on anything that might be 
remotely considered as war generating. The 
confusing part to me is that each year 
25,000 people (half the 50,000 total) are 
killed by a missile called the auto involving 
alcohol. This yearly toll is only slightly less 
than the 33,000 killed in the Korean War. 
The two year toll exceeds the 46,000 killed 
in the Vietnam War. The hungry children. 

the broken homes attributable to alcohol 
are legion. Why then the conciliatory stand 
against one and an adamant stand on the 

It's interesting to note Jesus' action 
relative to the problems of his day. Im- 
peralistic Rome had Jerusalem under total 
control yet Jesus never once criticized 
Rome. Paul appreciated and used the 
justice of Rome. When the centurion came 
to Jesus for healing of his servant Jesus 
didn't say, "Roman go home!" or lecture 
him on the evils of the army. He healed the 
very man who possibly was the axeman at 
the official murder of John the Baptist. It's 
even conceivable the centurion had par- 
ticipated in the mass murder of babies that 
God permitted to happen due to the advent 
of Jesus. 

Does this mean the church should 
promote wars? Not so. But our priorities 
need to be reworked. Jesus went about 
helping and teaching those about him on 
their mundane problems rather than 
petitioning Rome and opposing the A- 
bomb. I believe we need to do likewise. Yes 
I would teach absolute and total abstinence 
from alcohol especially if it is a "disease." I 
wouldn't think of exposing my 
grandchildren to smallpox assuming they 
wouldn't contract the disease. Why should 
1 weakly oppose a "disease" more deadly in 
our day and age, namely alcohol? 

In conclusion I recommend the church 
leadership reorient the priorities. I recom- 
mend they follow Jesus' example of con- 
centrating on the problem about them in 
the city streets and in the homes. If the 
church makes progress in this area, it will 
contribute more toward peace than all the 
parades to Washington and petitions 
against the A-bomb. □ 

Steve Longenecker 

Put peace witness 
on front burner 

A difficult task for aware Brethren often 
has been the job of preaching peace. Ad- 
mittedly, as long as sin exists, there will be 
war, but in recent years rather than seeing 
the wings of war clipped. Brethren have 
watched militarism in the United States 
and the world go soaring. To answer the 
influence of militarism in American socie- 

ty. Christians must renew efforts in two 
neglected areas: pulpits and politics. 
Brethren have exciting, persuasive ideas on 
peace, and these ideas are needed now. 

For many Brethren, peace has become a 
forgotten witness. The temptation to put 
the peace witness on the back burner in 
favor of other issues should be avoided 
because militarism remains a serious 

War makers touch the lives of citizens at 
numerous levels. Most significant is the 
ever present threat of annihilation through 
nuclear war. On pay day approximately 
half of the Federal witholding tax taken 
from paychecks goes to the military. Dur- 
ing a break in the "Game of the Week." 
major league baseball provides a "public 
service announcement" with Pete Rose tell- 
ing us to join the Reserves. 

In more ways than most people realize, 
militarism is woven tightly in the American 
social fabric. The power of the Pentagon is 
like smoke: it is all around us, it can hurt 
us. but just try to reach out and grab a 
piece of it! 

To resist militarism, concerned Brethren 
need to increase their efforts on two fronts: 
peace education in local congregations and 
involvement in our democratic political 
system. Both areas are ripe in potential for 
advancing the cause of peace but have been 
seriously neglected. 

In recent years many congregations have 
become very tight-lipped on the subject of 
peace. Whatever the reasons for this 
phenomenon, if Brethren want to main- 
tain consistency with the New Testament 
and continuity with their heritage, they 
must wrestle with the peace issue on Sun- 
day morning. The person in the pew must 
be confronted with the question of militar- 
ism in our culture, or else the church will 
have failed in preaching one of Jesus' most 
important messages. 

While it is true that real peace begins in 
people's hearts, and that violence takes many 
forms, these facts must not be allowed to 
push the basic problem of militarism from 
blunt discussion. To refuse to discuss foreign 
policy or billions for bombers with the ex- 
cuse that "true peace is in the heart" is to 
dodge the issue in a manner that smacks 
more of a mush-mouthed politician rather 
than a witnessing Christian. The church 
needs more peace sermons. 

Although the ballot box is usually (but 
not always) an ineffective way to curb the 

April 1977 messenger 33 

Pentagon, American representative 
democracy can be in other ways a powerful 
counter to the mihtary. The tool waiting to 
be used is Congress, which gets ap- 
proximately eight votes per year on 
military spending bills plus an unlimited 
number of yeas and neas in Committee. 
Nearly all members of Congress want to 
hear from their constituents, and many 
law-makers consider the opinions of voters. 

Members of Congress can easily be made 
aware of peace concerns in well-written 
letters or with phone calls. Also, visits with 
representatives and senators are valuable, 
and modest campaign contributions are a 
legitimate way to participate in a represen- 
tative democracy. In addition, there is no 
logical reason why Brethren, themselves, 
could not run for Congress — and win! 

If Congress merely heard more often 
from peace-minded voters, it could be 
moved a few notches away from militarism 
despite the several crusty old hawks 
perched in key Congressional Committee 
positions. If Congress could be totally 
mobilized on the peace issue, that body 
could put militarism in the US at "parade 
rest" quicker than you can say, "ICBM." 

To properly witness their New Testa- 


QUILTING — Each congregation invited to 
submit one quilt square for quilting at Rich- 
mond. Any design. Congregation's name 
may be on block. Squares must measure 8 
in sq, with '/; in. seam allowance all sides. 
May be pieced, embroidered, cross-stitched, 
appliqued Pre-shrunk fabric. Mall squares 
or inquiries to: Mary Ann Hylton, Box 302, 
Cape Coral, FL 33904 by June 7. Or deliver 
by 6 p.m. June 21 to quilting area at Con- 


BACKPACKING-A backpacking trip com- 
bining natural history and environmental 
conservation scheduled for Weminuche 
Wilderness first 3 weeks in June. Dr. Gilford 
Ikenberry will lead this Colorado "Wilderness 
Experience." Graduate and undergraduate 
college credit. Write Dr. G. J. Ikenberry, 
McPherson College, McPherson, KS 67460. 

TRAVEL— Bus transportation to Annual Con- 
ference in Richmond, Va., and hotel rooms. 
June 21-26, 1977. Write Dr. J. Kenneth 
Kreider, R. 3, Box 660, Eliza bet htown, PA 

TRAVEL-Juniata College Post- Conference 
Tour; 1 week London. CHARTER. Host con- 
ductor Harold B. Brumbaugh. Information 
Weimer-Oller Travel Agency, Inc., 405 Penn 
St., Huntingdon, PA 16652 (814) 643-1468. 

ment faith. Brethren need to emphasize in 
church and Congress that humans have 
more security needs than merely the Pen- 
tagon's national security. The national 
obsession with militarism neglects other 
basic human needs, and a national re- 
ordering of priorities is paramount. 

People need to feel secure from hunger, 
disease, unemployment, and crime just as 
much, or more, as they need to feel secure 
from the Russians or other supposed 
enemies. To the unemployed or ill it is little 
solace to know that for their security the 
government spends a million dollars on 
every tank but does not have the funds for 
a subsidized medical research project or 
national health care insurance. 

Considering the pervasive influence of 
the military in America, it is surprising that 
Brethren do not cry out their message of 
peace more often. May God forgive us for 
forgetting to witness. I ] 

Hilda I. Gibbel 

Welcome on board 
the Ark with me 

The article "Pushed out of the Ark" in the 
January Messenger is well written and 
reflective, but I do not agree entirely that it 
is getting harder to get on board Noah's 
ark if you are single. But perhaps, being a 
retired teacher, I belong to another era. 

Most single women who reach out and 
seek to serve are welcomed in leadership 
roles within the church. There are some 
conservative churches where this may not 
be true, but all of the many single women 
in my acquaintance find themselves in- 
volved in more leadership positions in the 
church than they can often handle efficient- 
ly. They are of many denominations. 

The church has been one area where I 
have felt true acceptance and love. Couples 
do invite me to their homes, take me to 
concerts, plays and lectures, and not 
because they feel they need to do this for 
me, but because they want to share a com- 
mon joy and interest. Numerous oppor- 
tunities for service and leadership in the 
local church have come to me, and accep- 
tance and performance of them have 
enhanced my life. Serving as moderator for 
two terms was an enriching experience, as 
were many other committee assignments 

and now as church clerk. 

There may be a difference in the adult ■; 

who has always been a single and the one ); 

who has become a single through the death 
of a spouse, or the break-up of a marriage. 
The always-single adult has most often 
found acceptance and fulfillment through a 
profession or career. It is easy to become 
obsessed with one's status, but when an in- 
dividual accepts the single state, not as a 
curse, but as a freer way of serving God, 
and seeks sincerely to be of service to God 
and humankind, it matters not whether 
that person is single or married. 

Acceptance of one's status in life does 
not always come easily. Often, only after 
years of trepidation, apprehension, and 
turmoil of mind and spirit, do you reach 
the place where you can truly put yourself 
into the hands of God to be used in what- 
ever service he might call you to perform. 
When that plateau has been reached you 
know the Spirit of God is within you and 
will sustain you no matter what may 

Yes, there are times when I feel dis- 
crimination, but is there a person who has 
never, ever felt the sting of it at some time? 
That occurs outside the church, mostly in 
the financial and taxation areas. 

Sometimes one's own family is the last to 
accept a sister's or brother's single state. In 
families where all the children are married 
but one, it is difficult for the married ones 
to understand that traveling the bumpy 
road of life without an arm to share, can be 
rich, full and beautiful. But it can. 

Awaking each morning with thanks for a 
new day and a sincere prayer that God will 
teach you his way, will open avenues into 
areas of service that will bring happiness, 
acceptance, and peace. This can be done by 
both married and single people. Not stating 
as strongly as St. Paul, who says a married 
person seeks first to please the spouse, 
while the single person seeks first to please 
God, I believe the service an individual 
gives to God and people has very little to 
do with marital status. Many married 
couples serve God and the church nobly 
and well together as well as individually. 
From one who has lived long as a single, 
life can be rewarding, satisfying, and ful- 
filled while walking alone, in the eyes of 
people, but knowing and feeling that you 
are walking hand-in-hand with God. The 
gangplank is down, come on board the Ark 
with me. D 

34 MESSENGER April 1977 

by Sylvia Eller 

Vigil at Utah State Prison 

"We. the undersigned, are here as represen- 
tatives of national reUgious bodies to join 
with persons of this State and this com- . 
munity who are compelled by their faith to 
witness against the use of power by govern- 
ment to impose the penalty of death as 
punishment for wrongdoing. 

"We are deeply concerned that this na- 
tion is facing the resumption of executions, 
after nearly a ten-year moratorium, by the 
scheduled execution of Mr. Gary Mark 
Gilmore at sunrise on Monday. January 
17, 1977, at the Utah State Prison." 

This statement was signed by 17 religious 
leaders from around the country — 
Methodists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, 
Presbyterians, Unitarians, Baptists, and 
Brethren. All had come to Utah, from as 
far away as Boston and Atlanta, to join 
local opponents of capital punishment in 
protesting the execution of Gary Gilmore. 

The statement continues: "We are com- 
mitted to seek redemption and reconcilia- 
tion, not death, for wrongdoers. 

"The serious problem of crime in the na- 
tion must be faced, but we believe ex- 
ecutions will not restore order or establish 
justice. Instead, we believe, executions will 
contribute to the violence in our society. 

"We appeal to individuals and 
governments to take action to prevent the 
imposition of the death penalty. 

"As religious leaders, we reaffirm our 
belief in the sacredness of all life, and call 
this nation to a renewed commitment to 
support viable alternatives to deliberate 

Of all the social issues on which churches 
have taken a stand, the need for abolishing 
the death penalty probably has the most 
unanimity. Almost every religious body has 
a statement on capital punishment; almost 
every statement calls for its renunciation. 
That is why the religious community felt it 
so important to protest the first execution 
in this country in almost ten years. 

Our all-night vigil began at sunset Sun- 
day evening, January 16, with a worship 
service. Some 50 people gathered just out- 

side the prison gates to ask for God's for- 
giveness and mercy — for ourselves, for the 
nation, for the executioners, for Gary 
Gilmore, and for the families of his victims. 
Our religious witness against the death 
penalty was embodied in the concept that 
no person is beyond God's reach, that God 
desires life rather than death, that it is 
better to find the one lost sheep than to 
concern ourselves with the 99 who are 
safely in the fold. 

Although our understanding of God's 
nature and purpose brings a uniquely 
religious perspective to the issue of capital 
punishment, there are many other 
arguments which lead to the conclusion 
that it should be abolished. 

One of these is that the death penalty is 
used primarily against those who are male, 
black, poor, and poorly represented. Of ap- 
proximately 350 persons currently on death 
row, almost half are black, only a handful 
are female, almost all are poor. 


he use of the death penalty is unjust in 
other ways, too. Only a very few of those 
who murder someone else are eventually 
sent to the electric chair, the gas chamber, 
or the gallows. Between 1930 and 1970 
some 50,000 first-degree murders were 
committed; only 3334 people were put to 
death for these murders, according to "The 
Case Against Capital Punishment," Wash- 
ington Research Project, 1971. Does this 
provide equal justice under the law? 

Of course, the finality of the death penal- 
ty must also give us pause. What can we do 
about the many innocent people who have 
been deprived of their lives because of 
faulty evidence or prejudiced juries? 

And, the very act of killing those who 
have killed brings into question the con- 
sistency of our values. How can we 
possibly prove that we hold life to be 
sacred if we take the lives of those who 
have already shown their disregard for the 
lives of others? 

For all these reasons and more we held a 

vigil to protest the resumption of capital 
punishment. Several people stayed out all 
night, huddled in blankets and stamping 
their feet to keep warm. Others took turns 
"vigiling" throughout the night. As the new 
day began to dawn, everyone gathered 
again to participate in a silent protest dur- 
ing the actual execution. We waited in 
suspense, not knowing whether the death 
sentence would be carried out or not. Legal 
arguments were being heard in Denver and 
Washington right up to the last minute. 
Finally, the word came that a late-night 
stay had been overturned and that prison 
officials were going ahead with the 

We huddled together, paper hearts 
pinned to our chests to symbolize the 
target that was pinned over Gary Gilmore's 
heart. Tears rolled down several faces; 
everyone was visibly sad. We stood silently 
for several minutes, our attention focused 
on the event that was taking place some- 
where on the prison compound. Then 
someone announced that it was over, that 
Gary Gilmore had been shot and killed. 
We all returned to our homes, knowing 
that we had made our witness and wishing 
that it had not been necessary. 

I think the feelings of the group were 
best summed up by several lines of a prayer 
from the night before: "In your eyes. O 
God, no one is ultimately incorrigible, and 
no one beyond the reach of your redemp- 
tive power, your forgiveness, and your 
love. Therefore we pray for all those across 
this nation facing death at the hands of the 
state, mostly the nobodies, the poor, the 
powerless, the beaten, the unskilled. It is 
for them we pray, as we pray for Gary 
Mark Gilmore, whom you love." G 

April 1977 MESSENGER 35 


TRAVEL;— with the Richard C. Wengers on a 
16-day grand tour of Europe depart July 7, 
1977 from New York. $1076. The Tour With 
a Difference! sponsored by the Council on 
Intercultural Relations, Inc., of which 
Richard and Marjorie Wenger are members, 
provides travel opportunities aimed at 
promoting world understanding, peace and 
brotherhood through education. Write or call 
now for more information on coming Around 
the World Seminar Tours designed to put 
you in touch with people— world dignitaries, 
such as heads of state as Mrs. Gandhi, Dr. C. 
K. Yen, and other prominent people, as well 
as local villagers. Write: Richard C. Wenger, 
805 Stanford Ave., Johnstown, PA 15905, or 
call collect (814) 255-3657. 

TRAVEL— Archeology in the Holy Land, July 
9— August 12, 1977. Touring in Israel fol- 
lowed by 3 weeks on an archeological dig at 
Acco, Israel. Open to students and non- 
students. Cost: $1540. For further informa- 
tion contact Dr. Austin Rittershach, Eliza- 
bethtown College, Eliza bet htown, PA 17022. 


fer, 50c each, 

Extras of 
the Novem- 
ber 1976 
special of- 
per dozen. And 

for teacher's use, a four-session 
Leader's Guide by Ken Shaffer; 
single copy free. For adult study 
of Christian stewardship. Write: 

The Brethren Press 

1451 Dundee Avenue 

Elgin, IL 60120 

The story of Royer and Edna 
Price Dotzour: some of their 
life in the "dirty thirties" in 
Kansas; their generosity and 
love to a small Christian 
college. Hardback. 

by Eloise M. Lichty 

Order for $3.00 postpaid from 

The Brethren Press 

1451 Dundee Ave. 

Elgin, IL 60120 

McPherson College 

Book Store 

McPherson, KS 67460 


36 MESSENGER April 1977 

(LETTERS, continued from page I) 
format that has turned many people to Christ 
who are now coming to our churches. We are 
the ones who will mold their Christian life, not 

I cannot bring myself to believe that Johnny 
Cash needs gospel music to sell records. 1 do 
believe that Johnny Cash and others have en- 
countered Jesus and do not use religion to con 
people who like country music. Allen, Moller. 
Rodgers, and contemporaries may get more 
Brethren dollars than any amusement park 
could ever dream. 

James Manual 
Greenbelt, Md. 


I appreciated the December issue of 
Messenger and felt grateful for a good publica- 
tion. Then the January issue came. It also had 
some good things in it, but the article on "Rinky 
Dink" religion and its crude art were in very 
poor taste. I believe Mr. Wagner should earnest- 
ly and prayerfully read Romans 12, especially 
verses 3-6. 

Let us pursue the things which make for peace 
and the building up of one another and not tear 
down the work of God. If the tv and radio 
programs that Mr. Wagner refers to are not of 
God, then it is his Christian duty to name them 
specifically, so as to warn fellow Christians. If 
they are the programs that I think he is referring 
to, then it is a proven fact that the Lord is saving 
souls through them, healing bodies through 
them, and healing broken spirits through them. 

God does many things through many people 
and in many different ways. The Spirit of God 
brings love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, good- 
ness, trustfulness, gentleness and self-control. 
There is no law against these. 

Mrs. Fred Gosnell 
New Windsor, Md. 


Hooray for "Rinky-Dink Religion Goes Big 
Time" by Murray L. Wagner (January). I'm an 
avid fan of satire written or spoken and this 
tribute to an "Anita Bryant cocktail" is a master- 
piece (No offense to Anita intended). 

Unfortunately, (depending on whether you 
agree or not) the Godland amusement park is 
not only located between the Arch and Seven 
Flags but I fear it has permeated the very core of 
Christianity. In the event I'm partially right, 
then we have, much to our chagrin, Rinky-Dink 
Chrislianiiy rather than Rinky-Dink religion. 
Which, in reality, is impossible — a paradox of 

But still we believe we can buy a piece of 
heaven for $4.98 plus $1.00 handling for the 101 
gospel songbooks containing all the old and 
familiar songs glorifying God and for another 
$2.98 we will send you an album of the 
"Gloryland E.xpress" guaranteed to please you 
or we will refund you your deed to heaven. 

Very seriously now, in 40 years I've listened to 
many sermons delivered by Brethren ministers, 
"revivalists." electronic media wizards ei a/., and 
one conclusion stands above all others: If you 
preach hellfire and damnation, tell us again and 
again and again the evils and sins of our world 

and fellowman, tell us about the cheats, liars, 
rapists, communists, murderers, and adulterers, 
then quote "Thou shall not" scripture to us your 
coffers shall overflow with greenbacks to fight 
our evils. 

It is very precious, (not comforting) to me to 
hear a minister preach compassion to all and 
disciplining our lives to conform to that taught 
by our Savior. It seems, however, that finances 
and attendance dwindle when we are brought 
face to face with our own inequities. 

Oh well, perhaps my mind has "congealed" 
also, so I'll squeeze an Anita Bryant cocktail, 
turn on the tv to listen for another heavenly 
special, make a pot of coffee and if the sun 
comes out I may even go to church — right after 
the Gospel-aires have delivered their message in 
song and requested a donation to continue their 

Donald L. Slater 
Claypool. Ind. 


Thank you, Murray Wagner, for a piece of 
outrageous satire (January; "Rinky-Dink 
Religion Goes Big Time"). After hearing rumors 
of some criticism I read it the second time. And 
a third time! 1 simply can not find a single basic 
idea with which I disagree. 

For a long time I have been troubled by the 
moves to make religion easy and popular 
because the Christianity I read about in the New 
Testament doesn't sound like that. It indicates 
that genuine Christianity will be a minority 
movement, misunderstood, even in conflict with 
the surrounding culture. 

Your plea for genuineness, justice, simplicity 
are so right! But your language was a bit strong! 
Maybe the racy style will turn off a few of us; 
but you got our attention. Now if we just do 
some research of our own as to whether or not 
you speak the truth according to New Testament 
standards for Christian living you will have done 
us a favor. 


Brookville. Ohio 


Much has been said about what is wrong with 
BVS — it is easy to criticize a program launched 
by faith. 

1 thank those people who started the program 
and those making it what it is today. I can't 
agree with everything that has been done and 
will be done, but BVS is individuals with a love 
of Christ going out and sharing it with others in 
their own way. Their way of showing it may turn 
people off 

BVS has done many things for me: It has led 
me to work which I had not considered as a 
career possibility. It has given me an under- 
standing of myself — being a two-hour parent to 
20 junior high youth. I know now I'm not ready 
to be a parent. It has opened many friendships 
and, not least. BVS has firmed my faith stance 
and reinforced values which my parents have 
taught me. 

So let's hear three cheers, for a change, in- 
stead of mumbling and grumbling! 

Blaine Miner 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Can You Answer 
These Questions 
About Writing 
Your Will?* 



Mark each of the following statements T for True, or F for 
False, In the box at its right. For correct answers, see panel 

1 — If you do not have a Will and therefore die "intes- r~~| 
tate," state law will give your wife all of your Estate. I_J 

2 — If you die "intestate" while your children are 

minors, state law will divide a third of your Estate |~n 
among them. |_J 

3— When you leave no Will, the state automatically ap- 1~~| 
points a social worker and a bank as guardians of your L_J 
minor children. 

4— Whoever is appointed guardian for your minor 
children has complete say-so in taking care of them 
and their affairs. 


5 — Lacking a Will, your property will be disposed of I I 
more or less as your Will would have directed. I_l 

6— Children not mentioned in your Will are excluded r~~| 
from an inheritance. I__l 

7— A husband has the same rights to his wife's Estate |~~| 
as she has to his. |__| 

8— A handwritten Will, unwitnessed, cannot be valid. I I 
9— Wills never require more than two witnesses. I I 

10 — It is expensive to have a lawyer draw up your Will. [~~| 


1 — False. Usually not. In some states, your wife gets one-third 
if you die without a Will. 

2 — False. Many states give two-thirds of your Estate to your 
children equally divided among them. 

3 — False. It is more likely to appoint your spouse as guardian, 
or some other person. But they will have to furnish a bond 
and pay the fee for it. 

4 — False. Even if your wife is guardian, she usually must have 
specific permission from the court to spend your children's 
share of your Estate on their support or education. She may 
be required to render detailed accounts of these expen- 

5 — False. Your property would be disposed of according to 
the law of your state and not necessarily as you would have 

'In most states 

6 —False. A child born after the date of your Will might be en- 
titled to receive whatever would have been provided by the 
state if you had died "intestate." 

7 — False. This is not always the case. 

8 — False. In some states, when the handwriting is generally 
known, handwritten Wills can be held valid, but questions 
about the circumstances under which they were written make 
them a very risky proposition, 

9 — False. Some states may require three. Any Will disposing 
of property located in a three-witness state should have three, 
even if you write it while resident in a state requiring only two. 

10 — False. Actually, it is usually a very modest amount. 
Whatever his charge, the expert knowledge involved makes it 
a bargain. 

Write Today For Information 

Now while you are thinking about your Will, plan to 
see your lawyer as soon as possible. Before you go, 
you may find two of our booklets useful. They suggest 
information you may want to have at hand for con- 
sideration. Write for them now; Making Your Will and 
A Record of Personal Affairs. 


General Board 

Office of Stewardship Enlistment 

1451 Dundee Avenue 

Elgin, Illinois 60120 


Please send me without obligation the following booklets: 

D Making Your Will 

D A Record of Personal Affairs 




State . 



What kind of tears? 

by Desmond Httinger 

I am writing as a member of the Annual 
Conference Committee on Interchurch Re- 
lations to tell of an experience in the San 
Diego, Calif., Church of the Brethren 
which greatly "touched" our community 
and opened all of our minds to the 
possibilities of interreligious or inter- 
church helpfulness. It is an example of op- 
portunities which we often fail to see or 
which we reject outright. 

The Samruat Hangse family came from 
Cambodia as evacuees to Camp Pendleton 
about 18 months ago. There were four of 
them: Samruat and Sron — the father and 
mother, and Sorath and Sochitra, the son 
and daughter. In Cambodia Samruat had 
worked for the American Embassy and in 
terms of their country the family was well- 
to-do. They were transported to this coun- 
try in the general flight which followed the 
American military defeat. They could bring 
nothing along and came to Camp Pendle- 
ton destitute. 

The family was depressed but deeply 
religious. Samruat succeeded in getting 
Buddhist priests from Hollywood admitted 
to the military barracks to conduct serv- 
ices to comfort and calm the thousands of 
Buddhists who were with them there and 
were also in confusion and discourage- 

Soon after this Samruat became very ill. 
His sickness was diagnosed as inoperable, 
terminal cancer. !t was difficult for Church 
World Service, or any agency, to find a 
church or group which would sponsor a 
family with no present or foreseeable 
means of support. The Brethren at San 
Diego agreed to sponsorship even though 
they are few and the effort would need to 
be an undertaking in faith. 

Samruat entered Naval Hospital, where 
he improved and was able to be released 
for occasional short periods. Families of 
the church cared for the Hangse family. 
Finally an apartment was secured for 
them so they could have a place for 
Samruat during his times of release. 
Brethren families transported the Hangses 
to the markets, the hospital, and the 

schools and cared for all of the things 
necessary to locate a non-English speaking 
family in a foreign land and community. 
This included helping them with English 
and with school homework. 

The family came to church and church 
events when they could. They are a hand- 
some, gentle, worshipful family. They 
wanted to share their home and their food 

Above: The San Diego 
chancel arranged for 
Samruat's funeral. Be- 
hind the fruit-laden wor- 
ship center are grouped 
Samruat's family, the 
pastor's family, and 
Buddhist monks. Be- 
low: Samruat (third 
left) and his family 
at a celebration 
before his death. 


with their new supportuc liiends. 

The illness grew worse. The Hangses 
wished to have the Buddhist priest come 
from Hollywood to their house for prayers 
and for worship in their own tradition 
before death came. The San Diego 
Brethren brought the priest from 150 miles 
away and those who could, joined in the 
prayer and sacrifice service in the Hangse 

Death came to Samruat at the end of 
November. It was very important to the 
Hangse family, and to the great host of 
other Cambodians who were similarly 
settled in the San Diego area, that a 
memorial or funeral service be conducted 
in the Buddhist tradition. Since the Hangse 

apartment was not large enough for this, 
they asked for the use of the church. The 
San Diego fellowship seemed to have no 
thought other than to make it available. 

So the Church of the Brethren sanctuary 
became for a day a Buddhist Temple. Our 
regular church altar had a small Buddha 
placed on it. This was surrounded with 
flowers, fruit, the sacred scrolls, water, 
towel, and candles. In front of the larger 
altar was placed a smaller one with pictures 
of the family and with burning incense. 
Four saffron-robed priests came from 
Hollywood and sat back of the altar. Those 
of us who grew up in eastern Pennsylvania 
or who have worshiped there in earlier 
times were reminded of the elders back of 

38 MESSENGER April 1977 

the pulpit in the front of the church and of 
their joint participation in the service. That 
was the way this service was conducted. 

There were more than 100 Cambodians 
and Brethren present. The chants were 
beautiful. The Cambodians knew them 
well. They were in the Thai language but 
parts were translated. Some of the chants 
and responses were similar to the Ten 
Commandments: I will not kill; 1 will not 
steal: I will not commit sexual miscon- 
duct: I will not lie: I will abstain from in- 

Thanks were expressed to the Brethren 
for allowing a people who had no temple 
to worship and conduct prayers and a 
memorial service in their sanctuary for a 
loved family member and a friend of the 
church. Thanks were also expressed to the 
church and to the pastor, Irven Stern, for 
the strong support and help they had been 
during this illness and death. 

Following the service the Cambodian 
people and The Brethren Fellowship 
served a nourishing, generous meal to all 
who were there from the Brethren and 
Cambodian communities. 

The following day was Sunday. The 
Hangse family and the Cambodian com- 
munity now returned to witness and to par- 
ticipate in a Brethren. Christian service. 
They entered into our worship prayerfully 
and respectfully as we had tried to enter 
into theirs. As part of this morning 
worship the pastor conducted a memorial 
service for Mr. Hangse. this time in English 
with Christian scripture and prayers. 
Members of the congregation, both 
Brethren and Cambodians, went forward 
to the microphone to testify concerning the 
gentle, kindly life of Samruat Hangse, who 
for more than a year had been a part of the 
Brethren Fellowship. 

Cambodians and Americans. Buddhists 
and Brethren were caught up in one mov- 
ing prayerful emotion. Many tears were 

They were not Cambodian tears or 
American tears. 

They were not Buddhist tears or Chris- 
tian tears. 

They were just tears. 

They flowed because of our common 
humanity, our common sympathies and 
our belief in an overall God who loves and 
cares for all and who wishes to comfort all 
those whom he has created. □ 

On boys and trees 

by Edward R. Dayton 

It was a simple movie. Someone had 
selected it for our morning devotional time. 
So fifteen or twenty of us sat in the dark 
and watched a short film called The Giving 
Tree, a story about a tree who loved a boy. 

They played hide-and-seek. He swung 
from her branches, ate her apples, slept in 
her shade. And the tree was happy. 

But the boy grew. He spent less time 
with the tree. One day he returned. The 
tree was glad. "Come play. Boy. Come 
play." But the boy was only interested in 
money. "Take my apples and sell them. 
Then you'll have money," said the tree. 
And the boy did. And the tree was happy. 

Years went by. The tree missed the boy. 
But one day he came again. "Come play. 
Boy. Come play," said the tree. But the boy 
was older and tired of his world. He 
wanted to get away from it all. "Cut down 
my trunk and make a boat. Then you can 
sail away," said the tree. And the boy did. 
And the tree was happy. 

The tree waited. Years went by. The boy 
returned. "Come play, again. Boy. Come 
play," said the tree. "I'm too old to play," 
said the boy. "Too old. Too tired." 

"Well," said the tree. "I have a pretty 
good stump left. Why don't you sit down 
here and rest?" And the boy did. And the 
tree was happy. 

The lights came on. Someone was ex- 

plaining the film, giving an application. 
But my eyes were full and my cheeks were 
wet and I really didn't hear. 

"Come play. Boy. Come play." I 
watched the boy and the tree grow older, 
and I grew older with them. It hurt. Was I 
the tree or the boy? Both I think. And 
somehow that made the story all the more 

How many Giving Trees have there been 
in my life? How many people have given 
part of themselves that I might grow and 
be happy or more whole or more able? 
Their names would fill this page. 

How quickly I have grown up. The Boy 
is still there, but there are other things that 
distract me. things that have become needs 
or work. They have cost something, cost 
someone, for me to have. 

1, like the tree, have grown up so I could 
give. And giving, much like losing your 
boyhood, has its hurts. Apples, branches, 
sometimes the trunk. 

In my quiet moments I think about a 
Boy who grew in stature and wisdom and 
then died upon a tree that I might live. 
And somehow the mystery of the suffering 
that is part of growing up and giving all 
makes sense. 

Can I give you an apple? ID 

Copyright ^ World Vision Imernaiional 1977. Vsecl hi 

April 1977 messenger 39 


Kunta Kinte, may your spirit live! 

"Roots" grabbed me. And according to what I read and 
hear, some 30,000,000 other Americans were similarly 

Why the interest in, and the impact of "Roots"? I 
know why / read the book and watched the film: I 
lived a third of my life in West Africa and know in- 
timately a tribal setting comparable to that of Kunta 
Kinte's story. Earlier, I had been raised in rural Henry 
County, Virginia, within an hour's drive of most of the 
stateside scenes of "Roots" (and, incidentally, where we 
know how to pronounce it — root rhymes with shoot. 
not with /oor; see Webster). And my ancestors (all 
non-Brethren) were slaveholders until The War — in 
which three of my great-grandfathers fought and were 

1 could easily identify with "Roots." Kunta Kinte's 
first owner, John Waller, had a first cousin. Major 
George Waller, who lived in Henry County. He was a 
neighbor and friend of my great-great-great-great 
grandfather. An interesting personal petition, written by 
my ancestor in 1809, begs the Virginia General 
Assembly for permission, contrary to state law, to fetch 
his slave Bob from North Carolina. Major Waller was 
among the some 30 signers of that successful petition. 

So 1 could watch "Roots" with more than passing 
interest. 1 could laugh at the trivial historical inac- 
curacies and 1 could weep at the accuracy of recounted 
atrocities against humanity. Best of all, I could feel 
good about the progress and accomplishments we have 
made in recent years in dealing with the disgrace of our 
slaveholding heritage and the racial discrimination that 
followed its demise. 

"Roots" was a helpful measuring stick to mark the 
progress of the civil rights struggle that raged through 
the i960s and continues more quietly in the i970s. As 
so many have speculated, imagine what sort of negative 
impact "Roots" would have had on tv viewers of the 
1960s! In 1977 we all. black and white, were able to 
watch "Roots" without the sense of guilt, shame, and 
anger it would have engendered ten years ago. We 
could watch it together. That felt good. 

Then I got to thinking. If looking at my 
slaveholding ancestor' wills, deeds, and sales accounts 
makes me shudder today, what am I doing, what at- 
titudes do I hold now, that will horrify my own descen- 
dants a century from now? It seems fitting to follow our 
viewing of "Roots" with a tune-up of our consciences. 

For starters: Our failure, so far, to complete the 
work of the civil rights struggle; our insensitivity to the 
suffering and injustice we continue to perpetrate on 
Native Americans (whom many people seem to think 
are extinct or happily lost in the great American 
blender); our exploitation of migrant farm workers, en- 
joying the literal fruit of their labor while ignoring the 
conditions under which they live and work; equality for 
women. And aside from how we continue to mistreat 
groups within our society, what of our attitude 
toward the Third World's people, demonstrated in our 
American/ Western life-style? What of the ecological 
suicide we seem bent on committing? What of our ram- 
pant militarism and our flirtation with nuclear 

I am sure many of my ancestors disapproved of 
slavery in principle, but felt trapped by the "system" 
with which they had to contend. I am sure they were as 
confounded by how to get rid of slavery as I am with 
how to get rid of pollution-producing, fuel-wasting 
automobiles. But I am just as sure that slavery would 
not have ended without the daring few who risked 
much to be different, who continued to rail against the 
institution, who kept the issue alive. 

Xf we cannot be the forerunners in the search and 
struggle for solutions to today's social evils, let us at 
least keep our consciences attuned to the pain our sup- 
port of status quo inflicts on others, and educate 
ourselves for greater sensitivity, which, hopefully, may 
lead to an involvement in the social action struggles in 
which we presently cannot see our way clear to actively 

Kunta Kinte, may your spirit live! — k.t. 

40 MESSENGER April 1977 

MR. and MRS. DEWEY CASS, Pasadena, California 


Make More of Vxir 



"Sitting in the 

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the same bed, 

we were miles apart, one of us was always saying, 'You never 
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that the other one might have a headache or be very tired. There were 
endless arguments about money, God, sex, in-laws and the raising of the 
children. D All the things included in this wonderful book, MAKE MORE 
OF YOUR MARRIAGE, showed us we had a second-rate marriage— and 
we didn't know what to do about it. But with God's help we ihjs«5*.,»os- 
began to see our marriage not as a two-way partnership, but 
as a triangle between God, a man and a woman. Our mar- 
riage began all over again! D Now we don't have to pretend 
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they face an uncertain future together. D LIVING AND 
Pape'Sck%087 GROWING TOGETHER edited by Gary Collins- 
se"erf9t6 Thirteen authorities including Mark Hatfield, Bruce 
Narramore and Leighton Ford, offer helpful insights for the Christian family. 
D HOW TO BE A FAMILY AND SURVIVE by Ted B. Moorhead, Jr.-A book 
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date: August 1976 


Now available at your local Christian bookstore. WORD BOOKS for people on the grow. Publisher, Waco, Texas 76703. 

An Annual Conference, a reunion, a celebration, a 
forum, a prayer time, a renewal time, a commitment 
time, and an instrument through which the Church of the 
Brethren speaks to the world on the issues of the day. 

June 21-26, Richmond, Virginia 


Annual Conference, which will be held in Richmond's modern 
Coliseum, will open with a convocation on Tuesday, June 21, and con- 
clude Sunday, June 26, with a service of consecration of life. 

The week's activities include six major worship services; 40 Insight 
sessions; eight morning Bible study presentations on four consecutive 
days; a variety of activities for children, youth, and adults; and some 
thirty luncheons, dinners, and teas for special interest groups. 

Richmond's Coliseum 

Tuesday, June 21. Moderator Charles M. Bieber, 
pastor of the Black Rock congregation, Brodbecks, 
Pa., will speak at the opening convocation. Topic: "To 
Be the Servant Church. " 

Wednesday, June 22. S. Loren Bowman, general 
secretary of the General Board, retiring in December, 
1977. Topic: "Serving Amid the Surprises of Crea- 
tion. " 

Thursday, June 23. Ruby F. Rhoades, Washington 
representative. World Ministries Commission. Topic: 
"A Personal Response to a Changing World. " 

Friday, June 24. A musical program in two 
segments, one led by Andy and Terry Murray of 
Huntingdon, Pa., and the other led by the Annual 
Conference choir directed by Harry L Simmers of 
Elizabethtown, Pa. 

Saturday, June 25. (Tentative) Andrew Young, US 
Ambassador to the United Nations. Topic: To be an- 

Sunday, June 26. Duane H. Ramsey, pastor, 
Washington, D. C, Church of the Brethren. Topic: 
"On Putting the Miracle to Work. " 

Charles M, Bieber 

S. Loren Bowman 

Ruby F Rhoades 

Andrew Young 

Duane H. Ramsey 



MAY 1977 

How God Keeps Families Alive! by John R. Martin • Getting in on the Love by 
Robert W. Neff and jack Fielding • Marriage and Parenting — One Couple's Journey 
by Ralph and Mary Cline Detrick • A Sense of Significance by John M. Drescher • 
The Kalmucks: Strangers No More by Ruth E. Early ^^\fY\U I I "T^T 

• Why Cant I Say What I Mean? by Anne Haynes Price ^Ml I ||l V / / 



4 2 Are You Saved? Ervin L. Huston sees salvation not as a one-time 
event but as an adventuresome journey. 

4 A How God Keeps Families Alive! Each family has a "sacred 
history," writes John R. Martin. Get together and share that story, be 
a part of it, and carry it on. 

4 A Getting in on the Love. Robert W. Neff and Jack Fielding 
refute the assertion that authority in the family must be a chain of 
command moving from God to husband to wife to child. 

4 O Marriage & Parenting: One Couple's Journey. Ralph and 

Mary Cline Detrick recount their satisfying efforts to build a marriage 
freed from unquestioned and assumed male and female roles. 

22 A Sense of Significance. John M. Drescher points out a uni- 
versal need — to recognize children as persons of worth. 

26 ^'^® Kalmucks: Strangers No More. Ruth e. Early finds that 

the close-knit Kalmuck refugee families of the early 1950s have proved 
themselves worthy of the support Brethren gave them. 

OQ Why Can't I Say What I Mean? Anne Haynes Price reviews 
current books that deal with the number one cause of family discord — 
lack of communication. 

32 Verdict: Guilty. Sentence: Death? James L. Kinsey lifts up 

our scriptural heritage, which never stopped with eye-for-an-eye justice 
but progressed to the "New Light" of Jesus Christ. 

In Touch profiles Galen Lehman, North Manchester, Ind.; Merlin Garber, 
Frederick, Md.; and Penny Henry, Hopewell, Pa. (2) . . . Outlook reports on 
Lighthouse of Hope; Miracle claims; Vietnam policies; Holy Spirit conference; 
Evangelism Congress; women's conference; Dave Rogers; personnel shifts; 
retirement home bankruptcy. Panama seminar. Thompson appointment (start 
on 4) . . . Underlines (7) . . . Update (8) . . . Special Report, "Indiana and 
ERA: What Ratification Meant," by Howard E. Royer (10) . . . Here I Stand, 
statements by Woodbury (Pa.) congregation, Arno M. Holderread, Gary H. 
Perroz, O. E. Gibson, Hal Sonafrank, and Lee Smith Jr. (36) . . . Resources, 
"Alcohol & Drugs," by Shirley J. Heckman (41) . . . "Annual Conference 77," 
by Howard E. Royer (42) . . . Column, "A Time to Think Large," by Ray- 
mond R. Peters (44) . . . "Camp Bethel: Reaching Through the Years" (46) . . . 
Turning Points (47) . . . Editorial (48) 


Howard E Royer 
Kermon Thomason 
Kenneth I Morse 
Clyde E Weaver 
Gwendolyn F. Bobb 
Joel K Thompson 

VOL 126. NO 5 MAY 1977 

CREDITS: Cover Kenneth L. Stanley. I. 6 sec- 
ond right. 41, 43-44 Nguyen Van Gia. 2 right, 3 
Norman F. Reber. 4 RNS photo by Cora Weiss. 
5 Dev O'Neill, 6 left Whiting Studio, 9 Ron 
McAdams, 10-1 1 RNS, 13 Art by Marvin Hayes. 
16 David W. Corson from A. Devaney. N, Y. 18- 
21 Edward J, Buzinski, 22-25. 30 Wallowitch, 26- 
28 Ruth E. Early, 29 Leah Oxley, 32 Art by 
Stephanie CamiUeri. 

Messenger is the official publication of the 
Church of the Brethren, Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20, 1918, under Act of Congress of 
Oct. 17. 1917, Filing date, Oct, 1. 1976, 
Messenger is a member of the Associated Church 
Press and a subscriber to Religious News Service 
and Ecumenical Press Service. Biblical quotations, 
unless otherwise indicated, are from the Revised 
Standard Version. 

Subscription rates: $6.00 per year for individual 
subscriptions; $4,80 per year for Church Group 
Plan: $4.80 per year for gift subscriptions; $3,15 
for school rate (9 months); life subscription. 
$80,00 single. $90,00 couple. If you move clip old 
address and send with new address. 
Allow at least five weeks for address 
change. Messenger is owned and 
published monthly by the General 
Services Commission, Church of the 
Brethren General Board, 1451 Dundee 
Ave., Elgin, III. 60120, Second-class 
postage paid at Elgin, III., May 1977, Copyright 
1977, Church of the Brethren General Board, 

J)OV»,OU sing 



Re: "'Drunken Sailor' Sermon wins preaching 
award" (Messenger, Dec. 1976, page 4), there 
was a time when the preaching of a good sermon 
would resuh in the risk of being stoned (See 
Acts 6-7); today we run the greater risk of win- 
ning $1,000. 

Ch.arlotte Kuenning 
Lombard. Ill, 


What's in a name? Plenty, pal. If you were a 
young woman of marriageable age, would you 
want your name to be Mudd? Or, would you 
prefer it to be Rose? 

Now, some farmers are sorry salesmen. So our 
farmer forebears discarded our name of Baptists. 
We did not stop being Baptists. We just discard- 
ed our name. They remembered that Jesus said, 
"All ye are brethren" (Mt. 23:8). So they created 
a long and dubious title. 

Thus they turned off all those who cotton to 
that word Baptist. They slammed a million 
doors in their own faces. As farmer salesmen, 
they ask, "You don't want any of this, do you? 
It's new, and you probably won't like it." 

I suggest that we correct the record to read. 
"Baptist Brethren." This is far more factual and 

Ow! But that would mean change? Okay. 
Then let's just make like I didn't say it. 

Roy White 
Citronelle, Ala. 


The most misunderstood verse in the entire 
Word of God is "Thou Shalt Not Kill." Persons 
favoring the end of capital punishment constant- 
ly use it to prove that God does not want 
murderers executed. 

They do so, I believe, for two reasons: They're 
either completely in the dark on what the Bible 
teaches, or they know what the Bible teaches, 
but don't care. 

I believe God wants us not to have hatred; but 
when a person has killed an innocent victim, 
legally established government has the right to 
put him to death. 

The ne.xt time someone tells you the Bible 
condemns capital punishment, ask him to turn 
to Exodus 21:12, "Whoever strikes a man so that 
he dies shall be put to death." 

In the New Testament, the Apostle Paul lists a 
number of sins, including murder and says, 
"Who knowing the judgment of God, that they 
which commit such things are worthy of death" 
(Rom. 1:32 KJV). 

Almighty God is a God of love. He is also a 
God of justice. Jesus Christ never preached the 
preservation of murderers. As Christians, we 
should be concerned about the salvation of souls 
and their eternal welfare. But capital punishment 
would be used only against heartless murderers, 
who obviously have no convictions against the 
taking of human life. 

Landis Hornberger 
Ephrata, Pa. 

p®gjs ©DDS 


Thank you for an interesting and informative 
magazine. I am the product of a very liberal 
church in childhood, a fundamental church in 
nursing school, and now a Brethren church, and 
I am glad to know where my church stands in 
relation to both the others. Messenger is a good 

Judy Weaver 
Akron, Pa. 


As 1 have thought of seats that are often emp- 
ty at the full love feast and communion services 
in our churches, my mind runs to the many from 
other denominations who would appreciate so 
much the opportunity to share in this high 
spiritual moment with us, if they would be ex- 
tended an invitation. Denominational lines are 
becoming blurred and of little importance in this 
day when Christ is being lifted up as the focal 
point of all true believers. 

Remember, when those who were invited to 
the banquet didn't come, the servants were sent 
out to find others. 

Dorothy Faith Shoemaker 
Piqua, Ohio 


I finished a very good February issue of the 
Messenger and in closing saw the SHARE 
advertisement on the back cover. 1 was im- 
mediately attracted by the opening statement, 
dealing with the church's response to disadvan- 
taged Americans. 

This is a field which has interested me for a 
long time through the work of the Salvation 
Army. Good Will, and others. These groups are 
heeding the gospel teaching in ways that are all 
too few. They draw no line as to "whom" in any 
way as long as there is a need and they can cope 
with it. It has long been my pride in the Brethren 
teaching that they were willing to move into the 
areas of need. 

Now 1 find to my dismay that someone had a 
good idea, and then promptly fell into the errors 
of the popular theme of the moment that you 
really aren't in need unless you are a special type 
of an American — Afro, Anglo, Asian, Hispanic 
or Native. 

Until Americans and Christians alike are will- 
ing to remove the classifications of those that are 
in need and until they are willing to treat them 
all alike, they are not helping the needy. They 
are not even Christian by any reasonable defini- 
tion. They are, it seems to me, contributing to 
the underlying cause of strife — the "brother 
against brother" that we see so much of today. 
They continue the childish "I'm better than you 

because I'm " In spite of their 

endeavors they nurture what they claim to cure. 

Why not just make it "SHARE is the church's 
response to human needs in our own country." 
When you do, and give evidence of it, let me 

J. Dana Kintner 
Lacey, Wash. 

The Church of the Brethren has many 
leaders whose lives intertwine with the life 
of the church. Galen Brown Ogden is one 
of these. Even his name was inspired by a 
former denominational official, Galen B. 

On April 1 Galen B. Ogden retired as 
general secretary of the General Services 
Commission. He retired also from a 
cluster of other roles this position en- 
tailed: associate general secretary of the 
General Board, executive of the Pension 

Galen B. Ogden 

Plan, manager of The Brethren Press, 
and most related to this periodical and its 
readers, publisher of Messenger. 

The public image of Galen B. Ogden 
may be that of pastor of the La Verne, 
Calif., church for 15 years, or of churches 
at Conway, Kans., Monticello, Ind., and 
Naperville, 111., in earlier periods. It may 
be that of an administrator of ministry 
and home mission affairs. It may be that 
of a story teller skillfully and wittily re- 
counting an anecdote, a strategist tooling 
a plan of action, a team member discern- 
ingly if not impatiently moving an agenda 
item toward resolution. 

The private image is that of a crafts- 
man carefully selecting wood and shap- 
ing a lampstand or bowl from it. It is that 
of a farmer at heart who after 40 years re- 
joices in reworking the land. It is that of a 
researcher stirring geneological roots, 
compiling histories of the Brown and 
Ogden clans and encompassing his own 
13 brothers and sisters, son, daughter, 
and three grandchildren. 

From McPherson College to Bethany 
Seminary to parishes in four states Galen 
B. Ogden moved into a world of modular 
offices and management objectives, 
church extension and stewardship enlist- 
ment, communications theory and com- 
puter systems, printing technology and 
investment terminology, marketing 
processes and mailroom logistics. In each 
new task for the church he found excite- 
ment and challenge not unlike that which 
he experienced in turning the fresh soil of 
his Iowa boyhood. 

The contribution of Galen B. Ogden to 
the life of the Church of the Brethren is 
something we celebrate. His leadership in 
the General Board arena is something 
those of us who relied upon it already 
miss. We join with others in wishing him 
well in his retirement undertakings, which 
are bound to be many and varied. 

A tribute to one of our publishing 
family is an appropriate way of in- 
troducing the thrust of this Messenger— 
Family 77. A cluster of perspectives 
are offered by John R. Martin, a United 
Church of Christ minister formerly with 
the Glendale (Calif.) Church of the 
Brethren; Robert W. Neff Bethany 
Seminary professor of biblical studies, 
and Jack Fielding, Doctor of Ministry 
candidate at the seminary; Ralph and 
Mary Cline Detrick, Parish Ministries 
consultants for life cycle ministries; John 
M. Drescher, pastor of the Scottdale 
(Pa.) Mennonite Church; Ruth E. Early, 
an admissions counselor at American 
University, Washington, D. C; and Anne 
Haynes Price, a psychologist in family 
therapy, Laguna Beach, Calif 

Other writers: James L. Kinsey, pastor 
of the Hope Church of the Brethren, 
Freeport. Mich.; Ervin L. Huston, pastor 
of the Baltimore (Md.) First Church; 
Raymond R. Peters, executive secretary 
of the Church of the Brethren Health and 
Welfare Committee; Shirley J. Heck- 
man, Parish Ministries consultant for 
educational development; Bruce 

Bunschoten, staff writer for the Wabash 
(Ind.) Plain Dealer: Norman F. Reber, 
BVSer on our communications team; and 
Ron McAdams, a member of the Middle 
District (Tipp City, Ohio) congregation. 

Here I Stand statements were con- 
tributed by Arno M. Holderread, Can- 
ton, Ohio; Lee Smith Jr., South Bend, 
Ind.; Gary H. Perroz, Natrona Heights, 
Pa.; O. E. Gibson, Westmont, III.; Hal 
Sonafrank, Fresno, Calif; and the Wood- 
bury (Pa.) congregation. — The Editors 

May 1977 messenger 1 

Galen Lehman: A few licks of his own 

Galen Lehman believes newspaper 
articles sometimes do not tell all sides 
of an issue. 

That's when the 79-year-old resi- 
dent of Timbercrest Home at North 
Manchester, Ind., likes to "get in a 
few licks" of his own. He makes a 
point of expressing those views 
through letters to editors. 

"Many times I feel there's an area 
of public interest or a public view- 
point that needs to be expressed, a 
viewpoint that otherwise doesn't get 
much coverage," Lehman said in an 

"I've spent 25 years as a pastor in 
the Church of the Brethren in five 
different charges over a four-state 
area. Naturally, I had to learn how to 
express myself." 

It is important, Lehman says, that 
people be alerted to the significance 
of current events, especially "as far as 
religion is concerned." 

"To be truly faithful to the man- 
date preached by Christ, we would 
become involved in human welfare, 
don't you see? Christ, himself, was in- 
volved in the social problems of the 

"Many people who are social ac- 
tivists are motivated by humanitarian 
concerns. In my case, the motivations 
are religious and humanitarian," he 

added. "It's difficult to put religion in 
one category and the social problems 
and activities of the day in another." 

Most of the ideas Lehman ex- 
presses in his letters evolve from his 
extensive reading, which includes a 
steady diet of two daily newspapers 
and 15 magazines. 

The church has always been a cen- 
tral part of Lehman's life. After he 
graduated from Mount Morris 
College, he attended Bethany Biblical 
Seminary in Chicago. 

Following a pastorate at the 
Monitor church in Kansas, he had a 
stint as Mount Morris College's 
public relations director. He then was 
pastor in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
Springfield, 111., and Huntington, 

From 1950 until his "retirement" in 
1962, Lehman worked with the 
regional office at Manchester 

He enjoys public speaking, includ- 
ing preaching at chapel at Timber- 
crest Home. He pinch hits oc- 
casionally for area churches needing 
a fill-in pastor. 

"I've always had enough to do," 
Lehman said. "Retirement has never 
hung heavy on my hands." — Bruce 


Reprinted, with permission, from the Wabash Plain 
Dealer, Wabash, Ind. 


Merlin Garber: 'It took a 

"Three o'clock one morning a man in I 
an upheaval of tears came to see my ' 
father who was a preacher. The man 
was broken up over his wife's ter- 
minal illness with cancer. From my 
bedroom 1 heard my father talk to 
him man-to-man but, more than that, 
as God's man telling him about God's 
love. John Garber was not highly 
educated, but he had a sense of God's 
grace. The caller became quiet and 
pretty soon, in the moonlight 
through my window, I saw him 
throw his arms around my father, get 
into his car, and drive away." 

That scene told Merlin Garber 
what a person of God can do for a 
soul and influenced him to join a 
long family line of Brethren 
preachers. Merlin represents the 
eighth generation in the ministry. 

"Take me here. I'm with people 
almost when they're born, when 
they're baptized, when they're 
married, and when they have had 
children. I've been with them in sick- 
ness and stood beside them in death. 
In all of these areas it took a 

In his nearly 43 years in the 
ministry, from which he retired April 
1, Merlin served at Champaign, 111.; 
Roanoke, Va.; Vienna, Austria (as 
director of a Brethren Service proj- 
ect); and finally at Frederick, Md., 
where during his nearly 15-year 
tenure the church grew from a rank- 
ing of 17th to the largest in the 

Before he consented to come to 
Frederick, Merlin requested that the 

2 MESSENGER May 1977 


congregation permit him to put his 
full time to three basic things — 
preaching, giving the ordinances, and 
visiting the sick. 

Merlin smiles as he reflects on the 
fruitful outcome of that division of 
labor in the Lord's vineyard: "I only 
get called into board meetings and 
councils to give spiritual inter- 
pretations. Otherwise I stay away." 

This veteran pastor says the 
arrangement developed into a proven 
threefold growth formula. First, he 
insists that lay persons run the 
church. Second, this activity brings 
them to church early, often filling the 
pews so tightly that worshipers have 
to breathe like pistons — up and 
down! Third, this mobilized lay 
spiritual power will push forward, 
not into a super church, but into 
sharing the gospel in surrounding 
communities, like the churches the 
Frederick congregation helped to 
found at Glade Valley and Rocky 

Besides rearing two children of 
their own. Merlin and Dorothy Faw 
Garber have ministered to four 
young people who stayed in their 
home for extended periods: a Cuban 
girl and a Mayan Indian teenager, 
and two boys from local com- 
munities. One of the youths was 
Olympic pole vaulter Bob Richards. 

But in 43 years of ministry the 
Garber "family" has come to include 
countless more — all those for whom 
at some point "it took a preacher." — 
Norman F. Reber 

Penny Henry: She makes waves 

Talking with gracious Penny Henry, 
I felt magnetic waves bringing me 
this message: "Help people be their 
real selves. Put their God-given 
creativity to work for others as well 
as yourselves." 

Penny is deeply involved in selling 
quality handicrafts, but she has not 
let this interfere with her com- 
mitments as a teacher, music direc- 
tor, and advisor of youth in the 
Yellow Creek congregation of Penn- 
sylvania's Middle District. She "made 
waves" in doing the "hardest thing 
she has ever done in her life." This 
was to get the Brethren Encounter 
Series accepted in Sunday school and 
to help bring a new perspective to the 
congregation. She convinced the 
youth group they could raise enough 
money for all to go to the National 
Youth Conference in New Mexico, 
and they did! On the district level she 
has been active in the development of 
Camp Blue Diamond and in the 
adult cabinet's support of projects 
like the Lafiya program and SERRV. 

Some six years ago Penny made a 
shop out of the patio of her home 
and started to sell SERRV handi- 
crafts. By last year her trade had out- 
grown the patio, so she moved to her 
present "Deepwood Heritage Crafts 
Gallery" in Bedford, Pa. Penny still 
carries some SERRV items, sells silk- 
screened art for a mission for blacks 
in Mississippi, and handles baskets 
made by Mohawk Indians for their 
youth scholarship fund. 

"If 1 ever get people to appreciate 
the ultimate in craftsmanship, I'll feel 

that I've accomplished something!" 
To Penny good crafts mean hard 
work. "I think, since crafts have 
become popular, real craftspersons 
must be so creative as to put a part of 
their life into their work." As an ex- 
ample, she showed me an elegant 
light-as-a-feather pottery lamp base 
glazed in a bright color. 

The waves Penny makes mean help 
for people caught in the economic 
backwash of a mass production 
economy. Her shop offers them a 
viable return for their creative skills. 
For example, some people have been 
making beautiful willow or split-oak 
baskets all their lives but never . 
thought their skill was really an art 
they could be paid for. Penny sells 
products for a West Virginia crafts 
cooperative that has taken six 
families off welfare in a small moun- 
tain community. 

You might say self-discovery has 
come to the Henrys, too. Penny is 
making some of her own pottery, and 
her husband Kenneth has developed 
skill in carving birds out of wood. 
These birds have moved well in 
national distribution. 

What dreams have Penny and her 
husband for the future? She says: "I 
hope our health holds out so we can 
do volunteer work. We have always 
wanted to do it." — Norman F. 

May 1977 messenger 3 

Revision of policies 
sought for Vietnam 

Toward normalizing US relations with 
Vietnam, 17 members of the House of 
Representatives in a resolution have called 
for an end to the US trade embargo of 

Identical legislation was passed by both 
the House and Senate in the last Congress, 
but was vetoed by President Ford. Author 
of that legislation and also of the measure 
now before the House was Rep. Jonathan 
Bingham (D-NY). 

Bingham said he was "encouraged" by 
indications that the Carter Administration 
is not opposed to normalization of 
relations with Communist-ruled Vietnam. 
The trade embargo, Bingham said, is a 
vindictive policy "contrary to our best 
traditions." It also "denies us leverage in 
Southeast Asian politics and increases the 
very reliance of the Vietnamese on the 
Russians and the Chinese which we profess 
to want to prevent." 

Gareth Porter, Church of the Brethren 
scholar and author of A Peace Denied: The 
United States, Vietnam and the Paris 
Agreement published last year, in a March 
2 Christian Century article observed that 
1977 should be the year in which the 
United States finally establishes a new 

Former prostitutes learn new vocational skills in a Saigon "school for the restoration of 
dignity to women. " Needed also: a reconciliation between our country and Indochina. 

relationship with Vietnam. 

Today's situation in the Far East stands 
in contrast to past propaganda. Porter 
asserted. "Contrary to the portrayal of 
Vietnam as the primary threat to peace in 
southeast Asia, a reunified socialist Viet- 
nam could play a key role in neutralizing 
the region by keeping great-power politics 
out of it. But this can happen only if the 
United States transforms its own past 
relationship with Vietnam." 

In February, the signatures of 10,000 
Americans were attached to an Appeal for 

Reconciliation with Indochina that was 
presented to the White House. Developed 
by three coalitions coordinated by the 
American Friends Service Committee, the 
appeal sought recognition, reconstruction, 
amnesty, and rehabilitation, and urged the 
President to support the admission of Viet- 
nam to the United Nations. 

Signature formj for the appeal were 
sent via Agenda late last year to all pas- 
tors by World Ministries Commission staff 
members Shantilal P. Bhagat and H. 
Lamar Gibble. 

Dakota camp leased 
as half-way house 

A Church of the Brethren camp in the Tur- 
tle Mountains of North Dakota is finding 
year-round use by becoming a half-way 
house for rehabilitating law offenders. 
Formerly, the camp served the churches 
two weeks a year. 

Camp Mon-Dak, begun in the 1950s by 
the churches of Eastern Montana and 
North Dakota, is leasing its facilities to a 
corporation known as "Lighthouse of 
Hope." The corporation is carrying out its 
rehabilitation program for 10 or 12 
parolees at a time, in cooperation with 
state law enforcement officials and other 

A former highway patrolman, Frank 
Bell, heads the corporation. A Methodist, 
Bell states that it was through contact with 
a Church of the Brethren member at a Lay 
Witness Mission several years ago that he 
came to know Christ. As he reflected on 
the criminal justice system and its impact 

on offenders, he decided to work full-time 
in rehabilitation. 

Also related to the program is a nearby 
Christian family camp. Cross Roads 
Range, and its director, Bruce Howard, a 
United Methodist minister. 

Upon reviewing plans for the program at 
Camp Mon-Dak, the area churches voted 
to bear the cost of needed improvements. 
A minimum goal of $10,000 was estab- 

Camp Mon-Dak is now a part of the 
Northern Plains District, and is managed 
by an area committee. 

Evangelism congress 
to convene in Fresno 

Second in the Congress on Evangelism 
series in regions will occur May 19-22 at 
the Fresno, Calif., Church of the Brethren. 

Brethren congregations in the states of 
Arizona, California, Idaho, Oregon, and 
Washington are urged to have five percent 
of their members in attendance for the cele- 

brational and training event. 

Inspirational leaders for the four-day 
congress will be S. Loren Bowman and 
Rick Gardner of the denominational staff, 
Elgin, 111.; Paul A. Cedar of First 
Presbyterian church, Hollywood, Calif., 
and member of the Billy Graham staff; 
Marvin Chandler, executive director, San 
Francisco Council of Churches; and Ernest 
L. Hastings, pastor. First Baptist church, 
Everett, Wash. 

Others engaged as workshop leaders in- 
clude Winfield C. Arn on church growth, 
Desmond and Irene Bittinger on the fami- 
ly, James S. Flora on busing ministries, 
Ralph G. McFadden on small groups, 
Matthew M. Meyer on personal faith 
statements, Hal Sonafrank on prayer and 
praise services, Leland Wilson on social ac- 
tion outreach, and David Guyman Young 
on music for evangelism. 

Planners for the event include James S. 
Flora, Albert L. Sauls, Irven F. Stern, R. 
Truman Northup, Irene Armey, Sidney 
King, working with Matthew M. Meyer, 
PMC Consultant for Evangelism. 

4 MESSENGER May 1977 

Urge substantiation 
for miracle claims 

Because of the growing number of reports 
on miraculous healings, Christianity To- 
day, an evangelical magazine, has called 
for an agency to evaluate and certify such 

"I believe in miracles and in divine heal- 
ing," stated Harold Lindsell, editor of the 
fortnightly, in an editorial. "But the 
'economy of miracles' suggests they are in- 
frequent; otherwise the word miracle loses 
its meaning. The miracle business is getting 
out of hand. The time has come for 
evangelicals to adopt a cautious attitude 
toward extravagant claims and to reject ac- 
counts that are unsubstantiated. Common 
sense and belief in miracles should go hand 
in hand. 

"The knaves and unbelievers will always 
be with us to try to make personal gain or 
to discredit the Christian faith, and the 
desperate and the gullible will always be 
willing to finance them," the editorial 
stated. "We can only pray that they will be 

A certifying agency, the article added, 
should not be dependent upon or con- 
trolled by any one group. It should be free 
to certify only those cures warranted by the 

"So many stories of healing are being 
circulated that many people are inclined to 
disbelieve all of them. They are under- 
standably skeptical if they see a new 
'miracle' on television every day. 

"Responsible leaders of the groups that 
circulate these reports could now show 
their good faith to the rest of the 
evangelical community by establishing a 
certification agency." 

Ohio university to host 
Holy Spirit Conference 

Ohio's Bowling Green University near 
Toledo will be the site of the second Con- 
ference on the Holy Spirit, Aug. 18-21. 
Plans are being arranged by a seven- 
member executive committee of pastors 
and laity in the Church of the Brethren. 

Speakers include Dick Mills, evangelist 
and teacher from the Melodyland Christian 
Center, Anaheim, Calif.; R. Russell Bixler, 
leader in the charismatic renewal and 
president of the Western Pennsylvania 
Christian Broadcasting Co., Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; W. Hartman Rice, pastor and 

evangelist, Columbia City, Ind.; Anna B. 
Mow, teacher, author, and lecturer, 
Roanoke, Va.; and Chalmer E. Faw, 
former Bethany Seminary professor 
and recent Nigeria missionary, Quinter, 

Also scheduled on the program are 
Robert W. Neff of Bethany Theological 
Seminary, Oak Brook, 111., and J. Rodman 
Williams, president of Melodyland School 
of Theology, Anaheim, Calif. 

The theme of the conference is "A 
Teaching Ministry: 'Let us press on to 
maturity,'" from Hebrews 6:1. 

Bowling Green, a state university, is 
located 23 miles south of Toledo, just off 

1-75. Campus facilities will be used for 
housing and meals. 

The executive committee for the con- 
ference is chaired by R. Eugene Miller, 
from whom detailed information may be 
obtained by writing P.O. Box 761, Al- 
toona, PA 16603. 

Others on the committee are E. LeRoy 
Dick and R. Russell Bixler, both of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Nick Farr, Middletown, Pa.; 
Forrest U. Groff, El Cajon, Calif.; J. 
Donald Plank, Lewistown, Pa., and Joseph 
Quesenberry, Hagerstown, Md. 

The first Conference on the Holy Spirit 
for Brethren convened last year in June at 
Valparaiso University in Indiana. 

'IT i^ \i i jM'\ 

■ ' s 

'An uncommon man' offers prayer for House 

Congressman Floyd Fithian introduced the visiting pastor to the House as "an un- 
common man . . . who deeply believes in Christian concern for the total person." The 
pastor from Indiana's Second District was David L. Rogers of the Manchester 
Church of the Brethren (shown above with Congressman Fithian, left, and Speaker 
Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill Jr. of Massachusetts), who offered in the House on March 
8 the following prayer: 

"Before you, God, we stand in thanksgiving. Mindful that you give life, help and 
accept us. 

"Enable us to face today with excitement, confidence, joy, hope; but with fear 
and trembling as we consider the trust that you have in us and the call to serve peo- 
ple who depend upon us. 

"Keep before us the plea of the least among us as well as the most powerful. 

"Give us clear minds to decide what part we must play in human liberation; 
warm hearts to respond to human need for acceptance; open eyes to identify all as 
brother or sister; sensitive ears to hear tears of hurt, sorrow, need, and laughter of 
confidence, trust, hope; your Spirit to empower us to give your peace. Amen." 

May 1977 messenger 5 

Seven workers involved 
in personnel shifting 

A lateral move by a commission executive 
(see box), the call to an Iowa pastor to fill 
a newly-created position at Bethany 
Seminary, an appointment to the 
Brotherhood Staff, two appointments to 
district staff positions, a sabbatical leave 
for a district executive secretary to work in 
Nigeria, and the retirement of the Health 
and Welfare Committee executive are 
among recent personnel developments. 

The choice of the seminary for director 
of church relations is Alan Kieffaber, 
pastor of the Ivester Church of the 
Brethren, Grundy Center, Iowa. He 
assumes his duties on Sept. 1. 

Assigned to the seminary's development 
office. Alan will have major responsibility 
for liaison with churches as partners in 
mission, and for communication and inter- 
pretation material. 

Previous to service in Iowa, Kieffaber 
was pastor of the Franklin Grove church in 
Illinois and teacher of religion at Waka 
Teachers' College in Nigeria. 

A new associate staff position in Parish 
Ministries has been filled with the appoint- 
ment of June Adams Miller of St. Paul, 
Minn. Early in July she becomes associate 
editor for educational resources in that 
commission. Among her assignments, she 
will help to maintain educational resources 
for use in church schools and review and 
edit curriculum manuscripts. 

A native of Virginia and a graduate of 
Bridgewater College, June has taught 
elementary school and was head teacher of 
two nursery schools. For three years she 
served as children's director at First 
Church of the Brethren in Baltimore, Md. 

June comes to her new position from 
Macalester College in St. Paul, where she 
was head cashier in the bursar's office. 

With the appointment of James E. 
Miller as associate executive of the 
Shenandoah district, the board feels he will 
bring new dimensions of leadership in the 
areas of Christian education, peace and 
witness— priorities lifted up in a recent dis- 
trict evaluation. This post again becomes a 
full-time effort, following the part-time 
services of Mildred F. Mundy as director 
of educational ministries for the past two 
years and a full-time nine-year period prior 
to that. 

Miller moved to his new assignment 
from the pastorate of the Beaver Creek 
congregation, Hagerstown, Md., March 1. 

A native of Ohio, Miller grew up in 

Thompson new head 
of General Services 

Joel K. Thompson, executive of the World 
Ministries Commission since 1968, became 
the new executive secretary of the General 
Services Commission April 11. He con- 
tinues as associate general secretary of the 
General Board. 

In the new capacity Thompson ad- 
ministers programs of communications, 
stewardship, marketing. Brethren Press, 
and the historical library. He is also ex- 
ecutive of the Brethren Pension Plan. 

California and graduated from Manchester 
College and Bethany Theological 
Seminary. He and his wife Mary Johnson 
Miller spent three years as volunteers in 
Kenya, Jim as an educational curriculum 
consultant and Mary as a registered nurse. 

As of May 1, Charles L. Lunkley 
becomes executive secretary of the 
Southern Missouri-Arkansas, Missouri and 
Northern Plains districts. A former Nigeria 
missionary, Lunkley comes to the position 
from a pastorate in Huntington, Ind. 

He is a graduate of McPherson College 
and Bethany Theological Seminary. 

A unique chance for a stateside district 
secretary to exchange insights and ex- 
periences with a Nigerian church executive 
has been granted to Carroll Petry. The 
South/Central Indiana district board 
voted him a sabbatical leave from May 24 
to August 24. 

The managerial ex- 
pertise of the new- 
General Services 
executive secre- 
tary is just one of 
many skills ac- 
quired in his 18- 
year tenure with 
the General Board. 

From West Milton, Ohio, and a 
graduate of Manchester College and 
Bethany Theological Seminary, Thompson 
has been on assignments with the General 
Board since 1959. He and his wife Phyllis 
Yount Thompson served three years in 
mission work in Indonesia. 

Thompson, 43, is a former vice president 
of the National Council of Churches and 
currently heads a major energy study for 
the council. 

His selection was announced by S. Loren 
Bowman, general secretary, and Robert W. 
Neff, general secretary-elect, on behalf of 
the General Board. 

Petry will assist Wasinda Mshelia, 
general secretary of Ekklesiyar Yan'uwa a 
Nijeriya. Together they may assist the gun- 
duma (district) secretaries in their work. 
The joint program was negotiated between 
the World Ministries staff and the ex- 
ecutive staff of EYN. Margaret James 
Petry, his wife, will assist in the work. 

In another development, Raymond R. 
Peters, Sebring, Fla., has resigned from his 
half-time position as executive secretary of 
the Annual Conference Committee on 
Health and Welfare, effective June 30. 

The chairman of the committee, Harold 
D. Fasnacht, summed up Peters' significant 
contributions. "He has broken new ground 
in building fruitful relations among the 
Brethren Homes and served as a catalyst 
for positive relations between thf boards 
and their administrators, developed a new 
collegiality among the institutions and The 

Alan Kieffaber 

June Adams Miller 

James F Miller 

Charles L. Lunkley 

6 MESSENGER May 1977 

Brethren Homes and Hospital 
Associations, helped foster empathy among 
the homes, congregations and districts, 
stimulated a growing awareness of health 
and welfare concerns across the 
Brotherhood, and crystallized the need for 
broader cooperation between the various 
groups working at health and welfare con- 
cerns in the church." 

Dr. Peters, who is 71, has held major of- 
fices related to Annual Conference, 
General Board, district, local, and 
ecumenical ministries. 

Women's conference open 
to wide representation 

The role and status of women in the 
Church of the Brethren is the focus of a 
May 27-30 conference at Elizabethtown 
College in Pennsylvania. The event is 
designed to provide opportunities for 
women of many faith perspectives to re- 
joice in their common heritage in the 
Church of the Brethren, to affirm their 
many gifts, and to discover ways to offer 
these gifts to the church and the world. 

Under the theme of "Many Gifts, One 
Spirit," the conference will offer work- 
shops on such themes as women and aging, 
single women, positive self-images, twen- 
tieth century parenting, nonviolence in the 
family, women and divorce, com- 
munications skills, creative arts, women 
and ministry, biblical images of women, 
worship and music in the church, images of 
God, language issues, and "Jesus, Paul, 
and Women." 

Still other workshops will center on 
"homemakers as cosmic stewards," women 
and hunger, women in economic struc- 
tures, violence in the media, women as 
peacemakers, alternative life-styles. Third 
World women, and Christian political ac- 

One of the plenary sessions will be a 
mini-Annual Conference. Worship ex- 
periences and Bible study opportunities are 
scheduled each day. 

Planning the conference are Gussie 
Good, Elizabethtown, Pa.; Karen Hoover, 
Oak Brook, 111.; Fran Nyce, Westminster, 
Md.; Helen Shallenberger, Baltimore, Md.; 
Connie Weddle, Hutchinson, Kans.; and 
Leah Zuck, Goshen, Ind., working with 
Beth Glick-Rieman of the Parish Ministries 

The registration fee is $60. Brochures 
and registration forms are available from 
Conference Design Committee, 1400 Cor- 
nell Drive, Dayton, OH 45406. 



Six new congregations were begun by 

Ekklesiyar Yan ' uwa a Nijeriya last year, bringing the total 
number of parishes to 57. In addition, there are 295 preach- 
ing points. "Unlimited opportunities await the church here,' 
report Larry and Donna Elliott , missionaries at Jos. 


Jane Shepard , president of Church 

Women United in Oregon and member of the Portland congrega- 
tion, was one of 26 participants in a Church Women United 
People for Peace visit to Ireland in March. 

Merlin and Dorothy Garber (see In Touch, page 2) begin a 
four-month pastoral assignment at Birkenshaw, England, May 
1. . . . Leland and Pat Wilson , La Verne, Calif. , will par- 
ticipate in the British-American Preacher Exchange in July 
and August and attend summer sessions at Mansfield College. 
. . . Bryan and Glennis Parks Wilber , Willows, Calif. , will 
be in England for a year-long exchange program between Metho- 
dist parishes. Their address after June 1: 11 Saltersbrook 
Rd. , Darfield, Barnesly, S 73 9 AU, England. 

Robert and Dorothy Jacoby , Hershey, Pa., left in February 
for Iran where Robert is a special consultant in education. 
He formerly was senior program specialist in vocational in- 
dustrial education for the state of Pennsylvania. 


As part of its outdoor ministries 
the Michigan District sponsors three backpacking hikes each 
year, the most "deluxe" being six days on Isle Royale , a 
National Park Wilderness in Lake Superior. 

One and possibly two trail hikes in the Rocky Mountains 
of Colorado, each for 10 to 14 persons, are planned by the 
Western Plains District in August. For information, con- 
tact trail masters Iris Lundquist , 375 Madison Denver, CO 
80206, or Dan Frantz , 1325 6th Ave., Greeley, CO 80631. 

McPherson College will offer credit for three weeks of 
backpacking in Colorado's Weminuche Wilderness. Contact 
G. J. Ikenberry , McPherson College, McPherson, KS 67460. 

Interested in gathering a group of Brethren for a 10-day 
float trip down the Grand Canyon this season is Carroll 
Snyder , R.R. 3, Adel, lA 50003 (515 993-3179). 

PEOPLE YOU KNOW . . . Nancy Rosenberger Faus of the Bethany 
Seminary faculty, and member of the General Board, underwent 
surgery for a hip replacement in February. . . - Charles E_. 
Zunkel , retired minister and former Annual Conference mod- 
erator, will be interim district minister in South/Central 
Indiana this summer. . . . Karen Rowe , North Webster, Ind., 
currently is visiting college campuses for Brethren Volunteer 
Service. . . . Larry Deffenbaugh has been named manager of 
Camp Harmony, succeeding Olin H_. Brougher who has served 18 
years at the Western Pennsylvania camp. 

BEGINNING AT HOME . . . Fifty blankets stored in the Mari- 
on, Ind. , church for shipment to the New Windsor Center 
were put into use locally when 200 persons were stranded 
in the community over a big snow weekend. The church loaned 
the blankets to the Red Cross which according to pastor 
John Bunch , returned them in perfect condition. 

May 1977 messenger 7 



abound through new releases and newly- 

issued reprints of Brethren-related materials. 

Heavenly Recipes from Dunker Kitchens is a new cookbook 
of 900 recipes from the sisters of the Old German Baptist 
Brethren Church. Edited by Reva C. Benedict. $5.95 plus 
35 cents postage; Ohioans add 27 cents sales tax. From 
Miami Valley Press, P.O. Box 134, Covington, OH 45318. 

Schwa rzenau , 1708 - 1976 is a reprint of L.W. Shultz's 
1953 volume, Schwarzenau , Where the Brethren Began in Eur- 
ope . Sixteen pages of pictures added. Proceeds to benefit 
restorations related to Brethren beginnings in Germany. 
$3 per copy; 10 copies $2.50 each from The Brethren Press, 
1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, IL 60120, or L.W. Shultz, North 
Manchester, IN 46962. 

A_ Mural History of the Church of the Brethren , with full- 
color paintings by Medford D. Neher, text by L.W. Shultz, de- 
picts murals in Camp Mack's Quinter-Miller auditorium. $4 
from The Brethren Press or Camp Mack, Box 158, Milford, 
IN 46542. 

The Plain Churches of Lancaster County and Related Groups 
by Stephen Scott is a large fold-out map of 243 congregations 
from 36 groups. The author, an Old Order River Brethren, 
accents the concentration and diversity of plain churches in 
one of the most unique religious communities in the world. 
$2 from Stephen Scott, Rt. 1, Box 362, Columbia, PA 17512. 

Our Unfolding World by Glee Yoder. Two full color wall 
charts, 25 x 38 inches each, showing Brethren history in re- 
lation to cultural, political, industrial, and other religi- 
ous developments. A basic heritage resource. $13.95 from The 
Brethren Press. 

A Brethren Pilgrimage : A_ Tourist ' s Guide covers historic 
sites of the early Brethren in southeastern Pennsylvania. 
Articles by Isaac Clarence Kulp, Donald F. Durnbaugh, Leon 
Z. Moyer. $2 from Ronald G. Lutz, Church of the Brethren, 
6611 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19119. 

Lest We Forget and Tales of Yeste r- Year , Vol. 3, by Rol- 
land F. Flory, reflects on denominational beginnings and on 
settlements in Kentucky and Ohio. $5 from The Brethren Press 
or R.F. Flory, 1500 Gay Rd. Apt. 12B, Winter Park, FL 32789. 

1851 - 1976 is a terse, graphic summary of the last 125 
years of Brethren history as recounted in the December 1976 
Messenger. Each 25-year period is treated in an impression- 
istic review. 25 cents each; $2.50 per dozen from The 
Brethren Press. 



from The Brethren Press. In June 

All in God' s Family : Brethren and the Quest for 

Christian Unity by Fred W. Swartz, and Move In Our Midst : 
Looking at Worship in the Life of the Church by Kenneth I . 
Morse. In November 1977: An untitled volume of ecumenical 
discussions on peace-war issues and including the Puidoux 
Papers, edited by Donald F. Durnbaugh. 


A copy of Donald F. Durnbaugh ' s The Breth - 

ren in Colonial America was auctioned for $30 last November 
at the Mennonite Historical Society, Lancaster, Pa. Copies 
of the 1967 production continue to be available from The 
Brethren Press for $10. 

8 MESSENGER May 1977 

State ruling leads home 
to file for bankruptcy 

A United Methodist-related retirement cor- 
poration with seven homes. Pacific Homes, 
Inc., in March filed a bankruptcy petition 
for reorganization after being refused per- 
mission to renegotiate contracts with 2,100 

To overcome the $27.6 million debt of 
Pacific Homes, the Pacific and Southwest 
Conference of the United Methodist 
Church approved a $5 million financial 

Brethren seminar studies 
Panama issue close-up 

The sun was just coming up when our 
plane touched down at Tocumen Airport 
near Panama City. Twenty minutes and 
one wild taxi ride later found the seven of 
us* relaxing and napping on comfortable 
beds at the Hotel Granada. The coor- 
dinator of our itinerary in Panama, Rev. 
Ken MacHarg, pastor of the Marguarita 
Union Church, met us for lunch and 
briefed us on our rigorous schedule for the 
next five days. 

One of our goals in going to Panama on 
this Michigan-Ohio Brethren Citizenship 
Seminar was to find out what the facts are 
concerning the Panama Canal issue from 
those directly involved. Our host felt it es- 
pecially important for us to see the canal in 
operation. We were given a tour of the 
Miraflores Locks including a visit to the 
control room seven stories above the locks 
and a rare view of a dry lock. 

The Panama Canal Zone, an area 50 
miles long by 10 miles wide, is the only 
place in the world outside of the United 
States territory where people are governed 
by US laws. Usually US citizens living on 
foreign soil are governed by the laws of 
that foreign country, but this is not the 
case in the Panama Canal Zone. 

In fact, the Panama Canal Zone is a 
socialist form of government run by the 
United States. The governor of the Canal 
Zone is appointed by the President of the 
United States from among the Army Corps 
of Engineers. By virtue of his office he is 
also president of the Panama Railroad and 

•Besides the writer, Ralph Dull. Deb Stocking. 
Leonard Bowman. Louise Bowman. Charleen Thomp- 
son. Richard Wolff 

campaign last year. But the campaign was 
contingent on the signing of new contracts 
by the residents, to increase income. 

A ruling by the state health department 
held that the contracts of residents who 
originally paid for lifetime care could not 
be changed by the corporation. Pacific 
Homes appealed that decision, but it was 
upheld by the California Secretary of 
Health and Welfare. 

Officials in the secretary's office 
acknowledged they had received more than 
2,000 letters in 10 days denouncing the 
decision — the most the office has received 

on a single issue since Gov. Jerry Brown 
took office in 1975. 

United Methodist officials reported that 
85 percent of the residents of the homes 
were willing to sign new contracts. Former 
Rep. Jerry Voorhis (D-Calif.), 76, a resi- 
dent of the homes at Claremont, had ob- 
tained 230 signatures among the 275 per- 
sons living there on a petition approving 
the signing of new contracts. 

Mario Obledo, the state's secretary of 
Health and Welfare, explained that the 
average age of residents of the Pacific 
Homes facilities is 86. Since the contracts 

are complex, he said, he could not be sure 
that all the residents understood what 
would be involved in signing new ones. 

Al Garrison, treasurer of the seven 
homes, said he did not expect the facilities 
to be closed. The homes are located in 
California, Arizona, and Hawaii. 

The United Methodist Church supports 
some 157 retirement homes with about 
31,000 residents. According to Lynn Berg- 
man of the denomination's health and 
welfare ministries, about 20 percent of the 
homes may be having problems of "crisis 

president of the Panama Canal Company 
with absolute authority. 

The Zonians do not have the right to 
vote and therefore have no representative 
government, no school boards, no Parent 
Teacher's Association, no private enter- 
prise in the Zone, no real estate ownership 
and government salaried doctors and den- 
tists. The operation of the Canal Zone and 
its government is not funded by US tax 
dollars but by the income of the railroad 
and the canal which was in the red $30 
million for 1976. 

Zonians are uneasy about the proposal 
to take away the Zone government and 
place them under the Panamanian govern- 
ment. They are fearful of the Panamanian 
judicial system and the stability of the gov- 
ernment of Gen. Juan Torrijos. 

On Sunday morning we worshiped in 
Spanish and in English, with Panamanians 
and Zonians, both formal and informal, 
with guitars and pipe organ. It was from 
Zonian church parishioners that we re- 
ceived the most violent of opinions, and it 
was the Panamanian mission churches who 
were interested in the renegotiation of the 
treaty in a spirit of love and friendship. 

The Zone contains 14 US military bases 
to protect a canal that by concensus is not 
defensible. The famous jungle warfare 
training center, the School of the 
Americas, of which Gen. Torrijos is a 
graduate, deals in how to control upris- 

A social concerns group of interde- 
nominational people, which publishes 
Dialogo Social, opposes the renegotiation 
of any treaty legalizing the military bases 
because it feels they are used against Latin 
American countries. However it favors 
most of the other proposed points of the 
Kissinger-Tack Agreement. 

Our visit to the US Embassy was en- 

The Canal, a colonial relic whose future 
lies on the US I Panama bargaining lable. 

joyable and our host, Mr. Taylor, chief of 
the political section, commented that he is 
"very optimistic that the problems will 
clear away and that the treaty will be 
renegotiated. The Canal Zone was ob- 
tained unusually and fraudulently and we 
can not operate the canal in an air of 

We were impressed with Sefior Carlos 
Lopez Guevara, a member of the 
negotiating team for Panama, who re- 
viewed with us the eight points of the 
Kissinger-Tack Agreement. He further in- 
dicated that the negotiating teams are close 
to the joint proposal with rather few details 
to be worked out. The government of Pan- 
ama feels that the canal needs to serve Pan- 
ama and that ports need to be restored for 
Panama's use. It also wants the Canal 
Zone to be governed by Panama within 
three years, and insists that a firm termina- 
tion date be set for complete Panamanian 
operation of the canal. Panama wants to 

be sovereign in the Canal Zone. 

Five days later we left the warm climate 
of Panama and joined 20 additional Semi- 
nar participants in Washington, D.C., to 
visit our representatives and senators, in- 
cluding Sen. Strom Thurmond, leader of 
the opposition to the renegotiations, and 
place in their hands the Church of the 
Brethren Annual Conference statement on 
the Panama Canal issue. 

Mr. Firfer, Public Affairs Advisor on the 
Panama Canal treaty for the US State 
Department, summed up the issue fairly 
well in his statements. "The United States 
and Panama want a canal that is open, 
safe, efficient, and neutral, which the pres- 
ent arrangement will not do. The 
ownership of the canal is an irrelevant 
question. Furthermore, the canal is not of 
great military importance to the United 
States." He further stated that Panama will 
be able to run the canal cheaper than we 
can because it will not have the expense 
that we have in schools, golf courses, swim- 
ming pools, housing, commissaries, and 
salary differentials. 

The seminar participants were exposed 
to a wide range of opinions and attitudes 
concerning the renegotiation of the Pan- 
ama Canal treaty through study, personal 
interviews, first-hand observations, and 

The Annual Conference statement of 
1976 spells it out well, "Brethren should en- 
courage the negotiation of the new treaty, 
the eventual turn-over of the canal and the 
return of the Canal Zone to Panama, the 
ratification of the treaty by the United 
States Senate, and the authorization and 
the appropriation of financial resources for 
its implementation by the United States 

Panama es soberana! Panama is 
sovereign! — Ron McAdams 

May 1977 messenger 9 

ps©DS]D \r(BpQ)\rt 

Indiana and ERA: 

As countdown for the Equal Rights 
Amendment nears, proponents rejoiced 
over its passage by Indiana's General 
Assembly earlier this year. Previous 
ratification efforts had failed there in 1973 
and 1975. 

Thus Indiana became the first state in 
almost two years to lend support to the 
amendment. Three more states — or 
perhaps six if it is possible for states to 
withdraw ratification — will be needed by 
March 21, 1979, for the measure to become 
the 27th amendment. 

Legal scholars question whether states 
^ can rescind ratification of a con- 
stitutional amendment, but the matter 
has remained untested legally in recent 

From Brethren women in Indiana en- 
gaged in a variety of leadership fields, 
Messenger invited comments on the 
significance they saw in their state's en- 
dorsement of equal rights. 

• Martha Smeltzer West, an attorney in 
Indianapolis, was heavily involved in the 
ratification effort. She served as state 
treasurer of ERA Indiana, Inc., a coalition 
effort which this past December mounted a 
staff to enlist support from community, 
religious, and political groups and to lobby 
at the statehouse. 

The coalition found the active sup- 
port of participating religious bodies 
to be very important in overcoming 
some of the traditional fear and op- 
position from more conservative 
religious groups in Indiana. 
As to her own involvement, 
Martha West had spent much 
of her time in law school 
researching the legal rights of 
women and helping develop a 
law school course on women and 
the law. In 1973 she published a 
law journal article on sex 
classification within the Social 
Security System, and as a result 
found herself in television 
debates on the effects of ERA 
on Social Security. Changes 
already are being made in the 

Social Security Systems to extend benefits 
to men, as evidenced in a US Supreme 
Court decision in March on granting 
eligibility to widowers to receive payments 
as surviving spouses. The most important 
fact is that the Equal Rights Amendment 
will extend benefits to both sexes, not 
reduce any present benefits for women. 

In legal terms, the attorney sees ERA 
bringing the same constitutional guarantee 
to women that the 14th amendment pro- 
vided to black men. "Women were not in- 
cluded in the definition of the word person 
as it was historically used in the Constitu- 
tion. That is the reason women had to ob- 
tain a constitutional amendment to gain 
the right to vote. The Equal Rights 
Amendment will, for the first time, give 
women an equal place in the Constitution." 

But more importantly, asserts Martha 
West, the act symbolizes a moral commit- 
ment by the nation that all persons should 
be treated equally, and serves as an im- 
petus for women to work toward their full 

• Anne Albright, teacher and writer. 
Fort Wayne, Ind., felt the process in In- 
diana left much to be desired. "We heard 
far more radical, reactionary opinions and 
comments than carefully-documented facts, 
legal opinions, or thoughtful expressions," 
she said. "While many professed to be un- 
decided, they usually took sides in a con- 
versation, and conversations had a way of 
turning into arguments." 

• Patricia Kennedy Helman, writer and 
speaker. North Manchester, observed that 
the leading opponent in the Indiana Senate 
was a woman. One political leader saw the 
bill as a direct attack on the family unit 
and declared that "the amendment was not 
in accord with the rule the Creator laid 
down for the universe." Mrs. Helman's 
own view is that "ERA will not be a cure- 
all for the ills and frustrations of woman- 
kind, but neither will it create chaos in 
American family life. 

"Its passage in conservative, basically 
rural Indiana symbolizes how strongly the 
winds of change are blowing in our socie- 
ty," she reflected. 

What ratification meant 

• Helen Evans, who with her husband 
Quentin, a Manchester College teacher, has 
worked in marriage enrichment through- 
out the Church of the Brethren, envisions 
the ERA as giving not only equality under 
the law for women who seek employment, 
but a new standing to those who choose to 
be homemakers and mothers. 

"ERA can enhance the status of women's 
traditional occupations, for those would 
then become positions accepted by women 
as equals, not roles imposed by others." 

• Joan G. Deeter, executive director of 
the Mental Health Association in Wabash 
County, observes that "whether or not 
ERA carries nationally, the changes 
already begun are not likely to turn 
around. The unfairness involved in years of 
inequalities in social practice had to be 


'n a personal level, Mrs. Deeter 
believes that any limits she has experienced 
by being a woman have been ones she has 
chosen to accept. "The doors have been 
open to growth and wholeness as a person. 
Limits in one area have been balanced by 
privileges in others. Yet I care about the 
damage done to others by the unfairness 
and loss of rights women have experienced. 
This amendment seems the best way to 
guarantee justice for all." 

• Anita F. Metzler, who chairs the 
Northern Indiana district board, said that 
in the Nappanee area the state's ratification 
produced hardly a ripple. "It has been in- 
adequately dealt with in most churches, 
and persons have been fed much misinfor- 
mation by those who opposed it. Too often 
in local churches we avoid controversial or 
little understood issues, hoping they'll go 

"I'm sorry we need a special amendment 
providing 'equality of rights under the law' 
for women; how great it would be if the 
same legal rights could come to us through 
ways already within the Constitution." 

• Opal Pence Nees, pastor of the Liberty 
Mills church, sees the ERA as extending 
"the development of personhood and dis- 

cipleship of human beings." 

New frontiers must always be in the 
making by out-front church leaders, Mrs. 
Nees declares; "the church ought to be on 
the cutting edge of creative ways to use this 
new won horizon for the glory of God and 
our neighbors' good.'" The challenge to 
the denomination, she says, is to teach its 
people to use this opportunity with 
resourcefulness and responsibility. 

• Similarly, Anna M. Warstler, Goshen, 
former director of adult work for the 
denomination, sees the basic issue in ERA 
being human rights — "the right to God- 
given personhood" that enables individuals 
to use their innate gifts rather than func- 
tion in terms of roles imposed upon them 
by society. "All these gifts are meant to 
complement each other in the unity of 

To Anna Warstler, the church has a 
responsibility to help lift sights as to the 
variety of gifts individuals can offer to 
God's cause, affirming the right to person- 

hood by precept and example. 

• Jeanette Tolle, immediate past 
moderator of the Northern Indiana district 
and a family counselor in South Bend, 
believes ERA will enable women and men 
to work together for wholeness and justice 
in society. "However, the measure will 
never take the place of a change of attitude 
in the hearts of all people," she said. "Only 
when every person treats every other per- 
son, regardless of sex, with equal respect, 
will both men and women be able to reach 
their full potential." 

Unlike the outcome in Indiana, turn- 
downs already have been registered by law- 
makers this year in Mississippi, North 
Carolina, Nevada, and Virginia. Other 
states expected to vote on the measure this 
season include Oklahoma, Missouri, 
Florida, and Illinois. 

As the debate on ERA continues in 
those states and elsewhere, religious views 
are certain to be a key factor, on both sides 
of the issue. — h.e.r. 

ERA supporters cheer as the Indiana senate makes the state number 35 to ratify the 
amendment. A March 1979 deadline is nearing for the required 38 slate ratifications. 

May 1977 messenger 11 

Rrc uou MYcdP 

Read Romans 13:11, 1 Corinthians 1:!S 

One of the questions I have been asked 
most is. "Are you saved?" When asked this 
question while in college a variety of 
responses would come to mind, but usually 
my response was "What do you mean by 
saved?" This question was usually followed 
up in one of two ways. 

1) A statement that I must not be or I 
wouldn't have to ask such a question. 

2) A discourse would follow concerning 
the so-called evils of life — smoking, drink- 
ing, sexual promiscuity — and that 1 could 
be rescued from these evils if I were will- 
ing to let Jesus have control of my life. 

Neither of these responses spoke to me. 
The first response failed to have any sort of 
intellectual honesty, i.e., questions are not 
to be asked in reply. The second dwelt on 
sins which weren't part of my particular 

It was only later that I began to realize 
the deeper aspects of sin from a biblical 
perspective. While involved in alternative 
service in Vietnam, I began to sense that 
sin went beyond those acts usually thought 
of as sin. I began to see that sin was incor- 
porated into our very fabric and life as a 
nation and a society. 

In Vietnam it became clear to me that 
sin was the concept that best explained the 
dehumanization of people that I was taking 
part in as a taxpaying citizen of the United 
States. Furthermore, I began to see that sin 
was the only term that could describe the 

foreign policy of any nation, ours or North 
Vietnam, that puts the rights of the 
sovereign state above the rights of people. I 
began to see that national leaders who were 
trapped by sin would make decisions con- 
trary to God's will, then enlist the Christian 
church by asking its best known leaders to 
put God's blessing on such policies. I began 
to see that sin was so much a part of my 
life that I would have to be saved from it 
bit by bit with God's help. 

It was only recently as I was reading 
Romans 13 from The Jerusalem Bible that 
I was struck by verse II. It reads, "Besides, 
you know 'the time' has come: you must 
wake up now: our salvation is even nearer 
than it was when we were converted." Here 
Paul is telling us that our conversion and 
salvation are separate events. Our conver- 
sion is that event whereby we become will- 
ing to journey with God. Our conversion is 
a past event that leads us to the future 
event of salvation, a time of perfect har- 
mony with God. 

It wasn't long after this encounter that I 
looked this verse up in other translations, 
to discover that this concept of being near 
salvation, or on the way to, was applicable 
in every translation consulted. Every trans- 
lation also made a distinction between the 
time we start to believe in Christ, and the 
promise of the outcome of this belief, i.e., 
complete union with Christ. 

It was later in the week that I turned to 1 
Corinthians 1:18, which reads, "The 
language of the cross may be illogical to 

those who are not on the way to salva- 
tion, but those of us who are on the 
way see it as God's power to save." 
Again in this passage we get the feeling 
that Paul is telling us that salvation is an 
event in which we are presently involved. 
Those who are willing to believe in the 
power of the cross are the ones on the way 
to salvation, while those who believe 
power is in the state and military might 
perish. Again after consulting several trans- 
lations I discovered that this sense of in- 
volvement in the present leading to the 
future is the form this passage takes. 

My dialogue with these two passages has 
helped me understand that the grace ex- 
tended us in Jesus Christ is far greater than 
ever realized. Grace not only leads us to a 
conversion event, where the resurrected 
Christ becomes Lord of our life, but grace 
guides us in our life every day, breaking the 
chains of sin that keep us from letting 
Christ be Lord of every aspect of our lives. 

It is this action of God that lets me af- 
firm with Paul the promise that comes to 
us in Jesus Christ. 

Am I saved? Yes, I am being saved! Yes- 
terday I opened my life to Jesus Christ by 
letting Him in as Lord. Today I am letting 
Jesus Christ lead me in the attempt to live 
as his disciple in a world and nation that 
rejects his cross. Tomorrow the hope is to 
be in closer harmony with him than today 
by the action of his grace today. 

Praise God for the adventure of this 
journey, n 


12 MESSENGER May 1977 

"For God So Loved the 
World, " by Marvin Haves 
® 1976 Oxmoor House, 
Inc., Box 2463. 
Birmingham, AL 35202. 
All rights reserved. 

May 1977 messenger 13 

How God 
keeps families alive! 

by John R. Martin 

God knew how to keep a people alive! He 
didn't suggest, he commanded the Israelites 
to tell the story that made them a people to 
their children and to their children's 
children (Deut. 11:18-21). 

The stories which give us an identity, 
which tell us who we are can be called 
"sacred history." A meaning of the word 
"sacred" is "set apart for special use." A 
modern equivalent of the word is "special." 
Histories are sacred to us when they tell us 

what makes us special: that which we have 
in common with others in our group, as 
well as that which sets us apart from other 

Our identity, as a member of any group, 
is given by a sacred history that reveals 
which heroes to emulate; the values and 
standards to follow; the ideals worth striv- 
ing to embody; the important traditions to 
be carried on to the next generation. 

Our sacred histories tell us who we are as 

14 MESSENGER May 1977 

Each generation needs to know its family's sacred history if 
it is going to feel a part of that history and carry it on. 

Brethren, as Christians, and as Americans 
Learning our national autobiography 
usually occurs in the US history class- 
room; learning our Christian history large- 
ly takes place at church. Both sacred 
histories have their heroic figures: 
Abraham and Washington in "father" 
roles; Moses and Lincoln as "deliverers," 
Jeremiah and Woodrow Wilson as 
prophets with a vision; heroic figures rang- 
ing from Samson to Sam Adams, from 
Sarah to Susan B. Anthony. Church and 
state know the importance of transmitting 
their stories to the next generation, so that 
the young feel a part of the tradition and 
can internalize their religious and national 

Names mean a lot to this identity. 
"American," "Christian," "Brethren" — 
these names reveal the identity-giving 
groups to which I belong. Our personal 
names function in the same way: our first 
names give us identity as individuals; our 
last names tell us who we are as part of a 

The use of first names has increased in 
our culture. Recently at a social gathering 
here in Southern California, I was in- 
troduced exclusively by my first name. It 
may be that our society is growing more in- 
formal (especially here in Southern Califor- 
nia); but also the increasing lack of 
emphasis on last names hints that families 
do not have the identity-giving significance 
which once they had. 

The institution which should function to 
give us an identity far more intimate and at 
least as powerful as the identity given to us 
by church and state is that of our own 
family. While incorporating our national 
and religious heritage, our families also in- 
clude a unique heritage and history of their 
own, which separates them from all other 
groups, while at the same time binding 
their members together. 

We are all aware of the storms that the 
institution of the family is weathering these 
days: growing divorce rates which produce 
more and more one-parent families; count- 
less leisure activities geared for different 
ages which separate the family in its spare 
time; that highly effective road block to 
family communication known as tele- 
vision, as well as the countless other pres- 
sures which tend to absorb our atten- 
tion as individuals while screening out 
other family members. The problem con- 
fronting families today is to feel a 
bond of unity amidst the forces which 

would pull them apart. 

We might well borrow a means by which 
our national and church "families" have 
maintained themselves and apply it to our 
personal families. That is, to include 
members of the new generation in our 
heritage by teaching them their sacred 
history. Do your children or grandchil- 
dren know the story of their family as well 
as they know the story of their country or 
of their church? 

There was a time, perhaps a century ago, 
when a person's family identity could 
swallow up his identity as an individual. 
When three or four generations of a family 
all lived in the same small community, 
one's individuality could be crushed by 
others' identification of one as part of a 
particular clan. Today, however, famiUes 
and generations are often separated by 
thousands of miles and such a 
phenomenon is rare in our highly mobile 
and transient culture. In fact, considering 
the pressures which tend to pull the family 
apart as well as the geographical separation 
of families, we encounter the opposite 
danger of a century ago: 77?^ danger today 
is not being stifled by a family identity: the 
danger is not having a family identity at 


. re we as parents and grandparents 
passing on our family identity, through our 
history as a family, to the new generation? 
Are we giving our children and grandchil- 
dren enough sense of family heritage to in- 
sure that their last names are as important 
to them as their first names? 

The Israelites have considered their 
history as a people so important that, aside 
from temple and synagogue services, they 
have had a family service in their homes 
for generations which commemorates their 
sacred history. During the family Seder 
Service, held at Passover each year, the 
children ask the elders ritualized questions 
about the story of their deliverance at the 
Red Sea. The elders answer in ritualized 
passages. Thus do the Israelites keep their 
tradition as a special people alive . . . and 
they have done a good job of it for over 
4,000 years! 

Are we missing an opportunity for 
strengthening our bond as a family by not 
deliberately telling our family stories when 
our families come together? Think of the 
special times that your family gathers: 
Christmas, Thanksgiving, birthdays, vaca- 

tions, picnics. At such times do you share 
the experiences, common history and 
traditions which make you a family? Or do 
you find such conversation blocked by 
television or by small talk about business, 
sports, and the weather? It is our choice 
what we do when our family gathers. 

Do you remember the magic moments of 
growing up, in which the family history 
was shared? Perhaps after Thanksgiving 
dinner when the family was gathered, 
suddenly, without premeditation, someone 
would deliver the invocation: "Remember 
the time ..." and the stories would flow 
from there! As one family story was today, 
another would be remembered and told in 
its turn: the stories which everyone knew, 
but which everyone loved to hear again. 
From out of the closets of everyone's mind 
marched forth the family heroes, the eccen- 
tric characters, the amusing anecdotes, the 
family skeletons, shared childhood ex- 
periences, all to be remembered and re- 
examined once again. Not only was the 
family history being narrated, but during 
these moments of telling, sharing, listening 
and remembering the family experienced 
the feeling of being a family — just as 
hopefully we feel part of the church family 
as our Christian history is told, shared, 
listened to and remembered during 

The moments during which a family's 
sacred history is given and received, as with 
Sunday morning worship, can bring a 
deepening of relationships. For instance, 
my father was a very formal and dignified 
investment banker. Sometimes, after 
dinner, he would sit back in his chair and 
tell us about his boyhood on the Wyoming 
prairie. As he told those stories, almost 
magically he became much closer and 
much more human to us than the reserved 
banker he usually was. A dimension was 
added to our relationship, as he told those 
stories, that could have been created in no 
other way. 

Every family has a history, and members 
of every generation need to know it if they 
are going to feel a part of this history and 
carry it on. God creates and maintains 
families by giving them a history. So when 
your family gathers, add that dimension of 
cohesiveness that makes a family a family: 
Listen, tell, remember and share your 
history! Nations know how important it is; 
great religions know how important it is; 
and we as families should know how im- 
portant is . . . our sacred history. □ 

May 1977 messenger 15 

FRTfiy 77 

If life at the table at home does not 

correspond to life at the table of the 

Lord, our children will not understand 

what we are about as Christians — 

mutual servants of one another. 


Authority ii 

by Robert W. Neff 
and Jack Fielding 

We live in a period of great stress for the 
family. In the debate about what to do to 
support the family structure, there has 
come a strong voice for the re- 
establishment of authority in the house- 
hold. There is a clear need for authority in 
the family. However, we need to examine 
and affirm the nature and source of that 
authority in the Christian home. 

One solution to the problem of authority 
in the home has been the reassertion of the 
chain of command that moves from God to 
husband to wife to child. In this under- 
standing the task of the husband in the 
family is to rule over the woman who in 
turn rules over the children. This chain of 
command is very much like the corpora- 
tion with its top executive issuing orders to 
the vice-presidents, who in turn give orders 
to those under them. It is important that 
one person give orders and another person 
take them. Instead of working to build a 
community, this chain of command 
attempts to negotiate a harmony between 
the boss and the bossed with a minimum of 
management-labor disputes. 

One problem with the chain of command 
is that often authoritarianism takes the 
place of authority. When I entered the 
eighth grade, 1 encountered what I felt was 
the most authoritarian teacher of all times. 
On the first day of class the science teacher 
looked around the room to find the biggest 
boy in the class. He then went and picked 
him right up out of his seat and threw him 
back down. The teacher said to the rest of 
us, "If any of you misbehave, the same 
thing will happen to you." We all became 
very quiet. One day later in the term, he 
was explaining cloud formations. 1 didn't 
think he knew what he was talking about 
and so I began to get a smile on my face. 
He sensed what was happening and said, 
"If I ever see you look that way again in 
this class, I will cloud up and rain all over 

16 MESSENGER Mav 1977 

in on the love 

the Christian home 

you." Needless to say, I shrank down in my 
seat. I did pass eighth grade science class 
but I found out later that the teacher was 
an Olympic wrestler and belonged in the 
gym rather than in the science class. Those 
who believe in the chain of command insist 
on playing the authority game even when 
they don't understand or know what the 
problems are. This solution in the end 
weakens life. 

The disciples of Jesus' day were familiar 
with the chain of command system. They 
struggled with one another to see where 
they were on the chain. There were oc- 
casions when they would raise the issue as 
to whom would be first among them. There 
were times when they would quickly decide 
who could or could not see Jesus. Like the 
rest of us, they wanted to be in a position 
of authority. 


Jesus had a different view of authority. 
He tells us that the first shall be last. The 
one who is greatest will be servant of all. 
Jesus was constantly challenging the 
cultural assumptions regarding authority 
and the chain of command. 

Christ gives new life to his church 
because he is willing to be servant of all. 
Christ washes the disciples' feet to 
demonstrate that no one should elevate 
one's self above another. What Christ does 
in the family of God provides a model for 
life in the home. When Brethren speak of 
authority in the home they will first think 
of the way authority expresses itself at the 
table of the Lord. If life at the table at 
home does not correspond to life at the 
table of the Lord, our children will not un- 
derstand what we are about as Christians. 
As Christians we are mutual servants of 
one another. 

The apostle Paul also struggled to 
answer this question of authority. In the 
twelfth chapter of the letter to the Romans, 
he begins his discussion of practical at- 
titudes by calling for a non-conforming 
posture in relationship to the expectations 

of culture. He points out that to follow 
Christ, one must accept a different set of 

Paul lived in a society where a woman was 
treated with less respect than a man. Women 
had little more responsibility than to bear 
children and provide meals for the house- 
hold. He says to a Greek and Roman world 
that believed in a chain of command, "Give 
way to one another in obedience to Christ" 
(Eph. 5:21). To a Roman or Greek male 
who thought that he was top dog, Paul says 
that husbands should love their wives as 
Christ loved the church. In other words, 
husbands act sacrificially towards your 

The mutual submission of husband and 
wife is underlined in 1 Corinthians 7:3f. Paul 
sets forth a standard that says no to a society 
that insisted on a chain of command in which 
the male lorded it over the female. This 
mutuality is expressed by Paul's citing 
Genesis 2:24 where the man and woman 
become one flesh (Eph. 5:31). The hus- 
band and wife live for one another. 

In a world where we are told that "being 
the best isn't everything — it's the only 
thing," Paul challenges us to "not think of 
oneself more highly than one ought to 
think." In a society where your position in 
life often determines your worth, Paul 
reminds us that "we, though many, are one 
body in Christ, and individually members 
of one another." No, it's not the teaching 
of Christ that would invest unequal 
authority in human relationships. Rather 
it's the teachings of a world where the 
equalizing force of God's love is rejected on 
a cross. 

The Christian household then becomes 
designed on the basis that all members will 
be nurtured out of the oneness of the 
relationship between husband and wife. 
This "oneness" relationship comes from an 
affirming, valuing, love relationship 
between the husband and wife. 

Virginia Satir, the noted family 
therapist, has made a strong case that the 
health of the family is determined by the 

health of the marriage relationship. When 
husband and wife are able to nurture one 
another through valuing interpersonal 
relationship, decisions can be made and 
discipline can be undertaken that will nur- 
ture the same kind of affirmation in the 
lives of the children. Without that kind of 
basic affirmation of worth, life in the 
household becomes relegated to a power 
struggle which would lead to a devaluing of 
the children as well as the marriage 
partners themselves. 

In the midst of the pressures of our 
society, there is an easy temptation to give 
in to the cultural attitude that there can 
only be one boss. However, the Christian 
household does not conform to such stan- 
dards in this world. 

Instead, an affirming and valuing love 
relationship nurtures not only a self- 
respect, but also a very deep respect for the 
other individuals with whom one shares 
life. Children brought up in the context of 
such nurture respond much more positively 
to the demands and responsibilities of life 
than those who have been the victims of 
the power structure and power struggle. 

Valuing relationships change the 
character of life in the home. When we had 
only one child, my wife and I were talking 
about an issue vital to both of us. We 
reached agreement and embraced. As we 
were hugging one another, I felt a tug on 
my pant leg. The tugs came harder and 
more frequently. I looked down and our 
son looked up. He said, "I want to get in 
on the love." The shared relationship 
between husband and wife enables the 
child to get in on the love. That's what 
parenting is all about. 

Therefore, let us seek to establish 
authority in our households through the 
process of Christ's love. Christ trusts us as 
worthwhile persons and frees us to believe 
in each other. The decisions, expectations 
and disciplines necessary to nurture that af- 
firmation can grow creatively out of 
Christ's love shared by husband and wife 
with their children. D 

May 1977 messenger 17 



Marriage & 

One couple's journey 

Every couple is unique, but 

every couple should be 

intentional about hov\/ 

they will organize their 

life together, and not 

live according to 

unquestioned and assumed 

male and female roles. 


Story by Ralph and Mary Cline Detrick 

Photographs by Edward ). Buzinski 

'ur first year of marriage was rough. 
We learned quickly that one was an early 
riser and one a late sleeper. Ralph con- 
sidered himself late if he arrived later than 
fifteen minutes before an appointment. 
Mary considered herself on time if she 
arrived fifteen minutes after the appointed 
hour. There were differences about spend- 
ing money, what constituted a cleaned-up 
house, and how to handle a toothpaste 
tube. There were many joys in our 
marriage but there were also arguments, 
conflicts and adjustments. 

Not only did we have personality 

18 MESSENGER May 1977 

differences, we also had ideas about what it 
meant to be a man and a woman that 
proved to be destructive to our 

Ralph grew up with the idea that a man 
should be stoic, unexpressive of feelings, 
noncommittal and always in control. An 
appropriate response to a question was 
"Uh huh," as he watched the tv or con- 
tinued reading the newspaper. 

Mary grew up with the idea that a 
woman should please a man. She learned 
to cook and sew, not so much for her own 
benefit, but to make some lucky man hap- 

py. When she married, she attempted to be 
the perfect wife; every meal special with a 
new centerpiece, linen, and an original 
dish. The house would be organized and 
very neat and tidy. When she discovered it 
was humanly impossible to be the perfect 
wife, she became disillusioned. 

We weren't able to realize it then, but as 
we look back from a distance of nine years, 
we had assumptions about the nature of 
females and males that hurt our 
relationship and blocked our potential as 

Ralph assumed that talking about 

feelings or showing emotions was unmanly. 
A man was never vulnerable. He assumed 
he should have the last word and in some 
areas should not be questioned. He as- 
sumed that being a man was slightly more 
important than being a woman. (He had 
two brothers and no sisters.) He assumed 
the man made the major decisions and ul- 
timately had the power in the family. None 
of this was ever talked about or even con- 
sciously thought about. But it was as- 
sumed, as the result of growing up male in 
our culture. 

Mary also lived with the assumption that 
men had the privileged position and could 
do and be almost anything they wanted to. 
Women could develop their potential, but 
only within culturally acceptable boun- 
daries. A woman found fulfillment primari- 
ly through her husband and through bear- 
ing and rearing children. A woman could 
speak her opinion as long as she wasn't up- 
pity or pushy, or in serious conflict with 
her husband's opinion. 

But Mary began to see her dependence 
on Ralph limiting her talents and abilities. 
She began to question the traditional ex- 
pectations for women; this in turn added 
new tension but ultimately new joys to the 
marriage. Ralph also began to change from 
the old cultural notions of manhood to a 
discovery of who he really was. 


I ine years later and with an under- 
standing of male/female identity light- 
years different from where we started, our 
marriage has changed dramatically. 

We were helped by the Scriptures as we 
began to view ourselves and each other in 
new ways. When Adam and Eve were 
created (Gen. 1:27-28) they were created 
together, simultaneously. The command to 
have dominion was addressed to them both 

We discovered God did not give the man 
dominion in exercising authority or in hav- 
ing the last word, with the woman con- 
fined to having dominion only over the 
dishes and runny noses. In Genesis there is 
no assumption that the woman has a 
different or inferior position to the man. 
They are both to share dominion in the 
world as partners of equal worth. 

We also found that the second creation 
story's reference to woman as "helper fit 
for him" (Gen. 2:18) in the original Hebrew 
carries no implication of inferiority. A man 
and a woman are equally fit for each other. 

They are bone of each other's bone, they are 
made of the same stuff. There is no inferior 
or superior bone. 

To assume a hierarchy in marriage, where 
the man has the authority, describes a 
broken, fallen relationship. Genesis 3:16 
(after the fall) describes the worst a 
relationship can be, where the man rules over 
the woman. A redeemed relationship is one 
of partnership, where the views and gifts of 
both are valued and used. 

The Scriptures do not support a theology 
of male domination. Jesus affirms women as 
equal in worth to men. He confronts the 

Upper: Mary and 
Ralph each serve half- 
time in Parish Minis- 
tries as consultant for 
life cycle ministries. 
Right and lower: Bat- 
ting practice for 
David is family fun. 
He benefits from both 
Ralph and Mary 
being active parents. 

dehumanizing patriarch of his day and 
calls women out of their bondage of 
second-class status to men. Unfortunately 
some passages from Paul have been taken 
out of context and used to support a 
woman's "place" in relation to men, which 
confers second-class status upon women. 
Jesus, the creation account, and Paul 
witness to the equality of women and men 
and to the partnership of marriage. 

A new look at husband and father 

Ralph has slowly but surely changed into 
a more whole and happy person. To be a 
man now means his worth is not dependent 
upon physical power, control of others or 
how aggressive he is. 

To be a husband now means Mary has 
just as much say as he in the decisions of 
their life. Sharing in a mutual relationship 
is freeing for him. Decisions don't rest on 
his shoulders alone. 

To be a husband now means that he is 
just as responsible for home care as Mary. 
After all, they both live there. He can cook, 
clean the oven, shake out the rugs, and 
that's a part of being a man. 

As a husband Ralph is now more 
genuine. The real "me" is different from the 
cultural view of a husband. Ralph is a 
partner walking beside Mary, rather than 

Elt'-felE )■ 

in front. He is strong enough to be 
vulnerable and talk about his doubts, 
struggles, fears, and weaknesses. 

To be a father means Ralph is just as 
responsible for child care as Mary. He is 
physically and emotionally present to the 
needs of his son David. He changes a dirty 
diaper, bottles a baby at 3 a.m., and takes 
a toddler to a swim class at the YMCA. He 
toilet trains his son, reads and tells stories 
to him, and rocks him to sleep. When 
David trips and falls on the sidewalk, hurts 
his knee and cries, Ralph cuddles him and 
sings, "It's all right to cry." Ralph plays 

May 1977 messenger 19 

A business trip for Mary poses no prob- 
lem for David; Ralph will be home with 
him to keep his life flowing smoothly. 

ring-around-the-rosy with David and 

As a father, Ralph is now free to be a 
real person to his son rather than a week- 
end visitor, a stern authoritarian, or a 
"might makes right" figure. He provides a 
model for being a man that is quite 
different from the culturally accepted John 
Wayne type of a "man's man." 

A new look at wife and mother 

Mary has slowly but surely changed into 
a more whole and happy person. Being a 
woman for Mary now means having the 
freedom to be strong and assertive, to have 
opinions and express them and to be "up- 
pity" when the occasion requires it. 

To be a woman means that her worth is 
not solely dependent on being someone's 
wife or mother. In fact, her professional 
life stimulates her so that she's a more 
creative wife and mother than before. 

To be a wife means sharing feelings and 
opinions with the assumption she will be 

20 MESSENGER May 1977 

taken seriously. She has just as much say in 
when and where to move and live, how the 
family finances should be managed, and all 
the other family decisions as Ralph. 

To be a mother means that Mary can 
give more of her best self to David because 
she shares his care with Ralph. When she 
has that "I'm ready to climb the walls" feel- 
ing, she knows Ralph is available to meet 
David's needs. 

of man and woman one wants to be has 
many positive features, both personally 
and for a relationship. 

I) We are both happier. We can make 
choices about what we really want to do 
and be without the intimation of being un- 
feminine and unmasculine. If Ralph wants 
to be creative in the kitchen, he can. He 
doesn't have the total burden of providing 
for "his" family. He doesn't always have to 
be right or above reproach. He doesn't 

Some struggle points have to hold in his feelings. His strength 

The journey to be whole people in our can be defined by his caring qualities and 

relationship is not all sweetness and light. his tenderness, rather than the size of his 

Some struggle points are: biceps. 

1) What will the neighbors say?! When Mary's worth now comes from a variety 
Daddy takes the toddler for a walk around of sources. She feels useful outside the 

the block with great frequency, it raises home in a profession that gives her a sense 

eyebrows. "Where's Mommy" is the im- of worth to add to the worth she feels as a 

plication. There is a myth that only wife and mother. Because child care is 

mothers can really supply a baby's nur- shared by both parents, Mary doesn't feel 

turing needs. trapped. She is as free to build a bookcase 

If friends or relatives come to dinner and as she is to make a suit, 
it's Ralph's turn in the kitchen, it really We are happier than nine years ago 

messes up the usual "the women in the because our work is not defined by living 

kitchen and the men in the den" routine. out rigidly defined roles. We can choose. 

And if there is dust on the door, it's as- We may choose to do some very traditional 

sumed to be Mary's fault, even though it things and that's okay, too. 

may be Ralph's week to dust. 2) Children benefit when both fathers 

2) Doing the new and untried and being and mothers function as active parents. 

a different man and woman than what has Fathering is just as important as mother- 
been expected can be risky business. It's ing. A nurturing father is desperately 
new ground to plow, there is uncertainty; 

it's like a new adventure that's begun with As a father, Ralph is free to be a real 
faith and conviction, but without a road person to David, not a weekend visitor. 


3) Perhaps the biggest problem is that 
the old notions of what it means to be a 
man and a woman are still very much with 
us. Not only did we grow up with un- 
healthy ideas about the nature of 
man/woman, but our culture still rein- 
forces the value of the strong, aggressive 
man and the shapely, passive female. Many 
still feel it's not manly to be a tender, nur- 
turing father, and it's not womanly to be 
assertive and strong. 

Sometimes Ralph still has deep-down 
desires to have the last word around the 
house. He still gets angry when he thinks 
Mary is questioning him. Mary still 
sometimes feels it would be easier to revert 
to being passive and letting Ralph take the 
initiative. It's very hard to change years of 

We still have arguments and growing 
pains and they will probably continue. But 
growth is the evidence of life and we're 
committed to working it out together. 

Some positive implications 

Having some flexibility about what kind 

needed in a culture that encourages men to 
spend most of their time away from home. 
Active fathering helps David become 
emotionally attached to both of us — not 
just to Mommy. 

David observes that Mom and Dad can 
both be strong and weak, assertive and 
vulnerable, tearful and joyous. Hopefully, 
he can learn that a person's personality 
characteristics should be determined by 
what they are and want to be, rather than 
cultural expectations based on their sex. 

3) Our marriage is happier. Ralph no 
longer yells at Mary when the house is 
messy because a "picked up" house is the 
responsibility of both persons. 

It is our house, our kitchen and our 
messy floor. We both share the drudgery of 

cleaning the bathroom and celebrate a 
successful tuna souffle. 

We are happier because sharing domin- 
ion at home and in the world enables us to 
be better stewards of our talents. 

Happy people make a happier marriage. 
This happiness is not in conflict with the 
continuing struggle we have with the old 
notions of male/female as mentioned 
above. Happiness includes the struggle and 
would be absent without it. For us a 
relationship without issues to work on 
would be boring. 

4) In some ways we have a simpler life- 
style. Our values have changed in regard to 
home and family management. Because we 
both are responsible for food preparation, 
cleaning the house, and child care, we are 
less fussy and rigid. No longer is it impor- 
tant to iron sheets and pillowcases. We 
don't need an elaborate main dish at every 
meal. The bed doesn't need to be made 
every day. The house is still home even if 

David. Likewise, the more Ralph is able to 
live out his own understanding of man- 
hood, the more worthwhile he feels and the 
more love he has to give to Mary and 
David. We now have more opportunities 
for serving each other than before. 

We share the story of our journey in the 
hope that it may help others look at their 
own relationship journeys. We don't mean 
to imply that to be happy every couple 
should follow exactly in our pattern. Every 
couple is unique. A couple should organize 
their life together in a way that is comfort- 
able and fulfilling for them. 

But a couple should be intentional about 
how they will organize their life together, 
and not live according to unquestioned and 
assumed male and female roles. 

We strongly believe the best thing 
parents can do for children is to have a 
happy and satisfying marriage. All the 
child-raising techniques in the world take a 
back seat to the influencing power of a 

Upper left DoMd learns thai activities don't have to be determined b\ sex Lo^er left: 
Ralph assures David that it's okav for a bo\ to cr^ Below Mar\ doesn't feel trapped in 
an\ role She can build a new bookcase as freely as she can read David a bedtime story. 

there's dust here or there. And it's all right 
if a pillow is out of place on the couch. 

Most important, because both of us are 
responsible for home tasks, we can't point 
the finger of blame. We know what it's like 
to walk in the other's shoes. 

The most important thing about the 
changes in our life together is a new sense 
of our worth as persons. The more Mary 
feels fulfilled and important as a person, 
the more love she has for Ralph and 

father and mother who actively show care 
and respect for one another. 

Care and respect is concretely 
demonstrated when partners take each 
other's needs, wants and gifts seriously. 
Then together a couple can intentionally 
choose the pattern of living that is right 
and satisfying for them. D 

Adapted from The Chrisiian Home. February. 1977. 
Copyright ® 1976 by Graded Press. 

May 1977 messenger 21 

Children need a healthy sense of 
personal worth. A child who feels like a 
nobody will contribute little to life and 
the great plague of inferiority feelings 
starts early. We human beings need to be 
noticed, appreciated, and loved as we 
are if we are to have . . . 

A sense of 

by John M. Drescher 

Three preschoolers were at play. For a time 
they interacted with a great deal of com- 
mon interest and enthusiasm. Then two 
went off and played by themselves, ignor- 
ing the third playmate. Before long the 
lone one cried out, "I'm here! I'm here! 
Don't you see I'm here?" 

Although the little boy could not 
philosophize about his response or analyze 
it psychologically or phrase it theologically, 
he expressed a need which is universal. He 
wanted to be noticed and recognized as a 
person of worth. 

A healthy sense of personal worth is es- 
sential. It is almost impossible to live with 
ourselves if we feel we are of little value or 
if we don't like ourselves. A person who 
feels like a nobody will contribute little to 
life. This needs to be stressed here because 
the great plague of inferiority feelings starts 
early in life. We human beings need to be 
noticed, appreciated, and loved as we are, 
if we are to have a sense of significance. 

One day a group of first-graders were 
shown through a dairy. At the end of the 

tour the leader asked, "Are there any 
questions?" A small hand went up. "Did 
you see my new sweater?" So the small 
child seeks attention. If not noticed in 
proper conduct, the child may seek it by 
spilling milk, throwing things on the floor, 
or in destructive ways. As someone 
suggested, "A spanking is preferred to be- 
ing ignored." 

A child may not eat properly, having 
learned that if she stalls her parents will 
make a great fuss over her. She enjoys 
attention. Ignore her delaying tactics and 
before long she will eat normally again. 
One child may throw tantrums and upset 
games to gain entrance to the center of the 
scene. Another may yell and scream at ap- 
propriate places and persons to get atten- 

If such behavior ended with childhood, 
perhaps we could endure it and not worry 
about those few short years. But the youth, 
who has not gained a proper sense of 
significance, races cars, lays rubber on the 
highway, draws attention by loudness in 
speech or dress, or in a dozen other ways 
demands notice. 


. dults also call attention to themselves 
and desire to be recognized as persons, but 
often in more subtle ways, such as display- 
ing something they have made or describ- 
ing somewhere they have been. Grown peo- 
ple will dominate the conversation, dress 
flamboyantly, demand leadership or office, 
or strive like fools for an honor or degree, 
deserved or undeserved. 

But how can this basic need for signifi- 
cance be met in the life of a child? Some- 
times we start with wrong assumptions. 

Three False Assumptions. The first false 
assumption is that the parent-child 
relationship should take priority over the 
husband-wife relationship. Dr. Alfred A. 
Nesser, of Emory University School of 
Medicine, warns against child-oriented 
homes. "Perhaps the most significant ele- 
ment in the dissolution of long-standing 
marriages is a consequence of living in the 
century of the child," he says. 

Parent-child relationships have been 
stressed so strongly for several decades 
that, for the sake of the child, husband- 
wife priorities are many times laid aside 
too easily. After the first child comes, a 
real test takes place. Will the mother rob 
her husband of time and love for the sake 

of the child and hinder that relationship or 
will she continue to give her husband top 
priority? As one husband notes, "I had a 
fine wife until our first child was born. Then 
Mary became more mother than mate." 

It is good to recall that marriage is per- 
manent while parenthood is passing. Since 
marriage begins and ends with two per- 
sons, the primary concern is to keep the 
relationship in the best possible repair. 
When this is the case, the child relationship 
tends to take care of itself rather well. 
Louis M. Terman writes, "If a wife does 
not love her husband more than she loves 
her children, both the children and the 
marriage are in danger." When a husband 
is assured that his wife's love has not 
diminished, he is usually more than willing 
to help care for the child and do his share 
of household chores. 


I othing is so central for a child's hap- 
piness and sense of worth as the love of 
father and mother for each other. There is 
no better way of giving children a sense of 
significance than to allow them to see and 
to feel the closeness and commitment of 
their mother and father. 

Parents should spend more time and ef- 
fort developing their own personalities and 
relationships. If father and mother are hap- 
py with each other, that contentment is 
conveyed to the child. This results not only 
in good behavior and affection, but in a 
sense of personal worth. 

Parents should show affection and love 
for each other in front of the children. The 
husband should call his wife by her name, 
not "Mother." Leave "Mother" for the 
children. "The lack of affection between 
father and mother is the greatest cause of 
delinquency I know," says Judge Philip 

Parents should spend extra time and ef- 
fort cultivating their friendship as husband 
and wife. When parents enrich their lives 
together, they are at the same time 
enriching their children's lives and the 
children can feel it. 

A second false assumption is that the 
child rightfully deserves to be the center of 
attention. Too often everything is bent for 
the child's benefit or wishes. The result is 
that we develop self-centered children. If 
they do not receive what they want, they 
are likely to react, rebel, or run away. 
"What can I get?" rather than "What can I 

give?" becomes a way of life. 

Jean Laird writes: "Most of us want our 
children's love more than anything else, 
and feel it represents proof that we are do- 
ing a good job of being parents. In former 
years, the majority of parents wanted 
mainly respect from their children, which 
made things considerably easier. They 
weren't afraid to be momentarily disliked 
by children during the act of enforcing 

"Now a psychological revolution is tak- 
ing place in our homes. Parents feel 
weighed down with a sense of guilty 
responsibility. They have been made acute- 
ly aware of the complex emotional 
relationship between parent and child and 
are thinking in terms of psychological 
cause and effect. We parents are led to 
believe that everything we say and do to 
our children will have a lasting effect for 
good or evil, 

"As a result, many of us have become 
uneasy, embarrassed, inarticulate, and 
frightened — the first generation of im- 
mobilized parents who are letting their 
children practically take over their homes." 
Children are not meant to be the center of 
the family. The rightful center is the 
relationship of husband and wife. 


third false assumption is that the 
child should be pushed as rapidly as possi- 
ble into more mature roles. We have an 
awful problem letting children be 
children — so we do ridiculous things. At 
three months we select toys parents like to 
play with. Three-year-olds receive electric 
trains. Many a tricycle stands for months 
awaiting a driver still in diapers. We dress 
five-year-olds in caps and gowns for 
kindergarten graduation. One little fellow 
said, "I think it's bad that I graduated and 
can't even read." 

Little girls who would like to play with 
dolls are driven downtown to learn to 
dance. We frustrate tots by pairing them 
off in the first grade, electing them to class 
offices, and putting them on committees 
before they know what it means. We dress 
them like adults. In baseball we expect 
them to perform as professionals before 
they have hips big enough to hold up their 
uniforms or hands big enough to grasp the 
ball. We push them to read while they still 
prefer to stack blocks. 

Why? Because many parents seek 

May 1977 messenger 23 

There is no better way of giving children a 

sense of significance than to allow them 

to see and to feel the closeness and 

commitment of their mother and father. 

vicarious fulfillment in their children. They 
want their children to experience and 
achieve things they themselves were denied. 
Their children become their ego trip. By 
forcing their children into premature roles, 
they build feelings of frustration and in- 

The three main areas where Americans 
and Canadians are expected to excel are in 
beauty, intelligence, and possessions. 
Children constantly pressured to measure 
up, to be superior, to excel in these things 
rather than being themselves, will suffer for 
it. Inferiority feelings, which arise out of 
the great drive for superiority, grow by 
leaps and bounds. 

Destructive Forces. One man remembers 
vividly that when visitors came to his home 
during his childhood his parents often 
showed photographs of his older brother. 
"Look what a lovely baby he was," they 
would exclaim about his brother. But no 
photographs were ever shown of him. His 
brother always seemed to do everything 
right and was clever and neat in his 
appearance, whereas he always seemed to 
be in trouble. The younger brother felt his 
parents looked for him only if something 
was broken. One night they found him sob- 
bing in the attic, feeling no one loved him 
at all. To wound the self-respect of little 
children in this way is to hurt them far 
more than a whipping, and to scar them 
for life. 

A father said to his son, "I don't know 
what you're going to be. I can't imagine 
anybody giving you a job. You'll never 
make anything of life." If children are told 
often enough that they will never amount 
to anything, they will begin to believe it. If 
they don't turn out well, it will not be their 
own fault entirely. A large share of the 
responsibility must be laid at the door of a 
parent, who in robbing children of self- 
respect, robs them of a God given quality 
which is one of the greatest driving forces 
of personality. 

In the same way, ridicule, sarcasm, 
scorn, and contempt directed at a child 

produce feelings of inferiority and should 
be avoided. In a parent's fit of anger, a 
child's mind may be injured and emotions 
scarred. If repressed or bottled up, these 
feelings may produce neurotic symptoms 
which can result in serious emotional 
problems later in life. 

Even to laugh at a child who mis- 
pronounces a word or makes some error 
may drive the child to dishonesty and lying 
for the sake of self-respect. 

How build a sense of significance? Now 
we come to the positive. 

1) Your attitude as a parent toward 
yourself is basic and will affect your child's 
self-esteem. If you as a parent have a sense 
of worth, you will convey a sense of worth 
to your child. 

2) Let your child help around the home. 
To grow is to be needed. "Let me do it" 
begins early. The temptation is to turn the 
child away and do it oneself. But the small 
child loves to help and needs meaningful 
experiences to learn responsibility. How 
else will a child learn to make cookies, 
paint the fence, or hammer nails? 


.0 compliment the child early for doing 
small jobs gives a sense of significance. 
Later, daily chores gives a sense of regular 
accomplishment. Bruno Bettelheim writes, 
"Conviction about one's worth comes only 
from feeling that one has important tasks 
and has met them well." So let the child 
help. Avoid the painful phrase, "Oh, you 
can't do that." 

3) Introduce your child to others. An 
editor friend of mine traveled across North 
America in the interests of a youth 
magazine. He told me he could predict the 
climate of relationships between youth and 
their parents almost every time by noticing 
if the parents introduced their children to 
him by name. One's name is awfully impor- 
tant to a child as well as an adult. When 
parents or others think children worthy of 
introduction by name, it helps contribute 

to their developing sense of worth. 

4) Let the children speak for themselves. 
We often humiliate children by answering 
for them. It is rude for parents to respond 
to a question asked of a child. I've even 
heard college students asked, "How is 
college going?" and a parent respond, "Oh, 
she's doing fine — she's on the dean's list," 
or "He made the football team." 

In a group of youth counselors, the con- 
cern was expressed that when a youth is 
brought in for an interview, the parents fre- 
quently do the talking. No doubt that's a 
large part of the problem. 

Why do parents speak for children, un- 
dermining their self-respect and subtracting 
from their significance? Because parents do 
not respect children as persons and want to 
assert their own importance. In so doing 
they signal the children that they are in- 
significant and not qualified to speak for 

5) Give children the privilege of choice 
and respect their opinions whenever possi- 
ble. Personality develops through making 

24 MESSENGER May 1977 

decisions. Children should be given many 
opportunities to choose, and should learn 
to live with the results of their decisions. 

Certain matters demand the decision of 
parents, of course. But many choices have 
no ethical or eternal significance. When we 
allow children to choose we give them a 
sense of worth. 

6) Spend time with your child. If parents 
do not take time for their children, children 
will take time from them in unpleasant 
ways such as whining, fighting, and other 
angry behavior patterns. 


small boy watched his father polish 
the car. He asked, "Dad, your car's worth a 
lot, isn't it?" 

"Yes," his dad replied, "it cost a lot. It 
pays to take care of it. When I trade the 
car in, it will be worth more if I take care 
of it." 

After some silence the son said, "Dad, I 
guess I'm not worth very much, am I?" 

We build our children's sense of self- 

worth when we take time to listen to their 
concerns, when we drop the newspaper 
when they speak, when we look into their 
eyes when they share with us. 

A boy came to his father who was 
reading the paper. He tried to show him a 
scratch on his hand. Annoyed by the in- 
terruption, his dad, still looking at the 
paper, said, "Well, I can't do anything 
about it, can I?" 

The small one replied, "Yes, Daddy, you 
could have said, 'Oh.'" 

A mother shared how her small son 
came to her over a two-day period com- 
plaining a number of times that he had a 
blister on his hand. Each time she said, 
"You'll have to take care not to hurt 
yourself." But she didn't look at his hand. 
Before leaving him with a babysitter to at- 
tend a retreat on parent-child problems, 
she finally stopped to look at his hand. She 
saw that it needed immediate attention 
because a splinter was causing infection, 
She wished then that she had taken time 
earlier to take her son's problem seriously. 

7) Encourage the feeling of worth and 
significance by trusting your children oc- 
casionally with things which surprise them. 
Some time ago my sister and family came 
to visit us. "Where is Jerry?" we all wanted 
to know. Fourteen-year-old Jerry was not 
with them. His dad replied, "We left him at 
home to attend a sale and bid on a farm 
tractor." We were startled at the idea. But 
Jerry's parents seemed perfectly relaxed. 
And what a feeling of worth Jerry must 
have had! 

One family put both teenage sons, ages 
13 and 15, on their joint checking account. 
"Why not?" the father asked. "Should 1 
trust Wall Street more than my own 

Children grow in responsibility and ac- 
complishment as they are trusted. And to 
trust them at times with things which sur- 
prise them can give them a big boost 
toward the sense of worth which is so basic 
to all of life. 

Dorothy Briggs concludes in Your Child 
and Self- Esteem: The Key to His Life, after 
26 years of clinical work, "What's the 
greatest gift you can give your child? Help 
him to like himself." D 

Significance quiz for parents 

Check the answer in the appropriate 
column: true, false, or usually. 
T F U 

I) I spend some time with my 

child personally each day 
I'm home. 

2) I give my children special 

responsibilities to prove I 
trust them. 

3) 1 try not to force my 

children into roles for 
which they are unready. 

4) I introduce my children to 

visitors by name. 

5) I beheve our husband-wife 

relationship takes priority 
over our parent-child 

6) As parents, we show affec- 
tion for each other in front 
of our children. 

7) I allow the children to help 

do things. 

For discussion 

1) Discuss times you remember when 
parent-child relationships took priority 
over husband-wife relationships. 

2) How free would parents be to show 
affection in front of their children? 

3) Give examples from your own ex- 
perience when you forced children into 
roles for which they were not ready. 

4) Discuss the statement, "Inferiority 
feelings grow out of the drive for superiori- 

5) Do you think you are ever justified in 
answering for your child? 

6) What are some things you might trust 
your children with to surprise them and 
show confidence in them? 

7) What are some ways children of 
different ages assert themselves to bolster 
their sense of significance? 

8) If possible read Hide or Seek, by 
James Dobson, published by Revell. 

Reprinted. »ilh permission, from the book. Seven 
Things Children Need, />)■ John M. Drescher. © 1976 hv 
Herald Press. Scoiidale. PA 15683. 

May 1977 messenger 25 

FflmiLV 77 



. he name "Djambinov" leaped off the 
page as I looked over the list of new students 
arriving at the University for a summer in- 
stitute. I thought surely I had heard that 
name before. Eli Djambinov's home address 
was Freewood Acres, New Jersey. 

I wondered if this young man might be 
the son of a Kalmuck refugee couple, 
remembering that the Kalmuck refugees 


no more 

Uprooted for long 

centuries in many 

cultures, the 

Kalmucks struggle 

valiantly to keep 

their identity and 

values intact. 

by Ruth E. Early 

who came to the States through Church 
World Service (CWS) were resettled by the 
Church of the Brethren in Philadelphia and 
New Jersey. 

The next week 1 called Eli in for an ap- 
pointment to discuss his courses in the 
summer program and — as important at the 
moment — to find out about his family. He 
told me that his parents were Kalmuck dis- 
placed persons in Europe and had come to 
the States through some organization, the 
details of which he did not know. 

He later checked with his parents and 
told me that their immigration to the 
United States was indeed through Church 
World Service. Arriving in December, 
1951, they had lived their first American 
days at the Brethren Service Center, New 
Windsor, Md. 1 told Eli that I was at the 
center at that time working on the resettle- 
ment of refugees and had welcomed his 
parents upon arrival there. 

Christmas 1951 at the Brethren Service 
Center was a time of sharing blessings and 
joy by Brethren and Buddhists. Thirty-one 
Kalmuck refugees (including Eli's parents 
and grandparents) had arrived from Eu- 
rope and were waiting to be resettled in a 
permanent home. Although our celebration 
of Christmas must have appeared positive- 
ly strange to them, they listened in ap- 
preciation to our carols and worship serv- 
ice. The small gifts the center people gave 

to the Kalmuck children brought joy to all. 

It was easy to love these new friends 
from another part of the world. One could 
sense that they were a group of proud peo- 
ple with a long line of incredible history. 
But they had endured countless years of 
foot-loose existence and were known in 
Europe as "the refugees for whom there is 
no room under the sun." 

The Kalmucks originally inhabited the 
present province of Sinkiang in Western 
China, north of Tibet, and are considered 
one of the few remaining groups of the 
Western branch of the Mongols. From the 
12th to the 14th centuries the Kalmucks 
participated actively in military and 
political events in Asia. After the breakup 
and disappearance of the Mongol Empire, 
and after long and exhausting wars the 
Kalmucks were forced from their original 
lands on the boundary between China and 
Mongolia. At the beginning of the I7th 
century they fled westward toward Russia. 
This was the initial step in a period of their 
300-year sojourn in Europe. 


ithin several decades the remnants of 
the Kalmucks had settled in an empty area 
in what is now Russian territory, where the 
Volga River empties into the Caspian Sea. 

For a period of perhaps 50 years — the 
latter part of the 17th century and the early 
years of the 18th century — Kalmuck life 
reached its highest point. The people were 
proud and free. The Russians had signed 
several treaties of recognition with them, 
and trade and commerce increased. The 
Kalmuck language was developed to the 
point where it was sufficient to express the 
metaphysical concepts of Buddhist 

During the 1 8th century, Russian 
authority increased and steps were taken to 
incorporate the land of the Kalmucks into 
the mainland of Russia. In order to avoid 
Russian subjugation, the majority of the 
Kalmucks decided to return to Asia, but 
thousands perished from hunger in the 
desert. Scarcely a fourth of those who had 
set out reached their native steppes. There 

26 MESSENGER May 1977 

they fell victims to the Manchu Dynasty in 
China and dropped out of the picture as a 
nation. The Kalmucks remaining in the 
Don and Volga river valleys came com- 
pletely under Russian authority. 

The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 was 
met with disfavor by the Kalmuck people 
in Russia. Brought up in the quietistic en- 
vironment of the Buddhist religion, they 
had become proud of cultural, economic, 
and religious liberties. After fighting 
against the revolutionists with little success, 
the Kalmucks were split for the second 
time by the rise of Marxism. The majority 
were exiled into slave labor camps in 
Siberia while a small minority began to 
filter into Europe. 

The Kalmucks settled as homeless 
refugees around Turkey and the Balkan 
countries, living as political refugees in 
small camps. The Kalmucks left in Russia 
rose in rebellion against the Communist 
state, resulting in the mass deportations of 
the Kalmucks during 1936 and 1937. 

The Second World War did much for 
the uniting of the Kalmuck refugees in Eu- 
rope by bringing the Kalmuck units 
together to fight. At the end of the war, 
there remained in Europe about 800 men, 
women, and children of the tens of 
thousands who had stayed in Europe after 
the first split. The remaining ones were 
now displaced persons living in refugee 
camps in Germany, France, and Belgium 
under the International Refugee Organiza- 
tion, an agency of the United Nations. 


lo country was willing to take the 
Kalmuck displaced persons as new im- 
migrants along with other displaced per- 
sons of many nationalities. Their plight 
reached the concerned ears of American 
groups who wanted to resettle them in the 
United States. However, because of the US 
Oriental Exclusion Act, immigration 
through the regular channels was not 

A congressional bill was passed in June, 
1951, decreeing that 300 years of residence 
in Europe made the Kalmucks Europeans 

Christmas 1951: The 
weather at New Wind- 
sor was cold, but the 
welcome for the Kal- 
mucks was warm. Toys 
for the children, an im- 
provised Buddhist tem- 
ple, a bassinet for a new- 
born showed that the 
Brethren cared. 

rather than Orientals. The door was 
opened for the first Kalmuck couple to 
arrive in New York in October. Arrange- 
ments were made by CWS with the Interna- 
tional Refugee Organization for the Kal- 
mucks to be resettled in the United States 
by the Brethren Service Commission. 

For about half of the 560 Kalmucks who 
immigrated by April. 1952. New Windsor 
Center was their first home, with another 
temporary residence at Seabrook Farms in 
New Jersey. The first permanent mass 
resettlements were in New Mexico, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania, specifically 

The attempt to resettle these people on 
various sheep ranches in New Mexico was 
not successful. It had been assumed by 
agency workers in the resettlement 
program that these were a pastoral people 
with no desire to live in a highly mecha- 
nized civilization. This assumption proved 
invalid with the failure of all attempts to 
resettle them on the land. A cultural 
change had taken place. 


'espite their Asian origin, the 
Kalmucks differ considerably from true 
Asians because of the impact of 300 years 
of European culture. Thus the Kalmucks 
who were resettled in New Mexico joined 
friends in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

My good fortune in meeting Eli at the 
university brought me in direct contact 
again with a leader of the Kalmuck group, 
Ulumdschi Akuginow. Before classes 
ended in the spring semester, Eli and I 
made plans to meet in Philadelphia during 
the summer. 

When Eli picked us up at the station, he 
took us to the home of Ulumdschi 
Akuginow, who is his uncle and who had 
been the leader of the Kalmuck group 
when plans for resettlement were being 
made in 1951-52. As we talked, Ulumdschi 
showed me his old files of correspondence 
with representatives of CWS and the 
Brethren Service Commission. 

That June day spent in Philadelphia will 
long be remembered. Leah Oxiey. who is 
presently at the Brethren Service Center 
working on the resettlement of refugees. 

Top left: Eli Djambinov (left) with Kursang, Lydia, and Uthsur Moschkin. Upper right: Eli 
with Grandmother Dshigde Djambinov, Uncle Ulumdschi Akuginow and Aunt Gauna 
Akuginow. Center left: Eli. Above: Ruth Early chats with Eli. Opposite: Erna Akuginow. 

and I asked many questions of Ulumdschi, 
his wife, Gauna, and their daughter, Erna, 
who graciously took us into their lovely 
home. Eli's grandmother, Dshigde Djam- 
binov, speaks only Kalmuck, but we had 
excellent interpreters to talk with her. 

The Akuginow family of four is a good 
example of some of the things that have 
occurred since the group's immigration. 
Erna was three years old and her brother 
Steve was only six months old when the 
family arrived. After leaving the Brethren 
Service Center, a two-room apartment was 
their first home in Philadelphia. 

Ulumdschi vividly recalls that it was not 
easy to secure work. Although a graduate 
of Leningrad University and a chemistry 
teacher, he accepted the only job he could 
get which was as a laboratory technician in 

the A. M. Collins Paper Company. He 
continues to work with a paper company, a 
different one, since the Collins Company 
moved out of the city and he did not want 
to move his family. Gauna has worked out- 
side the home only in the past several years 
at Nabisco Company. They are buying 
their house on Whitaker Avenue. 

X_/rna, a graduate of New York Uni- 
versity, is a producer at WCAU-TV in 
Philadelphia, and Steve, after completing 
graduate work at the University of Cali- 
fornia last spring, is employed in computer 
engineering at Northrup Aviation. This is a 
close-knit family extended by grand- 
parents, uncles, aunts, and cousins. 
The language spoken in the Akuginow 

28 MESSENGER May 1977 

home is usually Kalmuck. It may be that 
most families continue to speak Kalmuck 
at home because the older persons have not 
learned English. At times they speak Ger- 
man, Russian, Yugoslavian, or English. In 
response to my question about the 
possibility of the traditional tongue of 
Kalmuck becoming a forgotten language, 
Ulumdschi said, "Not in the near future, 
but it is a problem." 

Their food and eating habits have slowly 
moved westward. They enjoy a combina- 
tion of Oriental, Russian, and Western 
foods, with a domination of Western 
foods. On occasion the family enjoys 
Kalmuck dishes. A common Kalmuck dish 
is "veranic," consisting of meat and 
vegetables, wrapped in thin layers of 
dough, steam cooked and glazed with 
butter. This dish is always prepared for 
religious ceremonies and other Kalmuck 
social activities. 

Gauna does not remember the incident, 
but she told me in 1952 about an ex- 
perience she had with food. At that time, 
language was a problem for her, and the 

supermarkets were confusing. She pur- 
chased a can of ready-to- bake biscuits with 
a picture of the finished biscuits on the 
side, and then was puzzled upon opening 
the can to find mere globs of dough. "But," 
she said, "I had paid for them, so we 
shrugged and ate them." The busy mem- 
bers of this household now are tempted to 
buy prepared or fast foods, as are many 
of us. Gauna told me that it takes too much 
time to cook Kalmuck dishes every day. 

Strong ties to Kalmuck culture and iden- 
tity are preserved while contemporary 
American life-style is blended into the pic- 
ture. Such things as religious artifacts, 
books, tapestries, pictures, and vases ob- 
viously belong to Kalmuck culture. Eli has 
shared with me some observations he 
recently made from frequent visits with his 

sister Lydia, her husband Uthsur 
Moschkin, and their 1 1-year-old son Kun- 
sang, who live in Silver Spring, Md. 

Lydia and Uthsur selected one another 
as a marriage partner instead of following 
the Kalmuck tradition of pre-arrangement 
by paternal' clans. It is expected that 
change in marriage customs will take place 
in 25 years since Kalmuck children are 
taught through an American educational 
system that stresses individuality, although 
simultaneously learning in the home the 
meaning of the culture and identity to be 

X_/lder Kalmucks would like to require 
that all Kalmucks intermarry, a custom 
which is supported by social and religious 
activities. Social interaction between 
Kalmucks is emphasized in order to main- 
tain group solidarity, and the continuity of 
Kalmuck marriages is of great importance. 
Some Kalmucks have married outside the 
group, but most of them have intermar- 
ried, as did Lydia and Uthsur. 

The fact that the Moschkins reside in the 
Washington metropolitan area is in con- 
trast to Kalmuck culture, which stresses re- 
siding in proximity to other Kalmucks for 
fellowship and social purposes. This house- 
hold, also, is a blend of contemporary 
Americana along with Kalmuck identity. 
The values of competition, opportunity, 
and profit motivation are applied to 
employment and material possessions, 
while Kalmuck culture applies to religious 
and most social activities. Kalmuck culture 
seems to be a dominant consideration in 
the decisions made by Lydia and Uthsur. 

Kalmucks in the United States number 
approximately 800. About 93 percent of 
them live in the Philadelphia and New 
Jersey areas, while the remainder are scat- 
tered from coast to coast. The primary 
reasons for living apart from the group 
have been for educational and employment 

When the Kalmucks first settled in 
Philadelphia and New Jersey they looked 
for the simplest jobs. As one young man 
remarked, "We really worked hard, and I 
mean hard. We had to make good and we 
had to make up somehow for not being 
able to speak the language." Without ques- 
tion the Kalmucks have proved themselves 
to be diligent and dependable employees. 
More are working now, including women, 
and many are in skilled and professional 
fields. Others work in factories, paper com- 
panies, and sugar refining industries. Some 

of the Kalmucks have organized their own 
construction companies. 

Most of the Kalmuck families now own, 
or are purchasing, their own houses. They 
quickly established a reputation as 
"rehabilitating agents" in repairing and re- 
modeling old row houses in a rather run- 
down area of Philadelphia and as excellent 
credit risks. Many of the families have now 
moved to more affluent sections of the city, 
thus they are more widely scattered. Three- 
generation households are not uncommon, 
although this is not the normal pattern for 
them here. 

Since the focal point of the Kalmuck 
culture is Buddhism, their lives center 
around religious observances. The largest 
Buddhist Temple in the United States is in 
Farmingdale, N.J., with two other temples 
in New Jersey and one in Philadelphia. 
Few of the Kalmucks now visit the temple 
daily, as was formerly the custom, but 
many visit the temple weekly. 

Of great concern to the Kalmucks is the 
lack of interest, among the youth, in the 
priesthood. It has been necessary for 
several years to import priests from Tibet. 

tAi and I have become good friends. 
During his freshman year at the university 
he came to my office rather often to get 
assistance on an academic question, to talk 
about his undecided major field of study, 
or just to say "Hi!" His priceless sense of 
humor can brighten any gray day. He is a 
good student with many interests, includ- 
ing anthropology and his own ethnic back- 
ground. With a mind for practical con- 
siderations, also, Eli has now decided to 
major in accounting in the School of 
Business Administration. He is doing well. 
He has learned to assume responsibility as 
a student and as a person. His ability to 
raise pertinent questions and contribute in- 
sights is a delight in our conversations. 

This first-generation American Kalmuck 
displays strong character traits, which we 
were told in 1951 were characteristic of the 
Kalmuck people — traits of determination, 
honesty, loyalty, courage, faith, and good- 
will. And there must be many more young 
Kalmucks of the same caliber. 

These Kalmuck youth, together with 
their parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, 
cousins, and all the rest, enrich this country 
in countless ways. During their first 25 
years in the United States, they have 
demonstrated their worthiness of our sup- 
port when they were strangers and we took 
them in. L] 

May 1977 messenger 29 

fc)(Q)(o)[k irmmmm 

why can't I say 

by Anne Haynes Price 

Peoplemakjng, By Virginia Satir, Science 
and Behavioral Books, Inc. Palo Alto, Califor- 
nia 304 pages Hardback, Illustrated 
$7 95, 

You Can Have a Family Where Everybody 
Wins, by Earl H. Gauike, Concordia 
Publishing House, St, Louis, Missouri, 93 
pages Paperback SI, 95 

Growing Up With Toys: A Guide for Parents. 

by Irene Clepper, Augsburg Publishing 
House, Minneapolis. Minnesota, 160 pgs, 

Why can't 1 say what I mean? I am forever 
saying "Don't," "Shut-up!" "Can't you do 
anything right?" Everything is an order or 
a put-down. Why can't we have a friendly 
conversation without somebody butting in 
or someone storming out? 

Communication isn't easy with famihes, 
at least communication that is open, 
honest, positive, and loving. 1 doubt that 
any parent would question that com- 
munication is the most difficult task in par- 
enting. Since all communication is 
learned, it seems that we should someday 
be able to express acceptance, support, and 
care without being dictatorial, conde- 
scending, or commanding. Parents never 
speak to a colleague or a friend as they so 
often do to their children. 

There are perhaps a few parents who are 
aware enough of their difficulties in com- 
munication to realize that they are not ac- 
curately expressing what they feel. Most 
parents, however, don't even recognize that 
they have a problem. Their parental duty is 
to run the lives of their children, never ex- 
periencing an expressive, mutually respect- 
ful relationship that is possible between 

parents and children. Somehow it is just 
easier to blurt out, "Get that sour look off 
your face!" rather than expressing the more 
accurate feeling, "I sense you are feeling 
pretty low right now, Sally. Want to talk 
about it?" 

The three books reviewed here present 
ways to improve communication. Pastor 
and author Earl Gauike recognizes that 
communication is certainly the key to hav- 
ing a family Where Everybody Wins. In his 
book Gauike presents a Christian inter- 
pretation of Thomas Gordon's Parent 
Effectiveness Training. 

Since 1970, when Gordon instituted a 
training program of the no-lose approach 
to parenting, some one million copies of 
his book have been published, and 250,000 
parents have experienced the effectiveness 
of his theories and communication skills. 
Gaulke's Christian adaptation. You Can 
Have a Family Where Everybody Wins, 
has reached another group of parents, as 
Lutherans have trained 600 instructors and 
3,000 parents. Gauike states that his train- 
ing text seems to show that "PET skills do 
spell out in practical terms how Christians 
can better fulfill their calling to love one 

Communication training of the highly 
respected family therapist Virginia Satir 
reaches other parents. In Peoplemaking she 
provides professionals and parents with 
many tools for family unity and com- 
munication specifically. When you hear her 
speak in person, or see her working with a 
family in therapy, you more fully a.p- 
preciate her down-to-earth manner in the 
book. Therapists seek to pattern their work 
after her warm and direct style, and 
families are reassured in their efforts with 
her approach which does not allow for 

Most parents try to run the lives of their 
children and they never experience an 
expressive, mutually respectful 
relationship with them. 

what I mean? 

anyone to feel guilty or blamed. Her 
typical statement is, "Rather than feeling 
guilty about that, pat yourself on the back 
for what you have learned for the next 

Her 18 illustrated chapters, mostly in the 
form of exercises in communication games, 
suggest ways to help make healthy people. 
During her 35 years in family therapy, she 
has observed consistently several patterns 
in the untroubled and nurturing family. 
Check your family to see if the individual's 
self-worth is high. 

Is communication direct, clear, specific, 
and honest? 

Are rules flexible, human, appropriate, 
and changeable? 

Is the link to society open and hopeful? 

Communication is "the gauge by which 
people measure where they are in their feel- 
ings and the tool by which these levels can 
be changed." Perhaps you would argue 
that her goal in communication is unat- 
tainable. "We have it made when I can say 
straight to you that you have a bad smell 
about you in such a way that you receive 
the information as a gift." 

Both Satir and Gaulke's books are com- 
munication texts. Satir uses the term "full 
listening" and Gordon uses "active listen- 
ing" as a means of accurately understand- 
ing both content and feeling in any verbal 
or nonverbal expression. Satir points out 
four basic ways in which we commonly res- 
pond in a stressful situation, particularly 
when we let our self-esteem get bound up 
in the stressful moment. These four 
responses include placating, blaming, com- 
puting, or distracting. Gordon describes 
them similarly in his "EHrty Dozen" list, 
which identifies the pitfalls that we most 
commonly encounter when communicat- 
ing. Rate your own expressions to your 
child to see if you are in or out of the pit. 

Do you order, threaten, moralize, advise, 
lecture, blame, agree, shame, analyze, sym- 
pathize, interrogate, or distract? 

Maybe you consider it your God-given 
responsibility to speak as the authority 
figure in the family. Rather than to re- 

spond in any of the above ways, Gordon's 
simple first rule is to make statements that 
stay with the child's feelings until the child 
can sort them out. This frees the child to 
respond to you honestly, without being 
put-down or needing to tell a lie. 

Gaulke's book is a brief summary of the 
communication techniques of PET, ap- 
propriately designed as a church school 
course. Throughout his little book of 93 
pages, Gaulke gives many examples of 
communicating, both effective and nonef- 
fective methods of responding, and sup- 
ports the examples with biblical teachings. 
He gives the example of the seven-year-old 
girl who comes home crying because her 
friend took her doll and she does not want 
to play with her. The typical first response 
of a parent is to order: "You go right up 
there and get your doll back!" He indicates 
that this would seem fair from the Old 
Testament teaching, "An eye for an eye," 
but Jesus taught us in the New Testament 
that, "If anyone would sue you and take 
your coat (doll?), let him have your cloak 
(other playthings?) as well" (Matt. 5:38). 


. ou may be wondering what relation- 
ship a toy book has to this review of how- 
to books on communication. A child's 
world is play. It is through play and toys 
that we get in touch with the mind and 
feelings of a child. 

Irene Clepper in Growing Up With Toys: 
A Guide for Parents does not simply give 
advice on the selection of toys, but she also 
draws upon medical, psychological, and 
marketing research to demonstrate the 
value and need of play for the growing 
child. Through play, children are becom- 
ing who they are as human beings, learn- 
ing our values and beliefs for living, and 
developing their own style of living. 
Children need parents to be an essential 
part of their world of play, and Clepper is 
concerned that parents so often don't take 
the time to be actively involved in their 

Do you leave all the play experiences to 

someone else? "Go play with Dan. I'm too 
busy to play right now." What are you 
teaching your child by being uninvolved or 
passive in the child's play life? What is your 
child learning about life and about himself 
or herself through games, hobbies, and ac- 
tivities? I'm sure my Brethren parents never 
considered that the game of Monopoly 
might teach me to be greedy, or develop a 
dependence upon capitalistic accumulation 
of material possessions. It was only after 
my son had spent ten dollars to buy the 
game of Risk that 1 discovered it was con- 
tradicting our home teachings of brother- 
hood. I realized the purpose of the game is 
to accumulate armies until you can con- 
quer the world. I innocently thought the 
world map on the cover would provide an 
easy geography lesson. 

Clepper's message to parents is to be in- 
volved in your child's play and match their 
toys, hobbies, games, activities to your 
values and beliefs. An even stronger 
message to me, and probably to all 
Brethren, is the need to relearn play. We 
learned well the value of work, but did not 
learn the equally important value of play. 
If Clepper's book is read with an eye for 
communication tips, toys and play are the 
openers for real dialogue with our children. 

These three books have sharpened my 
awareness that if I am to be a loving, car- 
ing parent, 1 must not give orders. I must 
instead communicate openly, honestly, and 
clearly what I mean, what I feel, and what 
I believe, and allow my children to do the 
same. Thus we communicate through our 
choice to play or not to play, through our 
active or passive approval of certain games 
or toys, through the tone of our voices, the 
positions of our mouths, the conditions of 
our ears, the interrogations we spell out. 
Thus we are determining how Doug and 
Mike (1) feel about themselves, (2) are 
reassured of our love, (3) learn how to han- 
dle conflict, (4) understand our values, and 
(5) discover ways we all live and grow 
together. These five areas relate to chapter 
headings of the little book You Can Have a 
Family Where Everybody Wins. □ 

May 1977 messenger 31 

by James L. Kinsey 

Verdict: Giiilty 

The firing squad stands ready: Guns are 
cleaned, polished, and loaded. Marksmen 
are practiced and accurate. 

The gas chamber stands ready. It is 
spotless, polished, free of malfunctions. 
The gas is fresh and electronic connections 
have been checked and re-checked. 

The electric chair stands ready. It is pol- 
ished, corrosion-free, its circuits func- 
tioning properly. Body-conductive 
lubricants, cotton packing, and blindfolds 
are in place. 

After nearly ten years of reprieve, these 
American implements of retribution are 
again in use — all for the sake of domestic 
peace and security. The firing squad was 
the first to become operative with the ex- 
ecution of Gary Mark Gilmore. 

Nearly 600 more persons throughout the 
nation have been sentenced to death and 
await execution. At the time of Gary 
Gilmore's death, capital punishment laws 
in Florida, Georgia, and Texas had been 
tested in courts and found to comply with 
US Supreme Court guidelines. Laws in 
Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, 
Connecticut, Montana, Nebraska, Ohio. 
Pennsylvania, and Utah seem to conform 
to federal standards. Three hundred per- 
sons reside on "death rows" in these 13 
states. The remaining 300 persons who 
have been sentenced to die are imprisoned 
in 20 states whose current laws are 
probably unconstitutional, according to 
lawyers' studies. 

How do we as Christians relate to this 
reality in our land? How do we offer the 
redemptive word to a world gone mad with 

vindictive violence? 

Bible study shows a progression in the 
concept of justice — with correctives being 
given along the way when it seemed clear 
that persons had not fully understood what 
God had intended. 

Our current problem is demonstrated by 
our exercise of dominion. As God created 
us we were given dominion over everything 
except one another (Gen. 1:26-28). Domi- 
nion is the way we use the gifts of creation. 
Dominion is the way we exist outside 
of the garden. Dominion is the way we 
relate to the "thorns and thistles" (Gen. 
3:18) so that the gifts of the soil give us 

Humankind logically discovered methods 
of exercising its dominion over the birds, 
the plants, and the beasts of the field, but 
also became wise to the strategies of power 
over each other. The process was simple. 
Unwanted or troublesome plants and 
animals were subdued in the struggle to 
survive outside of the garden by the use of 
violence, uprooting, and segregation — 
leading ultimately to their deaths. 
Likewise, humankind deduced, unwanted 
or troublesome brothers and sisters could 
be subdued. Cain exercised this form of 
dominion over Abel. The society around 
Cain felt compelled to employ the same 
methods to control others who threatened 
community (Gen. 4:1-16). 

It became appropriate to incarcerate, 
segregate, uproot, and threaten with death 
in order to control the violent impulses 
within us and our brothers and sisters. In 
this logic we can deny rights to errant per- 

The new light given to the nations 

equal violence. The new light, 

tools, the hope, the reason to 

who have violated the 

32 MESSENGER May 1977 

Sentence: Death? 

sons. We can demand estates, integrity, 
and future potential to prove a person in- 
nocent of offenses against society. We can 
feel that justice has been served, but our 
lives remain fraught with broken 
relationships and fear. 

The Old Testament law code is clear: 
"Thou Shalt not kill" (Ex. 20:13). The New 
English Bible restates the passage, "You 
shall not commit murder." It was and still 
remains a fact that society cannot exist 
with murderous acts being committed un- 
checked. Community cannot exist based on 
the fear of violent death due to personal 

Exodus 21:20-25 deals with what 
seemed to be a reasonable extension of 
justice based on the new-found dominion 
over other humans. The concept is clear. 
Persons are deterred from violating the life 
of another by knowing in advance what the 
punishment will be. The punishment fits 
the crime — an eye for an eye, a life for a 
life — except in the case of slaves (who were 
property) and an occasional mitigating cir- 

The law seems clear, reasonable, and 
necessary for the quick dispatch of justice. 
The law appears to be of God. However, 
persons responsible to mete out penalties 
under the law are also human, mistake- 
prone, violence-oriented, fallen persons. 
The justice system that decides an eye for 
an eye, a life for a life is as destructive to 
community and the solidarity of human 
and national relationship as those who take 
the first eye or the first life. This reality 
became evident to the community of faith 

as it grew to understand the loving 
forgiveness of God. 

2 Samuel 1 1 and 12 illustrate the point 
well. Today, as in David's time, the rules of 
justice are determined by the rich and 
powerful. In fact, laws are written to 
protect them. 

David's story is universal. A powerful 
man saw something that pleased him — 
Bathsheba. He had the means to ensure 
that she would be his. David employed 
murder with open bravado to secure his 
prize. He sent Uriah to his death, reached 
out to comfort Bathsheba, and possessed 
her as his wife. 

The prophet Nathan was sent to David 
as God's mind and voice in the matter. 
Nathan approached David, who sym- 
bolized the judicial system of the land, and 
described the crime couched in terms of 
common human interaction. As David 
listened to what was obvious injustice, he 
became angry and shouted, "As the Lord 
lives, the man who has done this deserves 
to die; and he shall restore the lamb four- 
fold, because he did this thing, and because 
he had no pity" (2 Sam. 12:5-6). 

Nathan confronted David, "You are that 
man," and described David's crime. The 
wheels of true justice began to turn. Unlike 
the powerful and rich of the world who 
continue to exercise evil dominion to retain 
power and achieve their goals, David 
repented. A new era was born into the life 
of Israel and Judah. 

God did not require David's life for 
Uriah's. However, Nathan's prophecy was 
fulfilled. David's descendants suffered as a 

result of his impropriety. Their improper 
human relationships generated brokenness 
and physical death. Corruption produced 
by power and wealth destroys human- 
kind's ability to exercise God's kind 
of justice and redemptive human en- 

In Isaiah the concept of vengeance takes 
a new direction. Vengeance is understood 
as the loving justice of God (Is. 34:3-10). 
The faithful live in a theology of 
deliverance. "The recompense of God" no 
longer destroys the offender or enemy. In- 
stead. "He will come and save you." God 
will open eyes, unstop ears, loosen shackles, 
freeing the faithful from the oppression of 
their mental attitudes. The community can 
build highways where joy and peace are 
realities even for those in chains. 

Isaiah 42:1-9 points to this new justice. 
God's vindication is given not to sever 
relationship forever, but to bring health to 
the offended and the offender. "Getting 
even" is not the goal of justice; rather, life 
takes on new perspectives under the loving 
forgiveness of God who forgot the sins of 
the fathers. 

Vindictive and devastating modes of 
justice are put aside for the sake of per- 
sonal and national health. To respond to 
God's forgiving, healing vindication re- 
quires a new method of interacting with 
brothers and sisters -to forgive, to offer 
healing relationship, to share redeeming 
love (even with the enemy). God gave sight 
to the blind, brought the prisoners out of 
the dungeons (Is. 42:7), and offered hope 
to those caught up in the need for 

Is. 43:6) does not allow for claiming justice through 
i^hich we have come to know as Jesus Christ, offers the 
*e in redemptive relationship with sisters and brothers 
^eace and life of our community. 

May 1977 me.ssenger 33 

retribution by claiming justice through 
equal violence. 

A new light is given to the nations (Is. 
42:6) which does not allow for such vindic- 
tiveness. The new light, which we have 
come to know as Jesus Christ, offers the 
tools, the hope, the reason to be in redemp- 
tive relationship with brothers and sisters 
who have violated the peace and life of our 
community. God's final stamp of approval 
on this new relationship to the offending 
person in Jesus Christ helps us to under- 
stand what to do after we bring the 
prisoners out of their cells. 

Jesus put a damper on the rampaging 
fire of vindictive justice in us. In the Ser- 
mon on the Mount he put an end to the 
eye-for-an-eye, life-for-a-life style of justice 
with the ultimate corrective. Now a love 
relationship that suffers with the errant 
brother or sister is blessed. Now we must 
live in a redemptive relationship where all 
of life is a precious trust (Matt. 5:39). 

For those who still need a law uttered 
from the Lord's lips to convince them, 
Jesus minces no words. Whoever kills is 
liable to judgment (Matt. 5:21). There 

are no mitigating clauses inherent as there 
were in Exodus and the other law codes. 
Killing for justice or anger are lumped 

But the issue is still not settled for those 
who need to nurse their anger with a 
justifying law. Anyone who is angry with 
his brother or sister is liable to judgment 
(Matt. 5:22a). Anger is as disruptive of lov- 
ing, forgiving community as is murder. 

Jesus is not yet finished. He gives the ul- 
timate corrective with no loopholes. 
Whoever insults a brother or a sister 
should be called to repentance and renewal 
before the council (Matt. 5:22b). Whoever 
calls his brother or sister a fool will be 
liable to the hell of fire (Matt. 5:22c). 

Humankind is stripped of any claim over 
any brother or sister and is held ultimately 
accountable for even the everyday insults 
and value judgments made in casual social 
interaction. The improper exercise of 
dominion is crushed. We are left standing 
without a plea under God's mercy, begging 
for forgiveness, justified only under the 

cross of Jesus. We do not have enough in- 
sight, enough wisdom, or enough love to 
stand in judgment of any other person. 
Only God has that power. "Vengeance is 
mine, I will repay, says the Lord" (Rom. 

A new life-style replaces the eye-for-an- 
eye world into which we have been born. 
That life-style where Jesus is met in our 
serving the needs of the prisoner stands as 
the ultimate God-approved corrective to 
society's death wish. Jesus proclaimed this 
way of life in his witness to us, "I was in 
prison and you came to me" (Matt. 25:36). 
"As you did it to one of the least of these 
my brethren, you did it to me" (Matt. 25:40). 

Jesus is met, served, and worshiped as 
we greet him in the prisoner. Either we 
relate to the prisoner in that truth, or we 
destroy a brother or sister and Jesus in our 
vindictiveness. We must re-educate 
ourselves to live in loving, redeeming, re- 
newing relationship. To find Jesus, to be 
faithful, we must begin now the difficult 
task of transforming self and society to 
find life for us and our world. 

Our task is clear. We are to bring the 

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in the 

34 MESSENGER May 1977 

prisoners out from the dungeons. We are 
to seek new ways of relating to one 
another, the foundation of that new rela- 
tionship being our response to the pres- 
ence of Jesus Christ in every life. "Behold, 
the former things have come to pass, 
and new things I now declare; before 
they spring forth I tell you of them" 
(Is. 42:9). 

Our task is clear. We should oppose the 
death penalty. We should write now to our 
governors and legislators stating our posi- 
tion. We should begin now to organize and 
present programs on the issues and realities 
of criminal justice and especially the 
violence of capital punishment. We should 
lobby long and hard for new methods of 
redemptively and creatively living with 
those who offend us and our society. 

We should lobby against the use of tax 
money to build more prisons. Rather, we 
should act on the best advice we now have 
of ways to redeem the deviant with 
methods that truly give health and renewal. 
We should work hard to redeem the 
criminal justice system which even those 
who work within it feel is inconsistent and 

no longer workable. 

We should begin now to train ourselves 
to be agents of redemption for those who 
violate us and our lives. As Christians we 
should see to it that the society in which we 
live takes responsibility to offer the best 
healing services for each life in its care. 


his is not merely a sociological issue. 
Our response to the offender is central to 
the gospel of Jesus Christ. It is the work of 
Jesus in the world with God's direction and 
approval. Our redemptive response to the 
offender is not just another permissive, 
liberal brainstorm. It is God's way of re- 
deeming the world. 

Sylvia Eller, Church of the Brethren 
criminal justice reform coordinator in our 
Washington Office, can provide concrete 
ways to begin to work on this new way of 
life and relationships. Contact your state 
Council of Churches for groups and agen- 
cies which deal with local issues of capital 
punishment and criminal justice. Call upon 
your district criminal justice consultant for 
assistance. Share with your pastor in Bible 

study, prayer, and action to find a new 
style of responding to the offender. 

"Come, O blessed of my Father, inherit 
the kingdom prepared for you from the 
foundation of the world" (Matt. 25:34). "I 
am the Lord, I have called you in 
righteousness, I have taken you by the 
hand and kept you; I have given you as a 
covenant to the people, a light to the 
nations, to open the eyes that are blind, to 
bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, 
from the prison those who sit in darkness" 
(Is. 42:6-7). D 

Individuals, groups, and congregations 
concerned about the reinstatement of 
capital punishment can order worship 
resources from the Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation which deal with the issue. 
Resources include a liturgy centering on 
the death penalty, suggested songs and 
hymns, and material for preparing ser- 
mons or talks on capital punishment. 
Single copies 50c each; over 25 copies 25c 
each. (Bulk rates negotiable). Order from: 
Fellowship of Reconciliation. Box 271, 
Nvack, NY 10960. 

leeds of You, Your Family, Your Church. 

Available through 
your local bookstore 

BIBLE SERIES are the only two VBS courses consistent in theology and 
approach with Anabaptist beliefs. They are also the only courses that are per- 
manent and closely graded. Churches of all denominations like the continuity 
that this approach offers students, teachers, and superintendents. They appre- 
ciate the emphasis on Bible study and Christian lifestyle that the material 

Herald Press 

Dept. MS, Scottdale, PA 15683/Kitchener, ON N2G 4M5 

May 1977 messenger 35 

[hsF® Q 

On Conference, Christian tv, 'Brethrenism, 

Gary H. Perroz 

Where to hold our 
Annual Conference 

1 like to work with statistics and charts. 1 
have found some disturbing imphcations 
from comparisons I've made on attendance 
and population densities of the church 
and locations of its Annual Conferences. 
Below are the statistics I've used: 












Illinois (& Wis.) 






Iowa (& Minn.) 



Maryland, W.Va., 







W. & S. Plains 






Ore., Wash., 

Pacific S.W. 






' World Book Encyclopedia 

-Church of the Brethren Statistics. 1972 page 82 

I also plotted the locations of congrega- 
tions on a US map and the locations of 
Annual Conferences for the last 20 years 

From the bare statistics we find that 
Pennsylvania has the highest membership 
in relation to area with Indiana and Ohio 
vying for second place. When seen on a 
map the densest area becomes Pennsyl- 
vania (with the total membership in the 
southern half of the state) and the Shenan- 
doah Valley region of Virginia and 
Maryland second and Ohio and Indiana 
third. If we should choose a population 
center for our denomination, it would 
probably be located around Charleston. 
W. Va. 

Highest average attendance and giving 

To hold in respect and fellowship those in 
the church with whom we agree or disagree 
is a characteristic of the Church of the 
Brethren, ft is to the continuation of this 
value, and to an open and probing forum, 
that "Here I Stand" responses are invited. 

comes from Pennsylvania, Shenandoah 
Valley region, and Ohio areas, and I feel 
these taken together are a good indication 
of loyalty and concern of a people for their 

All of us understand that to travel takes 
money, time, and adjustment to changes in 
surroundings and the farther one travels 
the more money, time, and adjustment it 
takes. Also the farther away a meeting 
takes place the less chance of lower income 
members, self-employed members, or low- 
interest members attending. Also the at- 
titude of a meeting is determined by the at- 
titude predominant in the majority attend- 
ing (which is often from the area of the 
meeting's location) and not by the attitude 
predominant in its membership. 

J.f we draw a radius of 250 miles around 
our population center, Charleston, W. Va., 
which is a five-hour drive from the highest 
and densest Brethren areas (75 percent of 
the membership), we will find of 20 Annual 
Conferences since 1956 only 33 percent 
(six) fell in that radius. Twenty-five percent 
(four) on the west coast and one in 
Florida) were the farthest away. Twenty 
percent were in Ocean Grove, N. J. (four). 
None have been in Pennsylvania or 
Maryland — two states with the oldest con- 
gregations and densest membership. 

I agree that our outlying Brethren need 
representation, but tell me how Ocean 
Grove, N.J., is nearer to our western 
Brethren than Pittsburgh, Pa., or 
Hagerstown, Md., or Cleveland, Ohio, 
which are nearer the membership center! 
Tell me how we can neglect the attitudes 
and opinions of our Brethren in the parent 
state and highest membered states in the 
Brotherhood! Do they not have the right to 
attend and give an opinion or influence 
votes? How can they when the vast majori- 
ty are so often out-distanced by the loca- 
tion of the Annual Conference. 

These are terrible implications for a 
church claiming to represent all its mem- 
bers democratically. Something needs 
to be done because it appears as if the An- 
nual Conference has become a cover for 
a vacation at a coastal resort or a sound- 
ing board for radical and foreign groups 
to express opinions and influence change 
much faster than the body of the Broth- 

I suggest that a certain period of years 

(say ten for example) be chosen and 
locations picked on a high percentage 
(seven or eight) in high density and 
membership areas and a low percent- 
age (two or three) in outlying areas. D 

Hal Sonafrank 

Let's use every tool 
we can for ministry 

In response to Murray L. Wagner's super- 
ficial article concerning "Rinky-dink 
Religion" (January), I believe it ridiculous 
for one to feel paranoid about public 
opinion concerning personal convictions. 
Or was Murray expecting rebuttal, hoping 
to open debate that eventually will lead to 
nothing but a not-so-vicious circle? I 
believe it silly for a writer to almost 
apologize for writing an article. 

Hey. Murray, before you knock the 
Bible comics, try using them as a tool for 
outreach in the ghetto. Bet it gets farther 
with the gospel than a weird beard and 
sloppy clothes, as it seems is the feeling of 
some of our good Brethren as the only 
means to open the door for a ministry. 

I appreciate concern over social issues 
and personally have an interest in some of 
them. However, I must admit I interpret 
God's Word as stating that these issues are 
secondary to the commission of winning 
people to Christ. I'd like to see Lake Erie 
unpolluted, but if my time would be 
centered on that issue it would seem as if 1 
would omit a greater void, the void of not 
knowing Jesus Christ as one's personal 
Savior. Therefore I'm convinced that if my 
energies were spent on this social matter all 
I'd be doing is helping people go to hell 

Murray, take an evening and sit in a 
phone counselor's center. I speak from ex- 
perience as I fulfill that capacity every 
Thursday from 11:30 p.m. to I a.m. 

As a result of "rinky-dink tv" I have had 
the opportunity to counsel by phone, then 
follow-up personally with those who are 
seeking help to overcome drug addictions 
or prayer for illness. I have had opportuni- 
ty to introduce many to our anointing serv- 
ice, help others financially, and counsel one 
young woman on abortion. 

This also has given me the opportunity 
to share the joys in many other people's 

36 MESSENGER Mav 1977 

mns, love feast 

lives. The greatest joy is the opportunity to 
be an instrument in leading another to 
receive Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. 
All of this has been instigated by someone 
watching a "rinky-dink Christian tv show." 
Sure, Christian tv is not the final end, but 
don't knock it as a tool and the number of 
people it does reach. 

We seem to be all involved in the idea of 
community concerning our faith. Fine! 
How does one become a part of that com- 
munity if not aware that a community ex- 
ists? We must use every tool available to 
introduce the lost to Christ and his com- 

Your observation, Murray, is super 
superficial. Go and get into where the ac- 
tion is. n 

Arno M. Holderread 

Remember! A coin 
has two sides 

This article is being written particularly in 
refutation to the article written by Murray 
L. Wagner, "Rinky-Dink Religion Goes Big 
Time" (January). 

For a number of years I've been 
Brethren. Part of these years I was 
Brethren for the sake of the church it 
represented — but now I'm Brethren 
because of the Christ it upholds — in all of 
its past practices. 

In the auditorium building at Camp 
Mack in Indiana there is a mural which 
depicts our history. One thing that has par- 
ticularly impressed me as I scan that mural 
is our early forebears carrying a big book, 
a big book that offered them real guidance 
in coursing the direction of our church for 
a day such as ours. 

I can't imagine how many hours were 
spent reading in that big book — but I'm 
mighty grateful they did and I know they 
read it carefully and prayerfully. From that 
big book, the Bible, they came forth with 
these ideas, the Trinity, the Lord's Supper, 
baptism, the anointing service. Brethren 
Service, missionary endeavors, and others. 
Now it seems that these teachings came 
about with careful scrutinizing of this 
Word. For instance, looking at the Scrip- 
tures we seem to have gained several 
things by the threes — in the name of the 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit— so we have 

a three-fold love feast — a three-fold bap- 
tism, a three-fold anointing service. Look- 
ing at Annual Conference we discover that 
for years that big book was an undergird- 
ing for our actions. 

Now — who says that such great teach- 
ings and practices should not cause me to 
feel ecstatic in my faith? With that history 
and the teachings seen in His Word, I 
should have a right to rejoice and praise 
the Lord. If I happen to hobnob with some 
other "turned on" Christians to get my 
batteries recharged and interest me all the 
more in proclaiming Christ as Lord and 
give me the ability to save any who call 
upon His name, then who has a right to 
call those channels "rinky-dink"? Maybe 
those Christians do show some polish and 
glitter and maybe that takes money, but if 
souls are being saved, then let's just 
"Praise the Lord." I thought that is what I 
read in the great commission, "Go ye into 
all the world." That's what these 
ministries are doing. 

I also have a feeling that those in charge 
of these ministries are going to have to 
answer the Lord himself in the way in 
which they use funds received. I, in no way, 
believe that I can be judgmental. For often 
it seems to me we get up tight whenever we 
hear the word "Holy Spirit" and then im- 
mediately we pull our robes of "good 
works" around us to protect us. 

But don't you know it's that Holy Spirit 
that cleaned us up spiritually so we could 
sense the need to do good? Oh, Dear Lord, 
don't get me turned on or I might shout! 
Who did Jesus appreciate the most of the 
ten lepers healed? The one who came back 
and gave thanks. And did Jesus condemn 
the lame man who leaped and praised? 

Spirit! 1 say we Brethren ought to have it 
and instead of criticism for tv ministries, 
why not open one of our own and start a 
little "praise circus"? We surely seem to be 
empowered at many things we attend, bas- 
ketball, football, clubs, organizations — no 
lack of interest then. 

No, I cannot agree that the tv ministries 
are just so much "rinky-dink." Some of the 
testimonies I've heard are too sincere — too 
meaningful and life has really been 
changed — I should say wholeheartedly — 
"God be praised!" 

Suffice to say that any means used to 
combat the sins, injustices, hurts, and 
wrongs of our day are worthwhile in the 
sight of Christ. Let's march that Good 






■j each Sunday from 
, September, 1977, through 
i August, 1978. The 
I scripturaJtext is provided 
' * - > in both King 

• James and 
Revised Standard 
ons, along with its 
leaning and its relevance 
for today. The writers represent 
several different denf)minations. 


1977-78 A Comprehensive 
Commentary on the International 
Sunday School Lessons 
Edited by Horace R. Weaver 
Lesson analysis by Charles M. 
Layraon Paper, 83.95 

CLASS DEVOTIONS is a popular 
supplement to the international 
lessons. Each of the fifty-two devotions 
includes an illustration, meditation, 
scripture selections, and a prayer. 
Suitable for class use during the 
worship period or for use by individuals. 


For Use with the 1977-78 
International Lessons 
Harold L. Fair Paper, 82 95 

May 1977 messenger 37 


Of T-lt 

PosTocg^ [omiv 

Can both congregation and pastoral 
family recognize their shared 
humanity and need for two-way min- 
istry and not feel compelled to con- 
form to stereotyped expectations of 
the pastoral family? 

From his background as a pastor and 
district executive, Owen Stultz works 
at enabling the pastoral family to ex- 
perience the Christian support and 
caring needed by all persons. 


by Owen G. Stultz 

$2.90, incl. P& H 

order from: 

Virlina District Office 

330 Hershberger Rd. NW 

Roanoke, VA 2401 2 


A conference 

on the role and status of 

Church of the Brethren Women 

Make history. Attend the Conference on the 
Role and Status of Church of the Brethren 
Women, May 27-30, College Conference Cen- 
ter, Elizabethtown, Pa. Sponsored by the Parish 
Ministries Commission of the General Board. 
For brochure write Conference Design Com- 
mittee, 1400 Cornell Drive, Dayton, OH 45406. 

38 MESSENGER May 1977 

\hm\r(B W a^g][n]d] 

Book out in the forefront as our forebears 
did and then with the Psalmist declare, "I 
will praise thee, O Lord, with my whole 
heart (might even clap my hands)! I will 
show forth all thy marvelous works. 1 will 
rejoice and be glad in thee. I will sing 
praise to thy name." 

Be quiet! Did I hear a soft "Amen"? 
Let's try that again— HALLELUJAH! 

Woodbury (Pa.) congregation 

Curb gun misuse 
instead of sales 

In 1968, the General Board adopted a 
"Statement on Firearms Control," with 
resolutions calling for strong federal and 
state legislation to control the sale, owner- 
ship, and use of firearms and ammunition. 
On IVIay 15, 1975, C. Wayne Zunkel, in a 
prepared statement, and acting on behalf 
of the General Board, submitted testimony 
to the Subcommittee on Crime of the 
House Judiciary Committee. This state- 
ment built upon the original 1968 position 
and in addition called for even more con- 
trols on firearms, including the elimination 
of handguns from private individual own- 
ership and registration and strong controls 
of all other guns in American life. 

We, the members of the Woodbury Con- 
gregation of the Church of the Brethren, 
are opposed to the original 1968 statement 
and resolutions as well as Wayne Zunkel's 
presentation on behalf of the General 
Board in 1975. We do not believe his state- 
ment truly represents the approximately 
1000 congregations across our land. In ad- 
dition, we are in strong opposition to any 
future actions that the Board may take in 
support of restrictive firearms legislation. 
We firmly believe that existing laws, when 
enforced, are more than adequate to con- 
trol the misuse of firearms. 

It is important to realize that the mission 
of the Church of the Brethren has been to 
try to lift persons above their most crude 
and violent tendencies, through the 
application of Christ's teachings. Church 
funds, and the time of both clergy and lay 
persons would be better spent in attacking 
the roots of the social problems in our 
country. Nothing is going to be gained for 
the church or America when its moral 
leaders of all faiths sit back and bemoan 

the misuse of inanimate objects for evil 
purposes, and then fail to strive their ut- 
most to correct the situations by removing 
the causes, not the neutral implements of 

Nothing has been made by persons that 
has not been misused by persons. All of 
history, philosophy, and religion show that 
persons, and not the tools or devices they 
use, are the cause of evil. 

The world's desperate need, and our 
country's in particular, is a revived and 
strengthened human spirit, a new aware- 
ness of human morality. Neither law nor 
social programs will bring this awareness 
and strength of spirit. 

Only God can heal the malaise of spirit 
that afflicts us. And it is the sole mission of 
the church to work to this end. 

The gun issue is political in substance. 
There are no statistics to show gun laws 
reduce crime. To the contrary, figures show 
that where hand gun laws are enacted new 
crime appears, through black markets in 
guns that serve to arm only the criminal. 
And they make criminals out of otherwise 
honest citizens who refuse to surrender 
their guns. 

It is hoped that the General Board in the 
future will address itself to the true 
spiritual and social needs of the church, 
and more wisely use the available funding 
and resources at their disposal. 

(Recommended and adopted by the 
members of the Woodbury Church at its 
January 13. 1977, Council Meeting.) □ 

Lee Smith Jr. 

An evolutionary 

Where does Elgin get its power? Is the 
Church of the Brethren like so many other 
denominations which must follow the im- 
peratives of a higher body centrally located 
somewhere other than the local con- 
gregation? Recent and recurring references 
among some lay persons to the "dictates" 
of Elgin prompted this review of exactly 
where the seat of power and authority rests 
in the Church of the Brethren. 

When a sizable portion, possibly the ma- 
jority, of one of our congregations of the 
Church of the Brethren voted to withdraw 
"from the Brotherhood," the wheels of 
diplomacy began to turn and the wider- 

than-congregational structures of the 
Church of the Brethren became more clear- 
ly visible. Such a look at the organizational 
bodies of our denomination in action 
brings to mind the word, "evolutionary," 
for our structures have evolved to meet the 
needs of the congregations, not vice versa. 

The crisis of a decidedly split congrega- 
tion mobilized numerous ad hoc com- 
mittees geared at greater understanding 
and reconciliation of the particular situa- 
tion at hand. Many other meetings of in- 
dividuals, committees, and boards from 
both "sides" yielded no satisfactory solu- 
tion and the situation, it was decided, need- 
ed the attention and insight of all the dis- 
trict. A special-called district conference 
labored double-time to consider the events 
leading to the withdrawal of the larger 
group from the association with the Broth- 

What was discovered in that district 

Problems of theology and problems of 
protocol or simple procedure were unfor- 
tunately confused. Poorly-documented 
charges against local, district and minority 
congregational workers arose. These 
charges were sincerely but misguidedly 
clothed in a theological terminology which 
was based on highly selective scriptural 
references and a rather myopic vision of 
the whole Bible. This "small view" caused 
those espousing it to label the 
denominational "establishment" as 
heretical, divorced from its true heritage, 
and disbelieving of the basic tenets of the 
faith. Maliciously or naively, a local con- 
gregational organization was radically 
manipulated in the name of "spirit-filled" 

Functional structures of the denomina- 
tion, due to either misinterpretation or ig- 
norance of the nature and purpose of these 
structures were neglected; this resulted in a 
one-sided divorce of the "major group" of 
a single congregation from the denomina- 
tion without litigation or due process 
within the commonly-accepted bonds of 
even our secular democratic society. The 
denomination at large, for the sake of the 
many other members of the Church of the 
Brethren who have a stake in all the con- 
gregations and for the sake of its own 
preservation, is consulting legal counsel in 
order to keep the property of the Church 
and grounds within the possession of the 
people of the denomination. 

Such a move preserves the integrity of 

not only the denominational structures 
which spawn and support local congrega- 
tions, but also of every congregation affili- 
ated with the Church of the Brethren; our 
theology and spiritual power comes from 
the Bible while our procedure and temporal 
power comes from mutually-agreed-on 
procedures and regulations as we seek to 
serve God and others. We must submit to 
both sources of both kinds of power in 
cooperative effort to attain that one goal. 
How does this temporal power function 
in the larger-than-congregational arena? 

A thorough-going analysis would, of 
course, take many pages. But numerous ex- 
amples come immediately to mind. During 
the last five years, delegates from the larger 
body of the Brethren have reversed 
recommendations of the General Board 
and Standing Committee at Annual Con- 
ference. Delegates have listened to debate 
on an issue which appeared heavily 
weighted on one side during such dis- 
cussions, and overwhelmingly voted 
against what at first seemed to be a majori- 
ty opinion. Annual Conference has proven 
to be, though the largest voting body in the 
church, one of the places where all the 
Brotherhood is most responsive to in- 
dividual opinions. 

The local church has also become subject 
to the guidance and helpful ministry of 
sister district churches as a protection 
against disruptive internal leadership. 
Proper procedures for sister churches to 
help in such times of crisis have been 
spelled out and duly accepted by Annual 
Conference delegates and have been pub- 
lished in the Manual of Church Polity. 

Is our structure dictating to us or is it 
serving us? 

A close look at one particular situation 
has convinced me that never has the voice 
of individual church members carried so 
much weight as today — in democratically 
ordered, unhurried, considered and recon- 
sidered assemblies at various levels in the 
congregations, district meetings and An- 
nual Conferences. Not only may delegates 
discuss and make proposals at any of these 
meetings, but also any one whose heart and 
intellect has been burdened enough to enter 
into the discussion and who is willing to 
listen as well as speak, may have the floor. 

In times of internal crisis as well as in 
times of peaceful growth, the person- 
centered polity of the Church of the 
Brethren has proven serviceable and 
helpful to all. Never has the church been 

stronger or proved her ability better to be 
the Bride of Christ as in the present 
evolutionary form which enlists all to 
equally participate. Much can be learned 
from crisis, and one of the greatest lessons 
is faith — faith in those who formulated the 
structure which, though far from perfect, 
has, with our help, guided us to a closer 
relationship with our brothers and sisters 
and to God. 

The church foreshadows the coming of 
the kingdom of God and is to be a model 
of the new heaven and earth. The measure 
of preparedness of the body of believers on 
earth is the measure of readiness by which 
Christ might gauge the timetable of his 
return. If we cannot engage the principles 
of love and cooperation in the body, we 
cannot expect to receive the King of Glory. 
Thankfully we have that potential to 
hasten the coming of God himself! LI 


INVITATION— Visit New Windsor Service 
Center to and from Annual Conference. See 
renovated Old Mam. Center tours available, 
Mon.-Fri. Meals and lodging by reservation. 
Write Hospitality Coordinator, Box 188, New 
Windsor, MD 21776. Tel. (301) 635-6464, 

QUILTING — Each congregation invited to 
submit one quilt square for quilting at Rich- 
mond. Any design. Congregation's name 
may be on block. Squares must measure 8 
in. sq. with '/? in. seam allowance all sides. 
May be pieced, embroidered, cross-stitched, 
appliqued. Pre-shrunk fabric. Mail squares 
or inquiries to: Mary Ann Hylton, Box 302 
Cape Coral, FL 33904 by June 7. Or deliver 
by 6 p.m. June 21 to quilting area at Con- 

The story of Royer and Edna 
Price Dotzour: some of their 
hfe in the "dirty thirties" in 
Kansas; their generosity and 
love to a small Christian 
college. Hardback. 

by Eloise M. Llchty 

Order for $3.00 postpaid from 

The Brethren Press 

1451 Dundee Ave. 

Elgin, IL 60120 

McPherson College 

Book Store 

McPherson, KS 67460 

•— ^dfe^ 

May 1977 messenger 39 




^ Virginia Greer 

shares her experiences 

as a volunteer "pink lady" in a hospi tal 

emergency room . 

Here is the inside 

view of the heart of a ,hospital- 

the unusual and exciting Christian 

witness of a woman who lives her faith. 



40,000 copies in print! 

At your bookstore 

' Christian Herald Books 

Room MS-5 

Chappaqua, New York 10514 

If ordering by mail, add 50<t postage /handling 

40 MESSf\GER Mas 1977 

h(B\r(B W 

O. E. Gibson 

Love feast should 
follow original 

Regarding our lovefeast occasion, the meal 
itself we have often called the Lord's 
Supper ( 1 Cor. 1 1 :20), and of late the 
fellowship meal. 

This practice we say was started by Jesus 
as a change from the Jewish Passover. In- 
stead of the slain (or roasted) lamb for the 
meal, Jesus took a loaf and broke it and 
said, "This is my body," and then some 
wine was given his disciples saying, "This is 
my blood." 

These two symbols — commonly called 
the Eucharist — is to most Christians the 
main part of the evening to commemorate. 
However since we Brethren have chosen to 
keep the meal and the sacraments 
(Eucharist), and the footwashing — 
"dramatizing" the entire evening — let us 
see how well we are doing it. 

We have been very exact about the 
lootwashing — the men laying aside their 
garments (taking off their coats), and all of 
us girding ourselves with a towel (tying it 

to our waists — which makes it really more 
difficult to use). 

As to the meal itself we have held on to 
having soup, because Jesus gave a sop to 
Judas. But we have boiled beef instead of 
roast lamb. We have leavened bread in the 
soup, instead of unleavened bread. We do 
not have any "bitter herbs" or vegetable of 
any kind that would make a more balanced 
meal. And as to the meal being more than 
a light serving or symbol, we do not follow 
the early Christian practice of a full meal 
shared together. 

I suggest that if we want to have a meal 
like Jesus and the disciples ate that eve- 
ning that we really try to do it and not fool 

But if we want to make it a fellowship 
meal I suggest we eat it at meal time, and 
that we follow what we know about nutri- 
tion. But here we could stick to some very 
plain foods that might be more healthy and 
would at the same time remind us of the 
hungry brothers and sisters of ours around 
the world. This could be a true fellowship 
meal especially with hungry Christians. 

If a tradition or sacrament is to be kept 
alive and appeal to others it must be in line 
with truth and reason. I 1 


TRAVEL— with the Richard C. Wengers on a 
16-day grand tour of Europe depart July 7, 
1977 from New York $1076. The Tour With 
a Difference! sponsored by the Council on 
Intercultural Relations, Inc., of which 
Richard and Mariorie Wenger are members, 
provides travel opportunities aimed at 
promoting world understanding, peace and 
brotherhood through education. Write or call 
now for more information on coming Around 
the World Seminar Tours designed to put 
you in touch with people— world dignitaries, 
such as heads of state as Mrs. Gandhi, Dr. C. 
K. Yen, and other prominent people, as well 
as local villagers Write: Richard C. Wenger, 
805 Stanford Ave., Johnstown, PA 15905, or 
call collect (814)255-3657. 

TRAVEL— Archeology in the Holy Land, July 
9— August 12, 1977. Touring in Israel fol 
lowed by 3 weeks on an archeological dig a 
Acco, Israel. Open to students and non 
students. Cost: $1540. For further informa 
tion contact Dr. Austin Ritterspach, Eliza 
bethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA 17022 

TRAVEL— Bus transportation to Annual Con- 
ference in Richmond, Va., and hotel rooms, 
lune 21 26. 1977. Write Dr. J. Kenneth 
Kreider, R. 3, Box 660, Elizabethtown, PA 

WANTED— Associate Director of Nursing for 
Woods Memorial Convalescent Hospital of 
Brethren Hillcrest Homes, La Verne, Calif. 
Excellent opportunity in geriatric nursing in 
70-bed skilled unit. Promising future in ad- 
ministration. Send resume to Brethren Hill- 
crest Homes, 2705 Mountain View Drive, La 
Verne CA 91750. 

FOR SALE— Retry genealogy: "Three Sons of 
Steffan Retry, 1729-1976" Pub. July, 1977. 
$22.50 incl. p&h. Order by June 15, 1977, 
from Mrs. Merle Rummel, Box 168, Fft. 9, 
Muncie. IN 47302. 

TRAVEL— Grand tour of Europe. Seethe best 
of Italy, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, 
Austria, and France in 16 beautiful early fall 
days, leaving September 2, 1977. Tour 
Hosts: Earl and Vera Mitchell, Raymon and 
AnnaBelle Eller, 358 Selden Ave., Akron, OH 
44301- Tel- (216) 724-9595. 

FOR SALE— "Heavenly Recipes From Dunker 
Kitchens," ed.. Reva C. Benedict. Over 900 
favorite recipes of Old Order Brethren 
sisters. Over 300 pages. $5.95 plus 35(1: 
postage per book, (jhio customers add 27$ 
tax. Combine orders and save. Women's 
groups may request copy for approval. 
Miami Valley Press, P.O. Box 134, Covington, 
OH 45318. 

REUNION-75th BVS Training Unit Re- 
union, Aug. 13, 1977 in Hershey, Pa. area. 
For details write: Mrs. Helen Cauley Fuge, 
2117 Kensington St., Harrisburg, PA 17104. 

FOR SALE — Rare copies of old hymn books 
by Brethren authors. Examples by J. Henry 
Showalter, "The Blessed Hope," "Psalms, 
Hymns, and Spiritual Songs." All in shaped 
notes. About these and other music of my 
extensive library, inquire Perry Huffaker, 750 
Chestnut St., Greenville, OH 45331. 

FOR RENT — Rooms for girls. Church spon- 
sored. Low rates. Facilities. Houseparents. 
Write Brethren Fellowship House, 207 
Hummel St., Harrisburg, PA 17104. 



The paper on alcohol passed by the 1976 
Annual Conference reaffirmed abstinence 
as the position consistent with the heritage 
of the Church and the interpretation of the 
Christian tradition. It also recognized that 
a number of the members of the Church of 
the Brethren are users of alcoholic 
beverages and that the abuse of alcohol is a 
serious problem in our culture. 

Among the recommendations in the 
paper is the suggestion that congregations 
provide experiences which would provide 
more awareness of the comprehensive 
aspects of the alcohol situation. The 
following resources are suggested as means 
by which individuals and groups in con- 
gregations can educate themselves about 
aspects of addiction to alcohol and other 
drugs. Study of the 1976 statement would 
be helpful. It is available on request from 
Communications, 1451 Dundee Ave., 
Elgin, IL 60120. 

A summary of the report written by 
Howard Royer was printed on pages 20-21 
of the July 1976 Messenger. 

No More for the Road 

No More for the Road, by Duane Mehl. 
Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis, 
MN 55400 1976. Paper, 144 pages, $3.50. 
Order from The Brethren Press, 1451 
Dundee Ave.. Elgin, IL 60120. 

Duane Mehl tells his personal experience 
as a chemically dependent person in No 
More for the Road. Dr. Mehl is an ex- 
perienced parish pastor and seminary 
professor who holds a Ph.D. in English. 

In stating his conviction that drug dis- 
orders are basically spiritual disorders, 
Mehl calls pastors and congregations to 
relate responsibly to drug-addicted people. 
Part of that responsibility is to be aware of 
dimensions of chemical dependency and 
the hold it has on people. Mehl calls for 
formation of small groups in congregations 
which get drug-addicted people together 
with non-addicted ones to learn together 

about addiction to alcohol and other 
drugs. They can share together their 
helplessness and need for the power and 
grace of God. 

This book issues a challenge to grow in 
understanding of addiction and to share in 
being supportive with chemically depen- 
dent persons. No More for the Road can 
be used for individual learning as well as a 
basis for group involvement with the issue 
of chemical addiction. 

Alcoholism & Addiction 

Alcoholism and Addiction — A study 
Program for Adults and Youth with 
Resources and Filmslip, by Karl A. 
Schneider. Fortress Press, 2900 Queen 
Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 1976. 48 pages 
with filmslip. $4.50. Order from The 
Brethren Press. 

This study guide has resources for four 
sessions in addition to suggestions for 
Bible study and a worship guide. Schneider 
has field-tested the material and used it in a 
variety of workshops and conferences. 

The objectives of the study are to help 
adults and youth 

— develop an understanding of 
alcoholism as an illness of unknown origin, 
with physical, emotional, and spiritual 

— develop an attitude which dis- 
tinguishes between acceptable and un- 
acceptable patterns of drinking for in- 
dividuals who choose to drink. 

— develop actions individually, and as a 
congregation, which help prevent addic- 

tion, intervene in its early stages, support 
treatment, and provide aftercare during 

"Failure to recognise the extent of the 
problem has even led to a denial by some 
that any problem exists, an attitude which 
unwittingly gives license to its further 
spread. The disregard of the problem is the 

The Drug Puzzle 

The Drug Puzzle-- K Multi-media Drug 
Education Packet with General Informa- 
tion on Drugs, Plus Special Emphasis on 
Heroin, Marijuana and LSD. Order No. T- 
5021. $5.00 each from Department of 
Alcohol and Drug Concerns, Board of 
Christian Social Concerns, 100 Maryland 
Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002. 

The Drug Puzzle includes a record, a 
resource book, a drug chart, and a ques- 

The four-part "Record on Drugs" in- 

— answers to popular myths and mis- 

— interview with a former heroin addict 
and a therapist. 

— montage of rock music, young voices 
discussing marijuana. 

— discussion of LSD by a physician who 
uses it therapeutically. 

The five-part resource book, "Putting 
the Pieces Together" includes suggested use 
for the material, program ideas, and a 
bibliography of books, songs, and movies 
about drugs. 

The 23"x34" drug chart shows 
detailed comparisons of major 
mind-altering drugs. It was done 
by Joel Fort, M.D., author of 
The Pleasure Seekers. 

The drug questionnaire includes 
44 multiple-choice questions (with 
answer sheet) to inform, provoke 
thought, and stimulate further 
study and action. — Shirley J. 

Alcoholism and Addiction 
is designed to help adults 
and youth develop an un- 
derstanding of alcoholism 
as an illness, a helpful atti- 
tide for dealing with 
drinkers, and ways to pre- 
vent and deal with alcohol 

May 1977 messenger 41 

Annual Conference 1977 

Marriage and divorce 

"Jesus' life thrust was toward growth; he 
looked at people in terms of what they 
could become. Growth experiences are 
needed today in our inner lives, our 
marriages, our churches, and our world. 
Jesus said his purpose in coming was to 
enable us to find life 'in all its fulness.'" 

To provide growth in human 
relationships within the covenant com- 
munity and to offer the family a context 
for fulness and wellbeing are challenges 
directed to the church in the committee 
report on Marriage and Divorce. Often 
too much is asked of the family and this 
adds to the burden of family life, the 
report states. "The key to strengthening 
both single life and married life is in the 
faith community." 

With the understanding that in Christ 
persons feel loved, accepted, and cared 
for, and in Christ authentic relationship 
has its root, members of the church will 
not retreat from the family or the 
marriage which experiences crisis. For the 
church to separate itself from those 
already hurt reinforces the feeling of re- 

Besides exploring the place of the faith 
community in nurturing family life, the 
paper looks at and brings recommen- 
dations on marriage, divorce and 
remarriage, and the special problems of 
leadership related to family concerns. 

"Marriage as a lifelong commitment 
has the potential of being the arena of life 
in which the central truths of the Gospel 
of Christ may be discovered and lived 
out," the report states. "It is possible for 
marriage to become the most creative, 
productive, empowering and exciting 
relationship of all one's life." 

For this to be achieved, however, the 
committee sees as essential factors in 
marriage commitment freely given, con- 
tracts clearly understood, and renewal of 
commitment and contract; a vision of 
fidelity beyond the sexual; trust; respect 
and equality; flexibility and autonomy; 

creative conflict management; and joy, 
fun and excitement. 

"No longer can the church assume that 
couples will remain married because of 
the expectations of the family, church, 
and community; they are likely to stay 
together in the future because their 
relationship is fulfilling to them as in- 
dividuals and as a couple." 

On divorce and remarriage, the report 
affirms the policy adopted by Annual 
Conference in 1964 and discusses the con- 
gregation's role in redeeming broken- 
ness. When wholeness is impossible to 
restore in a relationship, comprehensive 
counseling is recommended extending 
through the stages of pre-divorce, 
divorce, post-divorce, and the grief work 
that follows. 

"The task of individual church 
members is to surround the divorcing 
persons with love and concern. Divorce 
as a tragedy is not to be judged, but is to 
be seen with sorrow and compassion. It is 
hurtful to take sides. Our best efforts are 
to be concentrated in helping those who 
are suffering through divorce to find for- 
giveness and healing." 

A fourth section of the committee 
report centers on the problems of 
marriage in the clergy, noting the un- 
realistic expectations often placed upon 
it. Procedures for dealing with